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DOD Military Intelligence U.S. Department of Defense

3-1-1946

Handbook on USSR Military Forces: Chapter III,


Field Organization
War Department (USA)

Robert L. Bolin , Depositor


University of Nebraska-Lincoln, rbolin2@unl.edu

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War Department (USA) and Bolin, Robert L. , Depositor, "Handbook on USSR Military Forces: Chapter III, Field Organization"
(1946). DOD Military Intelligence. Paper 23.
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Technical Manual, TM 30-340, 1 March 1946

Handbook on USSR Military Forces


Chapter III, Field Organization

Robert L. Bolin, Depositor


University of Nebraska-Lincoln, rbolin2@unl.edu
Technical Manual, TM 30-430, Chapter III, 1 March 1946

Handbook on USSR Military Forces


Chapter III, Field Organization

War Department
Washington, DC

Comments

The copy digitized was borrowed from the Marshall Center Research
Library, APO, AE 09053-4502.

Abstract

TM 30-340, Handbook on USSR Military Forces, was published in


installments to expedite dissemination to the field. TM30-430, Chapter III,
1 March 1946, Field Organization, contains detailed descriptions of the
organization of various types of units in the armed forces. The text is
further illuminated by numerous tables of organization and equipment.

This manual is listed in WorldCat under Accession Number:


OCLC: 19989681

A Note on Scholarly Usage

Since revised editions of Army manuals are customarily issued with the
same manual number and title as the previous editions, the minimal
scholarly citation must contain the date of issue. The minimum
unambiguous citation for this chapter is TM 30-430, Chapter III, 1 March
1946.
TM 30-430
CHAPTER III

TECHNICAL MANUAL
HANDBOOK ON U. S. S. R. MILITARY FORCES
TM 30-430 is being published in installaments to expedite dissemination to the field. These chapters
should be inserted in the loose-leaf binder furnished with Chapter V, November 1945.

WAR DEPARTMENT
WASHINGTON 25, D. C., 1 March 1946
TM 30-430, Handbook on U. S. S. R. Military Forces, is published for the information and guid-
ance of all concerned.

I [AG 300.7 (8 Oct 45)]


By ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR:

OFFICIAL: DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER


EDWARD F. WITSELL Chief of Staff
Major General
The Adjutant General

DISTRIBUTION:
AGF (80); ASF (2); T (10); Arm & Sv Bd (1); S Div ASF (1).
Refer to FM 21-6 for explanation of distribution formula .

I Mar 46 TM 30-430

CHAPTER III

FIELD ORGANIZATIONS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page Figure Page-


INTRODUCTION ......................... . III-l 4. Division Artillery Regiment ...... . 1II-9
1. Prewar .Field Organiza tions ........... . 111-1 5. 45- or 57-mm Antitank Gun Battalion ..... . lII-lO
2. Underlying Factors in Modification of the 6. Rifle Regiment. ........................ . 1I1-11
Organization of the Red Army, 19H-44. 111-1 7_ Guards Rifle Regiment .................. , 1I1-11
3. Results of Reorganization ............ . III-3 8. Rifle Battalion ......................... . 111-12
4. Probable Future Trends. . . . . . ....... . 111-4 9. Tank Corps ............................ . 1II-13
Section I. ARMY GROUPS, ARMIES, AND 10. Tank Brigade .......................... . 111-14
CORPS ................................ . 111-5 ll. Motorized Rifle Brigade ................. . 111-14
1. Army Group (Front) .......... , ...... . JTI-5 12. Self-Propelled Artillery Regiment ......... . III-IS
2. Armies, , ........................... . 111-6 13. Heavy Self-Propelled Regiment. .......... . III-IS
3. Corps .............................. . 111-7 14. Tank Destroyer Artillery Regiment( Towed) . III-I6
Section II. ORGANIZATION OF THE 15. Reconnaissance Battalion ................ . III-I6
GROUND ARMS ....................... . III-7 16. Motorcycle Battalion ................... . III-16
1. Introduction ........................ . III-7 17. Mechanized Corps ...................... . 1II-I7
2. Infantry ............................ . 111-8 18. Tank Regiment ........................ . 111-18
3. Armored and Mechanized Forces. 111-12 19. Artillery Division ....................... . 111-19
4. Artillery ............... . III-18 20. Antiaircraft Artillery Division ............ . III-I9
5. Cavalry ................. . 1II-26 21. Light Artillery Brigade, Motorized ........ . III-20
Section III. TECHNICAL SERVICES. IJI-27 22. Light Howitzer Brigade ................. . 111-20
1. Introduction ........................ . III-27 23. Medium Gun Brigade ................... . 111-21
2. Engineer ........................... . 111-27 24. 120-mm Mortar Brigade ................. . 1II-22
3. Signal .............................. . 111-28 25. 76-mm Gun Regiment, Motorized ........ . III-22
4. Chemical Warfare Service ............ . JII-29 26. 120-mm Mortar Regiment ............... . 111-22
5. Maintenance ........................ . 1JI-29 27. Rocket Regiment ....................... . 111-23
6. Medical and Veterinary Service ....... . III-29 28. 37 -mm Antiaircraft Automatic Weapons
Appendix ................................ . 1I1-31 Regiment. ................. , ......... . 111-23
29. 85-mm Antiaircraft Artillery Regiment .... . 111-23
30. 122-mm Howitzer Regiment, Motorized .... . 111-24
List of Illustrations 31. Medium Gun Regiment ................. . 1II-24
Figure Page 32. 76-mm Gun Battalion, Motorized ......... . 111-25
1. Table of Organization and Equipment of the 33. 152-mm Gun-Howitzer Battalion, Motorized. III-25
principal field units of the Red Army ..... II-2 34.. Cavalry Corps ......................... . 111-25
2. Cbanges in strength and equipment of tbe 35. Cavalry Division ....................... . 1II-26
Rifle Division 1939-1945 .............. . 111-2 36. Cavalry Regiment. ..... , ............... . III-27
3. Rifle Division .......................... . 111-9 37. Red Army maintenance services .......... . 111-30

686882'--46----3
ill-I
1 Mar 46 TM 30-430

CHAPTER III

FIELD ORGANIZATIONS

INTRODUCTION squadron, a signal group, an air reconnaissance


squadron, and service units. The strength of a cav-
1. PREWAR FIELD ORGANIZATIONS alry division was 7,000 men. It had 64 light tanks
Immediately prior to the outbreak of the war with and 16 armored cars. Its principal weapons con-
Germany, the highest active field organization in sisted of sixteen 76-mm guns, eight 122-mm how-
the Red Army was the military district. Each mili- itzers and sixteen 76-mm howitzers, and eight 45-
tary district was responsible for the administrative, mm and 37-mm antitank guns.
mobilization, and command functions of its specific Four artillery divisions were reported. Their
geographic area. The Finnish War, for example, organization was believed to be as follows: head-
was conducted by the Leningrad Military District. quarters, one light artillery regiment, two heavy
The highest tactical organization of the military artillery regiments, one antiaircraft artillery regi-
district was the corps. The rifle corps consisted of ment, and various services.
headquarters, three to four rifle divisions, one or The moto-mechanized brigade consisted of head-
two regiments of corps artillery, an antiaircraft quarters, three tank battalions, a reconnaissance
artillery group, a signal battalion, a chemical war- battalion, an infantry battalion, a motorized artillery
fare battalion, an air reconnaissance squadron, and battalion, a troop transport battalion, special troops,
various service units, all making a total of 60,000 and services. Its strength was 3,300 men. Is prin-
to 65,000 men. The cavalry corps included head- cipal armament consisted of twelve 76-mm guns, one
quarters, two to three cavalry divisions, a howitzer hundred and sixty light and medium (lO-ton) tanks,
regiment, a mechanized brigade, an engineer and a nineteen tankettes, and tweny-four armored cars.
signal battalion, and service troops, totaling about The tank brigade consisted of headquarters, three
20,000 men. The moto-mechanized corps, then tank battalions of heavier tanks (T28 and T35),
still in the experimental stage, comprised head- and a security battalion which was comprised of a
quarters, two mechanized brigades, a motorized in- signal company, an engineer company, an anti-
fantry machine gun brigade, an engineer company, a aircraft machine gun company, a traffic control
chemical warfare company, a flight of reconnais- company, and a brigade park.
sance aircraft, and minor service units, totaling 2. UNDERLYING FACTORS IN MODIFICATION OF
about 12,000 troops. THE ORGANIZATION OF THE RED ARMY,
The principal ground formations were the- rifle, 1941-44
cavalry, and artillery divisions, and the moto-mech- The factors which influenced changes in organiza-
anized and the tank brigades. The rifle division tion of the Red Army units and formations in-
consisted of headquarters, three rifle regiments, two cluded: combat lessons learned in the Finnish War
artillery regiments (a mixed fitld artillery and a and the war with Germany, initial weakness and sub-
howitzer regiment), a reconnaissance, a light tank, sequent growth of the officers' corps, necessity to
an antitank, an engineer, a signal, and a medical halt the advance of the German Army, huge losses
battalion, an antiaircraft machine gun company, a of personnel and materiel in 1941, decreased out-
field hospital, and services (figs. 1 and 2). put of factories in the early years of the war, and
The cavalry division included headquarters, four subsequent abundance of materiel.
horse cavalry regiments, one mechanized cavalry The war with Finland proved several things to
regiment, a mixed artillery regiment, an engineer the Soviet high command. It showed that the

111-1
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R Corps_ 02,400 19,200 7,775 1,64" 40" 6:l 750 ~I~ 00 150 96
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Arty Div" 9,74:l 7, !107 1,215 144 24 288 1~ 72 48 I 12 I 24 I 24 294 1, lOa 168 90 294
AAA Div __ 2,043 1,.141 456 64 48 1 278 12 11 41
16 '""""'""""'"""" """" """"" """" """" """" """" 16 """"
L Arty Bri!,:_" 2 (l{)3 1,772 255 36 :l 72 72 """" """"" """"" """" """" """" 18 72 280 50 2" 82
L Ilow Brig""""""""" 2: 242 I, 892 :l62 36 9 72 48 24 """"" """" """" """" """" 158 136 214 36 24 78
Mrdium G Brig._ 2,128 1, :!9{) 308 18 9 3H 121"""-1 24 "" """" """" """" 86 76 191 18 17 66
120"illill Mort Brig" 1,705 1, :l97 l:l5 .14 :l lOS ""' 108 268 35 16 52
Rkt RegL 808 656 104 15 6 """"'""""'"" , 24 110 4 20

Figure 1. Table of Organizatioll and f~'quipmellt of the principal field units of the Red Army.

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29 July 1911. """"""" 465 10,225 10,790 10,201 162 162 108 9 18 54 18 6 6 18 16 4 8 30 4 5 2tlO 797 2,468 57
6 Dec 194L" 671 11,236 11,907 10,627 552 251 108 12 81 72 72 36 6 18 16 8 8 60 4 16 24:l 868 2,640 85
18 Mar 1942_ 729 12,084 12,813 8.870 639 352 114 9 279 76 76 18 6 30 20 12 """" """" 60 4 15 154 729 1,858 81
28 July 1942 __
12 Dec 1942"""
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5,491 2,200
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12 Dec 1942 Guards Div"" "" """ 10,5.16 5,984 2,698 507 162 279 60 85 24 52 36 12 """" """" """" 71 4 24 175 699 1,968 62
June 1944-May 1945 " """"" " """ 9,619 5,426 2,398 I 522 135 18 218 56 83 21 50 36 12 """" """" """" 59 4 21 226 610 1,803 56

Figure 2. Changes in strength and equipment of the Rifle Division 1939-1945.

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1 Mar 46 TM 30-430

organization of higher tactical units was too un- the marine rifle brigades and workers brigades and
wieldly, and that a generous allotment of armor, battalions.
technical services, and arms to the rifle divisions During the first year of the war, a great mixture
often resulted in the needless dilution of these rein- of organizations existed. Side by side in the sur-
forcements. The dispersal of these special units viving regular divisions were reserve and emer-
along the entire front made difficult the concentra- gency organizations of varying size and composi-
tion of armor, artillery, engineers and other techni- tion. Much of their armament was obsolete.
cal arms and services in a decisive sector. Thus, the
3. RESULTS OF REORGANIZATION
major changes i.n organization-such as the reduc-
tion in size of the rifle division, and the concentra- The developments in the organization of units were
ti.on of special and technical forces in GHQ units- carried out logically, quickly, and thoroughly, as
were all other combat lessons which the Russians
were initiated in April 1941. Although these
changes were retarded and modified by other fac- learned, and adapted to their own use, during the
tors, they were carried out during the first 2 years war.
An increasing number of re-equipped, fully
of the war with Germany.
manned, and trained units appeared in the winter
As a result of rapid expansion of the field forces,
of 1942-43 and, especially, after July 1943. The
and initial heavy losses of officer personnel, many
outlines of a new Red Army organization, its basic
Red Army formations in 1941 were commanded by
doctrines of 1941 considerably modified by combat
officers inadequately trained to employ efficiently
experience, were generally clear in the winter of
the many specialized arms, services, and heavy
1943-44. Since 1941, the major modifications in
weapons assigned to their formations. The lack of
ground organizations have been toward increasing
a sufficient number of adequately trained officers
the mobility and fire power of the rifle, cavalry, and
necessitated the creation of manageable units which
armored units and formations; the centralizing of
could be commanded by men of common sense and
supporting arms and services, and their groupment
strong character, but lacking in highly specialized
into independent units. Basic units with standard
training.
The command of heavy weapons, for example, Tables of Organization have become the founda-
tion for a wide range of temporary combat group-
could not be entrusted to the officers then in com-
ings of basic and specialized arms and services, as
mand. As a result, most infantry heavy weapons,
prescribed by tactical requirements.
and many specialized arms and services from in-
Army Groups (Fronts I have superseded the mili-
fantry, cavalry, and armored formations, were with-
tary districts as the main planning and administra-
drawn and made independent. This reorganiza-
tive agencies under the Supreme Command. This
tion not only placed specialized arms and services
change was anticipated in the Soviet theory and
under competent leadership, but also effected con-
training doctrines as early as 1934. Military dis-
siderable economy of equipment and personnel. Re-
tricts are maintained in rear areas only, where they
duction in size of the field units, and simplification
perform the special missions of local security, troop
of their organization, simplified logistical problems
mobilization and training, and control of traffic and
and made these units more efficient even when com-
supplies.
manded by inexperienced officers.
Armies superseded corps in controlling combined
During the early years of the war, the Soviet
operations, handling administration for, and serv-
high command was primarily concerned with halt-
icing their component formations and units.
ing the German advance. This necessitated the
The organization of rifle corps was changed sev-
activation of new units and the reorganization of de-
eral times. During the retreat of the Red Army,
pleted units when sufficient time could not be al-
the rifle corps were eliminated. Armies controlled
lotted for the training of large formations. Simul-
the rifle divisions directly. During subsequent
taneously, Soviet industry was redeploying to the offensive operations, the rifle corps reappeared as
east, curtailing or stopping production of some items the forward headquarters for tactical control of
of armament and equipment. These factors resulted rifle divisions. During the last year of the war,
in the formation of a large number of rifle, tank. rifle corps became a more permanent organization.
and mechanized brigades instead of divisions, and The rifle corps lost an antiaircraft artillery battalion
in the creation of emergency organizations such as and a chemical warfare company. It gained a tank

111-3
TM 30-430 I Mar 46

destroyer artillery regiment and a rocket battalion The mechanized and motorized infantry ma-
or regiment. chine gun brigades were discontinued. The mech-
The cavalry corps became a powerful, balanced anized brigade (formerly called moto-mechanized)
team. Its light howitzer regiment was replaced by tank strength has been reduced to 40 medium tanks,
a more mobile heavy mortar regiment. It gained a and its reconnaissance battalion to a company. It
self-propelled artillery regirpent, an antiaircraft is now a balanced team of motorized infantry, tanks,
automatic weapons regiment, and a rocket battalion. and supporting artillery. The tank brigade has
The moto-mechanized corps disappeared. In its been better balanced. A great many artillery bri-
place, two new organizations, the tank corps and the gades, both independent and as parts of artillery
mechanized corps, were developed. The tank corps divisions, have appeared.
consists primarily of tanks supported by motorized 4. PROBABLE FUTURE TRENDS
infantry. The mechanized corps consists primarily The indications of future trends discussed below
of motorized infantry supported by tanks. Both the are based on fragmentary information and repre-
tank and the mechanized corps are supported by
sent possible developments. The speed with which
powerful organic artillery comprised of self-pro- these changes are likely to take place will vary con-
pelled, tank destroyer, mortar, antiaircraft, and
siderably between the various arms and services.
rocket units.
Tactical units of the Red Army were evolved dur-
Artillery corps, controlling several artillery divi-
ing the course of the war with Germany and have
sions reinforced by independent brigades and regi-
been proved in combat. Basic changes in the or-
ments, appeared in 1944. Four artillery corps were
ganization of infantry and cavalry divisions, and
identifier! in the spring of 1945.
of tank and mechanized corps, are not expected.
The rifle division has been drastically reduced
However, the development of new weapons, and im-
in strength. In April 1941, it was reduced from
provements on existing models, will lead to adjust-
18,841 to 14,454 officers and enlisted men. Its basic
ments within the frameworks of standard organiza-
size of approximately 10,000 was determined in
tions. Some of the weapons which will influence
July 1941. The reduction in size was accomplished
changes in Tables of Organization of the Soviet
by eliminating the light tank battalion, the howitzer
ground formations include the new 100-mm high-
artillery regiment, and the mechanized reconnais-
velocity gun, the 160-mm heavy mortar, powerful
sance elements, and by a reduction in the size of
light antitank and antiaircraft weapons for infantry
service units. The divisional hospital, for example,
and cavalry, and increases in caliber of self-propelled
was taken over by the army. At the same time, the
artillery, rockets, and guided missiles.
forward fire power of the rifle division has been
Reduction in the size of the army, elimination of
increased by a generous allotment to the rifle regi-
combat losses of specialized equipment and per-
ments of submachine guns, machine guns, and
sonnel, plus ample time for production of neces-
mortars. Thus, the 1945 rifle division, as compared
sary equipment and training of specialists, will make
with the 1939 rifle division, has a reduced reconnais-
it possible to increase the quality of technicians
sance ability and weaker replacement capacity, but
within the standard units of the Red Army. An in-
it has better tactical and strategic mobility. With
crease in the number of specialized GHQ units may
normal artillery attachment, it has greater fire
also be expected. It is not expected that signal,
power.
ordnance, motor maintenance, medical, and engineer
Artillery divisions have greatly increased in num-
units will be larger. It is not anticipated that motor-
ber and size. They now include 24 to 30 firing
ization will be effected in infantry and cavalry for-
battalions, organized into brigades and regiments.
mations and units. There may be slight increase in
The number, type, and caliber of weapons in the
the number of organic motor vehicles.
component brigades and regiments are determined
by the mission of the division. Although airborne troops were not used on a
Cavalry divisions lost a mechanized and a horse large scale during the war with Germany, it is ex-
regiment. Mortars, submachine guns, and antitank pected that further development of this arm will be
rifles, however, have been introduced in large num- stressed. Together with the growth of the airborne
ber, increasing the forward fire power of the divi- arm, the Red Army will improve the training and
sion and improving its local antitank and antiair- equipment of airdrome engineers.
craft defense. There is evidence that the engineer arm will be-

ID-4
I Mar 46 TM 30-430

come more independent, and that large engineer armed to an increasing extent with self-propelled
units such as divisions and brigades may be weapons, probably the new 100-mm guns.
organized. c. Tanks. At the end of the war with Germany,
a. Infantry and cavalry. Future changes in the proportion of heavy to medium tanks in the Red
over-all organization of infantry and cavalry units Army was approximately 1 to 5. It is believed that
and formations will probably be conservative. How- the intention is to increase the number of heavy
ever, certain changes within the larger framework tanks, and to manufacture light reconnaissance tanks
may be expected. For example, persistent though so that the ratio of medium, heavy, and light tanks
unconfirmed reports in the winter of 1945-46 have will be 4 to 3 to 1. In order to maintain such a
mentioned motorized rifle divisions with tanks (in ratio, and at the same time preserve logistical re-
1941 the Red Army had two motorized rifle divisions quirements of the present tank corps, some adjust-
which were later disbanded). It is likely that the ment in the structure of the tank brigades will be
antitank rifle will be replaced by a light, powerful, necessary. A possible organization of the tank
rocket-type or recoilless weapon. Antiaircraft de- components of the tank corps will be as follows:
fense of front-line troops may be augmented by reconnaissance battalion with 25 light tanks, and
light rocket-firing devices. The fire power of the three tank brigades with four medium tank com-
rifle battalion will be increased by substitution of 57- panies of 10 medium tanks each and four heavy
mm antitank guns for the 45-mm antitank guns and tank companies of 5 heavy tanks each (plus 3 head-
by increasing the number of battalion 82-mm mor- quarters tanks). Such a tank corps would have a
tars from nine to twelve. The 50-mm company total of 214 tanks including 25 light, 60 heavy, and
mortar will be eliminated. Regimental artillery 129 medium tanks.
will probably undergo changes. The regimental A possible organization of the tank components
120-mm mortar battery may have four instead of of a mechanized corps would include: a reconnais-
seven mortars. The antitank battery may have six sance battalion with 25 light tanks, a tank brigade
76-mm guns instead of six 45-mm antitank guns. with 43 medium and 20 heavy tanks, and three
Ii is likely that the divisional artillery of both the mechanized brigades, each with a mixed tank regi-
rifle and the cavalry divisions will have a heavy ment. The mixed tank regiment would have three
mortar unit and a second 122-mm to 152-mm how- medium tank companies with 10 medium tanks each
itzer-artillery regiment, by attachment if not organ- and three heavy tank companies with 5 heavy tanks
ically. The present artillery regiment already has each (plus 3 medium tanks in headquarters). Such
been strengthened, and will be used in RCT role. a mechanized corps would have 222 tanks including
h. Artillery. There probably will be a marked 25 light, 132 medium, and 65 heavy tanks. The
difference between corps artillery and artillery of ratio of the heavy to medium tanks in the above
the higher formations (armies, Fronts, and -GHQ) organizations is approximately 2 to 1. The remain-
in type of weapons, and in their employment. Corps der of the heavy tank strength probably will continue
artillery probably will continue to be organized into to be organized into independent heavy tank regi-
brigades and regiments, and will absorb most of the ments of 20 tanks each.
light and medium artillery which is at present con-
trolled by higher formations. It will be used for Section I. ARMY GROUPS, ARMIES,
direct support of ground operations. Newly de- AND CORPS
veloped weapons, such as long-range rockets, guided
1. ARMY GROUP (FRONT)
missiles, super long-range guns, and the present
The Army Group (Front) is the basic planning and
heavy artillery (made for the most part self-pro-
administrative organization. The size of its sector
pelled) , will be organized into artillery corps, divi-
is determined by lines of communication. It con-
sions, brigades, and independent regiments. Con-
tains and allots tactical and service reserves. It
trol of these units will be retained by the High services its combat components, operates the pri-
Command, which will assign them to Fronts and mary axis of supply and evacuation, and coordinates
armies for special long-range missions. The new the supporting military districts. The development
160-mm mortar gradually will replace the 120-mm of the Front was largely governed by logistics. The
mortar in mortar regiments and brigades. It is lack of adequate roads and relative scarcity of rail-
expected that tank destroyer artillery units will be roads in the U. S. S. R. not only brought about a

111-5
TM 30-430 I Mar 46

rigid centralized control of transportation, but even gades, bridging battaliotns, motor transport bri-
determined tactical capabilities. As a result, the gades, signal regiments, road repair regiments, sig-
basic planning and administrative organizations nal intelligence battalions, security battalions, officer
were delineated by routes of communication, rather replacement regiments, infantry replacement regi-
than the political boundaries of the military dis- ments, penal battalions, and maintenance, ammuni-
tricts. tion, fuel rations, and forage depots.
An Army Group's strength is approximately 2. ARMIES
1,000,000 men. It is generally commanded by a Infantry, tank, shock, and cavalry armies are found
marshal who is assisted by a military council and in the Red Army. An army is the basic strategic
staff. The council, presided over by the commander organization of combined arms, including air. Al-
of the front, has three other members. One repre- though air divisions normally are not an organic
sents combat arms and services; the second repre- part of the ground army, the artillery commander
sents rear area services and administration; the third is responsible for the tactical coordination of the
is an officer secretary of the council. If the Front supporting aviation. The army plans, coordinates,
is located within the political boundaries of the and maintains all phases of a continuing operation.
U. S. S. R., the secretary of the regional committee An army consists of a large, permanent head-
of the Communist Party acts as a liaison officer quarters to which are allotted combat troops and
between the military and civil authorities. The services to execute a strategic mission. Theoret-
military council determines basic policy on organ- ically, it is a task force, although in actual practice
ization, training, and administration of the Front. the major components have been increasingly
It supervises the execution of the commander's stable. Considerable variation exists in the com-
orders. A member of the council countersigns field position of the different armies, especially in the
orders of the commander. number of supporting armored and artillery units
The staff of the Front, consisting of the forward which may be allotted to them by the Army Group
and rear echelons, is controlled by the Chief of (Front). Every' army. consists of headquarters
Staff. The forward echelon, during combat, in- and at least the f~llowing service and administrative
cludes the (Operations) Staff, the staffs of the elements:
Chiefs of Arms and Services, political administra-
tion, and the training and personnel departments. I signal regiment.
1 replacement regiment.
The rear echelon includes the service staff, controlled
2 engineer construction battalions.
by the deputy commander fot rear area, and con-
sisting of chiefs of rear area services, administration I flame thrower battalion.
for captured materiel, the field post office, and the 1 chemical warfare battalion.
judge advocates department. 1 road maintenance battalion.
A Front consists of a permanent headquarters, Field bakeries.
attached service troops, supply and administrative 2 reconnaissance battalions.
installations, and a variable number of combat for- 2 to 4 motor transport battalions.
mations with their supporting units. Variations in 1 security battalion.
the number and type of major combat formations 1 penal battalion.
and supporting units are numerous. A typical ac- 1 ordnance battalion.
tive Front has the following major components: Quartermaster depots.
four or five infantry armies, one or two tank armies, Work shops.
one or two air armies (1,000 to 1,100 planes each), Medical resources of an army include field hos-
four artillery divisions, five antiaircraft divisions, pitals in proportion to the number of subordinate
five rocket brigades, two independent mortar bri- formations, two to three evacuation hospitals, three
gades, four independent heavy artillery brigades, hospitals for slightly wounded, two hospitals for
five tank destroyer brigades, two tank corps, one infectious diseases, two veterinary hospitals, and
or two mechanized corps, and a cavalry corps. one or two veterinary evacuation hospitals. The
In addition to the headquarters and staff, a _Front service components of an army total 20,000 to 25,000
has the following service units, whose nU!I!per is men.
commensurate with the number of the combat com- Major combat components of a typical infantry
ponents of the Front: engineer construction bri- army include three to four rifle corps, each with

m-6
I Mar 46 TM 30-430

three to four rifle divisions; a brigade with 152-mm the headquarters of the rifle corps is a skeleton
gun howitzers and 122-mm guns; a tank destroyer organization which consolidates the reports and
regiment; an antiaircraft artillery regiment; and a requisitions of the subordinate formations, and
mortar regiment. Combat engineers are allotted reinforces subordinate rear echelon staffs in critical
to an army, from the reserve of the Army Group, at situations. Normally, attached supporting troops of
the rate of one battalion for each active division. a rifle corps include a howitzer and a tank destroyer
Tactical components of a tank army vary accord- artillery regiment, a signal baitalion, and an engi-
ing to the terrain and the mission. The 3d Guards neer construction battalion. The service elements
Tank Army, for example, consisted of two mechan- of a rifle corps services only the corps headquarters
ized corps, a tank corps, one light artillery and two and the attached corps troops.
heavy gun-howitzer brigades, a tank destroyer The artillery corps is a forward artillery head-
brigade, two self-propelled artillery regiments, a quarters with a balanced staff. It controls two or
rocket regiment, an antiaircraft artillery regiment, more artillery divisions and other GHQ artillery
and an engineer brigade. Tank armies normally units which are assigned to it for a specific opera-
form part of the mobile reserve of the high command, tion, or series of operations. Because the artillery
and are committed at a decisive point during major corps is primarily a task force, there is considerable
operations. They are generally withdrawn after variation between corps, and within the artillery
the operation. corps itself. For example, the V Artillery Corps in
Cavalry armies consisted of two cavalry corps, the summer of 194~ consisted of three artillery divi-
one mechanized corps, and the normal army troops. sions, a heavy howitzer brigade, a medium howitzer
Cavalry armies, like the tank armies, constitute brigade, and a heavy mortar brigade. The VII Artil-
GHQ troops and are used to augment other mobile lery Corps consisted only of three artillery divisions.
troops. Several antiaircraft artillery corps were identi-
Shock armies are made up of picked tank and fied during the last year of the war with Germany.
mechanized corps and rifle divisions. They are Each corps controlled two or three antiaircraft attil-
combined, according to their mission, with artillery, lery divisions, and other GHQ antiaircraft artillery
tank, and engineer units to form a powerful assault units.
force which may be shifted from sector to sector for Cavalry, tank, and mechanized corps, in contrast
either offense or defense. These armies are retained to the rifle corps, are permanent formations with
in the reserve of the high command: Their compo- standard Tables of Organization and Equipment.
sition varies not only from one army to another, but
the composition of an individual shock army changes Section II. ORGANIZATION OF THE
according to the situation. GROUND ARMS
Guards armies may be infantry, tank, cavalry, or
shock. The title "Guards" is appended to any army 1. INTRODUCTION
which distinguishes itself in combat. Components The stable formations and uni.ts of the Red Army
of Guards armies are upgraded in personnel and are made up of two types of standard organizational
equipment. elements-the specialized and the interchangeable.
3. CORPS The specialized organizational elements are found
There are two general types of corps in the Red in rifle and cavalry divisions. They are character-
ized by economy of personnel and by maximum
Army, the operational control corps (rifle and artil-
cross-country mobility. For example, the engineer
lery) and the mobile corps (tank, mechanized, and
battalion of the rifle division has only 164 officers
cavalry) .
and enlisted men, as compared with 270 officers and
The rifle corps is primarily a forward headquar-
enlisted men of the engineer battalion of the rifle
ters, with attached supporting troops, for tactical and mobile corps.
control of two to four rifle divisions. The com- The interchangeable organizational elements are
mander of a rifle corps has no military council. The common to several formations. For example, the
forward echelon of a rifle corps headquarters con- motorized 120-mm mortar regiment is found in the
sists of the operations, intelligence, signal commu- tank and mechanized corps; in the artillery divi-
nication, and penal sections, and artillery, engineer, sion; or it may be independent.
and chemical warfare staffs. The rear echelon of The specialized organizational elements are com-

111-7
TM 30-430 I Mar 46

posed of companies, batteries, or platoons which typical examples of such organizations are
are identical to the corresponding companies, bat- the reconnaissance Group or Detachment and
teries, and platoons of the interchangeable organi- a leading Group. A reconnaissance Group
zational elements. For example, the battalions of (Detachment) ranges in size from a com-
the divisional artillery regiment are unique in that pany to a reinforced battalion, or two cavalry
they consist of two batteries of 76-mm guns and one squadrons. It operates on a front 3 to 8 miles
battery of 122-mm howitzers. The organization wide and 12 to 15 miles deep. A leading
of each 122-mm howitzer battery is identical with Group (Detachment) may be as large as a
the 122-mm howitzer battery of the howitzer regi- reinforced battalion. It is sent out by an
ment. advance guard of a rifle regiment and oper-
The employment of standard organizational ele- ates 1.5 to 2 miles in front of, or to the flank
ments facilitates rapid creation of temporary tacti- of, the parent body.
cal groupings. (Temporary tactical groupings are
The following Tables of Organization and Equip-
discussed in Chapter V.) Standard organizational
ment of the principal tactical units of the Red Army
elements are as follows:
are believed to be correct in all major items of
Formation (Soyedineniye). The Forma- equipment and over-all strength. The allocation of
tion is a stable organization of combined small arms and submachine guns, and the distribu-
arms and minimum services designed to tion of headquarters troops, are, however, partly
execute one phase of a large operation such estimated. The description of units is confined to
as a penetration, exploitation, delaying ac- their primary mission and, when practicable, a com-
tion, or counterattack. Rifle and cavalry parison with a comparable U. S. unit. (The supply
divisions, tank and mechanized brigades are and resupply requirements, movement weight, maxi-
examples of a Formation. mum axle load, and limiting speed of the major
Unit (Chast). The Unit is the basic organiza- units are listed in Chapter VII).
tion of a single arm or service: it is the small-
est organization with balanced staff and serv- 2. INFANTRY
ices. Its size varies from a brigade to a a. Rifle division. The mission of the Red
battalion. The term applies to an entire, Army rifle division is close combat. It is character-
large, secondary component of a Formation; ized by a marked strength in automatic weapons,
for example, the artillery Unit of an infantry especially submachine guns, and heavy and medium
division includes not only divisional artillery, mortars. These weapons compensate for relative
but all artillery in the division including weakness in field artillery. Although the personnel
heavy mortars and battalion guns. strength of the Red Army rifle division is 4,424
Element (Podrazdelenye). The Element smaller than the U. S. infantry division, its combat
is a basic grouping of one arm or service strength is only 200 less. Its supporting and service
lacking balanced staff and services. It varies elements make up only 26 and 12 percent of its
from battalion to company size. The term total strength, respectively, as compared with 36
is applied to lesser secondary components and 21 percent in the U. S. infantry division.
of a Formation; for example, the engineer.or U.S.S.R. U.S.
special-troops Element of an infantry divi- Infantry _________________________________ 62% 53%
Supporting Arms __________________________ 26% 36%
sion. It is also applied to the main tactical Services __________________________________ 12% 21%
subdivisions of Units; for example, the bat-
talions within an infantry or artillery regi- With the exception of medium artillery, heavy
ment. mortars, and the artillery supply column (and the
Group (Gruppa) , and Detachment previously mentioned report of a possible increase
(Otryad, Razezd). The Group and De- in infantry motorization), the Red Army rifle divi-
tachment are small, temporary organizations sion is horse drawn. Its tactical mobility is low, but
of mixed arms which are prescribed for given it is not road bound. It is incapable of extended
tactical missions. The composition of these offensive effort because the capacity of its organic
special Groups or Detachments is loosely transport is low, and weapon crews are cut to a
outlined in field service regulations. Some minimum. The replacement pool is small (100

111-8
).

1 Mar 46 TM 30-430

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Hq & Hq Co___________________ 117 110 6 1 _____ ____ _____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ _____ 5 _____ 25 2
Ren Tr_________________________ 74 68 6 _____ ____ _____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ _____ ____ _____ 80 2
Sig Co__________________________ 130 90 40 _____ _____ ____ _____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ _____ 2 20 29 7
Engr Bn_______________________ 164 149 15 _____ ____ _____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 4 ____ 9 18 2
CWS Co_______________________ 40 25 15 __ _____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 2 ,____ 6 10 1
Div Arty Regt 998 i38 206 18 _____ ____ 36 ____________________ 24 12 21 12 10 1 Ii 99 587 11 16

t~r~~~~tH~~~~~mm~ ~ lfiJ. 3: -::~~ :i~ 3: 55~~:- :1: -:: ~:::'::: : : :~::;!I_~-:~l::iY ::~: ::~~
f-i~~:::~:::~:~:~~:~~~:~~:~-~ti ~ti :i~~: :~;,_ ~;;_ iii: :;; :~i: :;~: I ;iii: ::: :-- :::: -:: ~J,;: ;,:
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TotaL ___________________ 9,619 15,426 2,3981522 135118 218 56 83 21 \50 12 24112 21 12 160 166 610 11,773 63 56

Figure 3. Toole of Organization and Equipment: Rifle Division.

men). Even moderate numbers of casualties division, is capable of providing close support to the
greatly reduce its effectiveness (fig. 3). rifle regiments in varying terrain and weather.
The Red Army rifle division can be completely The divisional antitank battalion consists of head-
motorized by the addition of 1,200 trucks. If horses quarters, headquarters battery, three firing batter-
of the division were left behind, only 825 trucks are ies-each with four 45-mm antitank guns-and a
needed, 110 of which operate supply lines and tow small train (fig. 5). During the last year of the war
guns. with Germany, the 45-mm antitank guns of the anti-
Divisional artillery consists of a mixed field artil- tank battalion were often replaced by 57 -mm anti-
lery regiment, an antitank battalion, and an antiair- tank or 76-mm guns. It is expected that, in the
craft machine gun company. The mixed artillery future, this unit will be armed with light self-pro-
regiment includes 998 officers and enlisted men pelled artillery.
(fig. 4', . It is armed with 122-howitzers and 76-mm The divisional antiaircraft machine gun company
guns. With the exception of the 122-mm howitzers, is armed with eighteen 12.7-mm antiaircraft ma-
which are tractor drawn, and ammunition trucks, the chine guns. It was reintroduced into the rifle divi-
regiment is horse drawn. Thus, divisional artillery, sion during the summer of 1944.
although it is lighter than that of the U. S. infantry Ammunition and fuel for the divisional artillery

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~led Plat ________ ! 3 ----I----i----I---- ----
8 I 11
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6~~ ~{-Sh~P====! ~
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6 ===== ==== ==== ==== ====1==== ==== --i- ==== --:-
__________________________________________________ ==== ===
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Total _________ 1120 878 1 998\----n8 206 -iST36f2412!2112 1011799I587 jU12 1

Figure 4. Toole of Organization and Equipment: Division Artillery Regiment.

111-9
TM 30-430 1 Mar 46

comprise more than 50 percent of the total supply to five rifle battalions. Each battalion included
requirement of the division. three rifle companies, a submachine gun company,
Two variations of the standard rifle division exist 82-mm mortar battery, antitank rifle company, ma-
in the Red Army: the Guards Rifle Division, and the chine gun company, and engineer, medical. trans-
reduced division. The Guards Rifle Division differs port, and ampule-thrower* platoons. In addition
from the standard division in that its supporting and to the rifle battalions, the brigade has submachine
service elements are slightly larger. Each Guards gun, machine gun, artillery, mortar, and antitank
rifle regiment has an extra submachine gun company gun battalions, and reconnaissance, engineer, signal,
and its replacement poof is twice as large. medical, and transport companies. Its strength is
approximately 5,400 officers and enlisted men.

~ I ~~ ~ ~
Marine rifle brigades and emergency workers

Unit
'I I
0
~
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S.
I
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S
1
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qc
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brigades were organized, in the same manner as the
rifle brigades, from surplus naval personnel and
~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ .q ,~ '0 workers pools.
10 r.:: I E-< ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ E-< ~ ~
------1---1---------- c. The rifle regiment. The Red Army rifle
Hq & HqSec
Rcn _ ___ _61 118 I 91
Btry 11

8 44 54 ----
____ ---- -- 11
____ __ regiment is an organization which contains the arms
Topo Sec_____ 1 9 lO 8 2 ____ __ _ __ 1 - ___ ---
Sig PlaL___ _ 1 17 18 121 6 ________ --__ 2 ____ 2 and minimum services necessary for the execution
3 Btrys ___________ 15 ~~ JIll I 93 18 6 ---- 12 24 ---- 9
ATR Co_ ______ 4 tJ, 61 36 7 ___ 18 -- 4 ____ --- of independent combat missions. It has 2,474
Am PlaL________ 1
SupSec ___________
7 8
-- ___8___8_ _ _
7 I 1 _______ --__ 5 __ ---
81_~_-- _1 _2 ___-- = officers and enlisted men. In contrast with 3,257
officers and enlisted men of the U. S. infantry regi-
TotaL ____ 28 213 2331 1721 43, 6 18 12 39 2111
ment, it appears small. The difference is due mainly
Figure 5. Table oj Organization and Equipment: 45- or to smaller weapons crews and service elements. The
57-mm Antitank Gun Battalion.
Red Army rifle regiment is stronger than the U. S.
The reduced rifle division is based on emergency infantry regiment in automatic weapons, especially
flexible Tables of Organization and Equipment submachine guns, and in medium and heavy mor-
which were authorized by the high command in No- tars. But it is weaker in regimental artillery and
vember 1943. The actual size of the division ranged antitank guns (fig. 6). Outstanding feature of the
from 5,000 to 8,000 officers and enlisted men. The organization of the rifle regiment is the submachine
size was determined by the commander of an Army gun company of 100 men, all armed with submachine
Group (Front) or of an independent army. Reduc- guns.
tion of over-all strength of the rifle division was With the exception of heavy mortars and signal
accomplished by a proportional reduction of all equipment, which are motorized, all of the regimen-
components. tal weapons and transport are horse drawn. The
A few mountain infantry divisions existed during regiment is free to maneuver in all kinds of weather
the early months of the war with Germany. Each and terrain. It is not road bound. The regiment is,
consisted of four mountain rifle regiments, 2,200 however, incapable of extended independent combat,
men each, and the same supporting and service because the supply and maintenance capabilities of
units as the standard division. Mountain artillery its organic transport are low. Even moderate casual-
regiments of the mountain division had 1,500 officers ties greatly reduce its effectiveness. The regiment
and enlisted men, organized into two mountain artil- is easily maneuverable. It requires only three 50-car
lery battalions. Each battalion contained two moun- trains for movement by rail.
tain ho,,,,itzer batteries and one mountain mortar The artillery commander of a rifle regiment has
battery. The division had an antiaircraft battalion, considerable fire power at his disposal. By combin-
and relatively large supporting and service elements. ing the resources of the battalion artillery and mor-
Its total strength was approximately 12,800 men. tars with organic regimental artillery, he can con-
b. The rifle brigade. A great number of centrate the fire of 27 medium mortars, 6 heavy
rifle brigades were activated during the winter of mortars, 12 antitank guns, and 4 regimental how-
1941-42. The majority of these brigades were dis- itzers.
banded or upgraded to divisions during the following
year, and at the end of the hostilities few rifle *A tlat-trajectory mortar which propels an incendiary "ampule" against
armored vehicles up to ranges of 300 yards_ Vsed by the Red Army
brigades existed. A rifle brigade consists of three in 1942-43, it has since been discarded.

111-10
1 Mar 46 TM '30-430

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6 II ff Ii !! .~I:}I)I:i~171:6:4181Itl)U:
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41 _ _

TotaL______ 197! 2,277 1 2, 474 1 50 i __~~_~~~I_~_, 54. 18; 27: 7 I 12 I 4 I 21 I 14s1 327: 151 5

Figure 6. Table of Organization and Equipment: Rifle Regiment.

The Guards Rifle Regiment differs from the stand- in the company of a standard battalion. The anti-
ard rifle regiment in that it is upgraded in personnel, tank rifle platoon of the Guards Rifle Battalion has
16 antitank rifles, as compared with 9 of the stand-
and made stronger in light and heavy automatic
ard battalion. Thus, a Guards Rifle Regiment is able
weapons (fig. 7). It has two submachine gun com- to put more men in the forward lines, and is capable
panies. The machine gun companies of its battal- of more extended action than is the standard rifle
ions have 12 heavy machine guns, instead of the 9 regiment.

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1 _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 2. 26
How Btr:v--------- 95 80 15 ------- __ - - - - ! _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ~---- ____ 4____ 17! 65 2 2

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18
- - - - - - - -

Vet PIaL __ _ _ __ __ _ 3 1 3 __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ __ .I ____ ___ _ ____ _ ___ 1 1


CWS Plat_________ 121' 10 2 ______ '____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 4 7 ' _______ _
Trans Co _________ 1 43 40 3 : __ - - _ - I ___ - _ 33- _ _ _ _ _ _ '_ _ _ _ . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 66 1 ___ _
i---'------,---------I--------:-----'---'----
TotaL ______ 2, 748 '1,597
1 i 870' 162 54 I 75 18. 27 8 12 4 23 167 390 15, 8
I I i

Figure 7. Table of Orga1lization a1ld Equipment: Guard:s Rifle Regiment.

d. Rifle battalion. Basic organizational ele- port, organic supporting mortars, and light artillery,
ment of the infantry arm is the rifle battalion. It it is well suited for outflanking and infiltrating tactics
consists of headquarters, three rifle companies, anti- in any terrain.
tank rifle platoon, mortar company, machine gun In comparison with the LT. S. infantry battalion,
company, antitank gun platoon, and a medical unit
the Red Army rifle battalion is weaker in personnel
(fig. 8). Its strength is 619 officers and enlisted
and weapons, except light automatic weapons and
men. The battalion is the lowest administrative and
housekeeping unit of the infantry arm maintaining medium mortars. The outstanding feature of the
a kitchen, a repair shop, a medical unit, and a phar- armament of the rifle battalion is its large number
macy for its subordinate units. With its light trans- of submachine guns.

III-II
TM 30-430 I Mar 46

Figure 8. Table of Organization and Equipment: Rifle Battalion.

Supply and maintenance capabilities of the rifle a formation from standard organizational elements.
battalion are small. For more than a day of iight The tank corps consists of three tank brigades, one
combat it must be assisted by regimental or divi- motorized rifle brigade, six artillery regiments of
sional services. A rifle battalion can be easily various calibers, and supporting arms and services
moved. One truck company (100 SIS-5 trucks) can (fig. 9). Tank corps may differ in the number of
carry a complete battalion with sufficient rations, organic self-propelled artillery regiments. They may
forage, and ammunition for 7 to 8 days of heavy vary between one and four per tank corps.
combat. Red Army tank corps are comparable in strength
Two variations of the rifle battalion-the motor- and armament with U. S. armored divisions. They
ized rifle battalion and the motorized submachine have fewer tanks than the U. S. division (200 as
gun battalion-constitute the infantry element of compared with 272) and fewer self-propelled guns
the motorized and the tank brigade respectively. (40 compared with 62). However, many of the
The motorized rifle battalion differs from the stand- Soviet tanks and self-propelled mounts are heavier
ard battalion in that it has additional antitank rifle, gunned than the corresponding weapons of a U. S.
antitank gun, and submachine gun platoons. It has armored division. Organic artillery weapons, in-
six instead of nine 82-mm mortars. Its strength is cluding medium and heavy mortars and rockets, of
662 officers and enlisted men. The motorized sub- the tank corps outnumber those of the U. S. armored
machine gun battalion, a part of the tank brigade, division by more than 2lh to l.
is smaller than the standard rifle battalion. It lacks Transport and ammunition companies of a tank
the machine gun company, and has six instead of corps carry two rations, two refills of fuel, and one-
nine 82-mm mortars. But, like the motorized rifle half unit of fire for all of its organic and attached
battalion, it has additional antitank rifle and anti- units. It can maintain them for 5 or 6 days of mod-
tank gun platoons. erate combat. Its maintenance and repair shops
operate approximately 30 miles behind the front
3. ARMORED AND MECHANIZED FORCES
lines. Maj or repairs involving exchange of motors,
a. Armored forces. Tactical units of the Red gun tubes, welding of armor, and manufacturing and
Army armored forces are organized into tank corps, fitting some spare parts are effected in these shops.
tank brigades, and independent heavy tank regiments TANK BRIGADE. The mission of a tank brigade is
and battalions. destruction of hostile infantry by means of fire and
TANK CORPS. A tank corps usually forms a part shock action. A tank brigade usually forms a part
of the mobile striking forces of the commander of of a tank corps. In operations, it is supported by a
a Front or an army. It is used to deliver a decisive portion of the tank corps' self-propelled artillery, and
blow on a narrow sector, and in cooperation with can be compared with a combat command of aU. S.
other arms to exploit a break-through. A tank armored division. A tank brigade is also built from
corps is an example of a Soviet practice of building standard organizational elements, including three

111-12
1 Mar 46 TM 30-430

tank battalions, a motorized submachine gun bat-


talion, an antiaircraft machine gun company, and
services (fig. 10). Maneuverability of a tank bri-
I
J)1:
gade is good. Although its service echelon is road
IOllW I
bound, Soviet tanks with their wide tracks and high
:0 'C'lC'lr- '0> :8 I ....
,0>,I .... , 'C'I 1';<
clearance can operate in difficult terrain. Without its I 1_ ~

support and service group, the tank brigade has lim- 0~0>C'lr-';<~C'l0>0>0>C'l0~010>
~~~~~oo~~ ~ __ ~N~ ~

ited supply capabilities. They are sufficient for only


a few hours of operation. The service group extends
these capabilities to a day or two of moderate com-
bat. With corps resources, a tank brigade can be
committed to moderate combat for 5 or 6 days.
A tank brigade has two recovery tractors and a
::~
mobile repair shop for effecting minor repairs as .:) ptUJy II :o>r-........ , ....
'"
near the front lines as possible.
MOTORIZED RIFLE BRIGADE. The mission of the
la ..... olqJ, ami'll..>! I
\ : :',s Is
motorized rifle brigade is to support tanks in break-
,--------~I~~~~~~~~-ll
through or pursuit operations, to hold captured ter- '1 'H mW-ZEl I :00 I 00 I
rain obj ectives, and to protect the tanks from hostile
infantry and antitank weapons. The motorized rifle
brigade is, in fact, a reinforced rifle regiment, motor
ized. It consists of headquarters, three motorized
rifle battalions, a powerful mechanized reconnais-
sance company, a mortar and a field artillery bat-
o rum.., I :!l!l i'" : :I* I
talion, an antitank rifle, submachine gun, and anti-
aircraft machine gun companies, and services tfig.
11) . The proportion of services to infantry and
D yy wm-LE ! !:e I:
supporting arms in the motorized brigade is about VOl\: WW-()(;l I :'" i~ I~
twice as large as in the rifle regiment. An important
feature of the organization of the motorized rifle
brigade is the engineer mine company, whose mis-
sion is to establish offensive antitank mine fields.
The motorized rifle brigade is tactically mobile on
roads and easy terrain, and is easily maneuverable.
ARTILLERY OF THE TANK (AND MECHANIZED)
CORPS. The artillery commander of the tank and
mechanized corps has at his disposal six artillery ~O~":OOONl"-~:"":C'lc;qoo=-! '"
units armed with a variety of weapons. The mission
of this artillery is to support tanks and motorized
DI\:S UlUl-Zgl.
I r-go;;';~<t::Seo:C'l.;<r-:>~"'e 8
~.

infantry in mobile operations. The type and rela-


tive proportidh of artillery weapons were selected
so as to achieve maximum flexibility and shock
power of artillery fire without impairing the mobility
and maneuverability of the corps. The greater part
of the tank and mechanized corps artillery consists
of flat trajectory weapons. Their fire against hostile
infantry and area targets is supplemented by heavy
mortars and rockets. The 152-n'lm self-propelled
gun-howitzer regiment executes long-range, as well
as direct, support missions.

111-13
TM 30-430 1 Mar 46

Unit ~
~@ ~S ~SISI ~ I ~ ~S ~ ~
so(! S ~ < ~
~ 0 .J:l
~
~ ~
9:i 9
~ ~
9 9
~
9
~
9
r---:

I
7 17~ E~ '0
~
~
f,..;
~
~
'~E >~ 0-
0...: ...:...: t": ~ ~ ~ ~ IE- <I~ E- E- ~ w ~

~~-(-;,-~:::::::J~~-_
Hcn PlaL____ 43
8- : :
19 21
~ ~~~
3
-;-;
____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____
~-:~I~~:- ~~--~:~ ~~~I :~-::: l~~ ~;
3
__
3 ____ 3
__ ::::
3 ---- ___ _
Engr PIaL ___ 35 24 6 3 ___________________ - __ - - _- - - - - - ____ - - _- - 3 - - - - - - - - - - - -
CWS PlaL___ 25 22 3 ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 1 3 - ______ _
Hq Plat_____ 12 5 6 1 ____________________________ -___ ____ ____ ____ 3 _______ _
Sup Sec______ 12 12 _____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 1 ____ [____ 1
Sig PIaL _____ 30 15 5 ________ 1______ - ___ - _ - __ - __ - - - - - - - - - - 5 ____ 2 - - - -1- --- ----
3TkBns ________ 441 130 90 ________ 1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 63 ____ 72 6 15 ____ 18 3
:\Itz SMG Bn ____ 403 228 138 18 4 6 ---- 6 4 ---- ---- ---- 7 ---- 30 [____ 1____ 3
:rf~~~========= ~~ ~b ~g ==== ==== _~~_ ==== ==== ==== --4- ==== ==== ~ ==== ~ 1==== ====.---1
6~ ~o~f~i~t-c~== 1~~ I1~ 16 ==== ==== ==== __ ~_ ==== ==== ==== ==== ==== ~ --5-14~ ====1-12- ---1
:\led Plat __________ 14_ ~ ~ ~ ~~I~ ~ ~ ~ -==- -==--==- ~~ -==- _2_ -==-I-==--==-
TotaL _____ 1,306 I 692 300 251 4 24 9 6 4 4 65 3 93 11 1115 12130 9

Figure 10. Table of Organization and Equipment: Tank Brigade.

Including artillery and mortars of the tank and port of tanks. Normally direct fire is used. How-
motorized brigades (except tank guns), the artillery ever, both regiments have sufficient personnel and
commander of the tank corps has 232 pieces of artil- equipment to conduct indirect fire against distant
lery and 8 multiple rocket launchers at his disposal. targets.
The weight of a single salvo of these weapons IS The tank destroyer regiment is a part of the tank,
more than 5 tons, and if the fire of tank guns is mechanized, and cavalry corps. It also may be in-
included it is more than 7 tons. dependent or a part of a tank destroyer brigade. It
Normally, two of the artillery regiments are self- consists of headquarters, headquarters battery, five
propelled. These are a light 8S-mm regiment and a or six firing batteries, and regimental services (fig.
heavy 1S2-mm gun-howitzer regiment (figs. 12 and 14). Each firing battery has four 76-mm guns.
13) . The mission of these regiments is close sup Some regiments, however, were encountered which

Unit ~
~"88 ~~ ~a s! s~ ~~ ~~ ~
"C
~ 0
Is
~.
~o(! so(!
~
s
~
s
~
'[ ~s s
t.!.
s
J,
S
S
ISS
..L!S S
'0
S
I' '0
S ~ '0
O ~
~
~
r-- ~
r-.. I~
,1-
'"
~
~
1'""'4
~
00
~iJ,
-i~
o b i~
r-- ' ; ; ' ;---,
; .t
t:'""'
u,e:
~ ......

~~gc~~---::::::::::--6~- ___ ~~_ :::::: :::]~::


Sig PIaL _ ______ 30
::::1:::: :::: :::::::: ~~~ ::J::: ~___ 7_3 :::~ :::~5
30 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____
CWS Plat_______ 11 11 ------ ------ ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 1 ____ 1___ _

Mt~ekP~~~~====== 1, 9:~ 8~~ --72~- ----:-


2
1 --91-1==2==1
3
Mort Bn____________ 199
135 ====
27 ====
165
____ ====
9
54 ====
18 ====
____ ====
12 ====
________ ----I
==== ====
__________________ 12 6 ________________ ,
129
22 1 5
Arty Bn ____________ 1 224 134 63 12 ________________________ 12 ____ ____ 27 3 6
ATR Co____________ 60 27 6 ______________ 27 ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 3 ____ 1
SMG Co____________ 94 1 93 ______ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 5 1
Rcn Co_____________ 144 74 48 10 8 ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 7 10 4 4
Ord & Maint Co~____ 72 72 ______ ______ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 6 _______ _
Engr Mine Co_______ 121 109 6 6 ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 9 1 ___ _

If::;spfa~ =========== 1g~


AAMG Co__________ 48
1 g~
====== ====== ====I ==== ==== ==== ==== ==== ==== ==== ====
37 ______ ______ ____ 9 ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____
6~9 ____~ 1= ==1=
TotaL ________ :3, 238 1, 707 ~~35-9-8130-6-1212-7-1029917144
i

Figure 11. Table of Organization and Equipment: ~Motorized Rifle Brigade.

111-14
I Mar 46 TM 30-430

I I ~'2 I ~ ! ~ ~! ~ ! ~ I -
::s lEo I ~ ~ ~ I~? ~ I v
I;~~_:_:J_~
Unit I i I

____________ .__ I~I_~ ~_J_~_I_:_


i ~ I ~~ I ~ I ~ ji ~ ~ I]__ ~_
e ~ ~ ~ .-
I
-=:__ ~__~__ ~ ~
~
-I -1- ~~ --~
1

H q - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -i 20 13 :\ 7 !- - - - 1 1- --- --- -I 51
Ren Plat ----------_-------_-_-_-' 30 11 1 - - - - - -

16 i 2 _ - - -\ ____ ,_ _ _ _ 1 ____ \
- _ -

2 __ - - ____
- - - - -

1 _______ _

~~g;l~l~t----~~====================I 140~g
4 SP Btrys_______________________ 1______
~~I 120 1==== ~ ====-'. ====1====
' ________ ==== ====
20 ____________ ==== ~
----I
5 ---- ____ I 25 ====il====I=~==
S:\1 G Co _________________________ ; 79 _ _ _ _ _ _ 70 9 ____ !_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1 1 1 ___________ _

ATR cO _________________________ '1 61 36 7 ---- 18 !---- ---- ---- ____ 2 ---- -------- ----
Ord & Maint Shop________________ 30 20 10 ________________ '____ 2 2 1 2 1 _______ _
Am PIaL _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 18 18 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 16 ________ . _______ _
F.' u el PIaL - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Sn p See _ _ _ ______________________
-I 10
10
10 - - - - - - - - - ! - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
10 ___ , _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 2
7 -_ -_ -_ -_ -_ -_ -_ -_ '1- - 2- -[-_ -_ -_ -_

:\Ied Plat ----------------------- _1 _ _7_1 _ _7____ ~ -=-=-=-=-'-=-=-=-=-!~I-=-=-=-=-:-=-=-=-=-,_l_ -=-=-=-=-.~~i-=-=-=-=-'~~


TotaL _____________________ \ 440 i 150 i 240 111 \18! 20 I 1 I 1 I 2142 7\ 2! 2 2~
:'\oTE.-Antitank rifles, engineer~, and submarhinr guns may be assigned from parent formations. The organic strength is, in that case, approxi-
mately 300.
Figure 12. Table of Organization and Equipment: Self-Propelled Artillery Regiment.

had six guns in each battery_ This regiment is com- the tank and mechanized corps or the mortar artil-
pletely motorized. The ammunition columns of the lery brigade, or it may be independent. It consists
tank, mechanized, and cavalry corps carry a full unit of headquarters and headquarters battery, two mor-
of fire for the tank destroyer artillery regiments, but tar battalions, and regiJIlental services (fig. 26).
only one-half a unit of fire for their other Missions of heavy mortars are outlined in the dis-
components. cussion of the mortar brigade.
The light antiaircraft artillery regiment may be a The rocket battalion is a part of a tank and
part of the tank and mechanized corps, antiaircraft mechanized corps, and a part of the rocket regiment.
artillery division, or may be independent. It con- In the tank corps, the mission of the rocket battalion
sists of headquarters, headquarters battery, four is to support the advance of tanks and motorized
firing batteries and regimental services (fig. 281. infantry. It generally engages area targets, employ-
Its strength in armament and personnel is approxi- ing HE projectiles against personnel, and incendiary
mately half that of a U. S. antiaircraft automatic projectiles against buildings and supply areas. The
weapons mobile battalion. rocket battalion is highly maneuverable on roads
The motorized mortar regiment may be a part of and easy terrain.

Figure 13. Table of Organization and Equipment: Heavy Self-Propelled Regiment.

111-15
TM 30-430 I Mar 46

Figure 14. Table of Organization and Equipment: Tank Destroyer Artillery Regiment (Towed).

The antitank gun battalion of the tank, mechan only organic unit of the Red Army field organiza-
ized, and cavalry corps is armed with twelve 45-mm tion to contain flame throwers. Its missions are
antitank guns, eighteen antitank rifles, and other varied, including reinforcement of the reconnais-
small arms (fig. 5). It is completely motorized. Its sance battalion, flank security, protection of lines
of communications, and reduction of small, by-
:i
~;:::: ::s ~':::I,I
1'1::s
;:: ;:
passed enemy forces.
::s ~ 6[ ~ [~ ~ ~
(Organization of the engineer, signal, medical,
Unit

~ ~~II'~II0I~
o - ~ - ,..:- >::: ~. E-~- ~i,t;;1,2
,~
'Ei ,-=
I ~ c~
and other service units is described in Section III,
Technical Services.)
-----------:--1---'-- --:--;-- - --,---- h. Mechanized forces. In the Red Army the

li~~t~l;),~ ~ Ii :H .;: i, ,;
1 3 term, "mechanized," is applied to a team of motor-
ized infantry, tanks, and artillery in which the in-
~d~~:;!~--::~~::~~: ~ ~ ~
2
Hq PlaL __________
1
1 12, Ii
i __
I' 6 i
i::::1:::::::::
1, ___ 3 ;----
! -- -
fantry element predominates. There are two such
formations in the Red Army: the mechanized corps,
~:pc~e~~-::~:::::::::t~11~,~~-'-23~,~1~~-3
and the mechanized brigade.
TotaL __________ ! 220 I 139 : 72 24 I 10 I 3 ,'19 : 17 I 2 II' 6
, I MECHANIZED CORPS. A mechanized corps forms
'Including ten armored personnel carriers. a part of a mobile reserve for the commander of a
Figure 15. Table of Organization and Equipment: Recon-
naissance Battalion.
1 1 ....- 10 1::S
1:;':::::s I c
t:
I' t
~
I

;,'
1
,CLS;CLIH ~ E:
mission is to protect the headquarters and principal I

1
supply installations of the corps against infiltrating '~i~~il
Unit
~ I:::
,I,;:::, c:.
sl~1 C3
c:. ~s .- l.!<l'" <'l 'Cl
~ ~
'I

e.o I C II.... --
light armored vehicles. It is likely that the 45-mm _______ --=-- :~_I~~ ~ ~I~ ~l~ -=--,--=-
antitank guns of this unit will be replaced by 57- or Hq & Sig ____________ --' 8 5 i 3 ---- ---'---- 1 1111:----1 2
76-mm guns, or by light self-propelled artillery. ~(~~: Z~iariS-Sqd---::~:1 ~ i ~ I--~- ::~: ~:~~ :~:: --i- ~:~: --2-i~::~
2.~Hrcl Cos ____________ 146 48 I 64 48 ___________ 42 ___ -' 2
Other supporting arms and services of the tank Mtz Co __ --------______ 61
i,

i 36 16
1 8 ,---- ---- 4 ,,----!----I 1
Flame ThrOWN PlaL __ 22 i 10 I 2 ---- ----, 10 2
and mechanized corps consist of a reconnaissance 1 ____ _______ _

battalion, motorcycle battalion, signal battalion, en- Mort ~~~~l~::::::_::: -2-:-il-1-~:-:-9-: --~-~-ill-+II'--~-~-i-1-: i--~-;- --~-I-:
gineer battalion, chemical warfare company, water 1 I ! I ,

and fuel column, transport company, field bakery, Figure 16. Table of Organization and Equipment: Motor-
cycle Battalion.
and a medical battalion.
The reconnaissance battalion consists of head- Front or an army. Its primary mission is to exploit
quarters and headquarters company, two mechanized a break-through, pursuit, or a counterattack. A
reconnaissance companies, and a supply platoon mechanized corps is composed of organizational ele-
(fig. 15). The motorcycle battalion (fig. 16) is the ments which include three mechanized brigades, one

m-16
1 Mar 46 TM 30-430

tank brigade, six artillery regiments, and supporting : : I~


arms and services (fig. 17). As in a tank corps, the I-------;-----c,----:-,-:-,-:-,.-:-,----:-,-:-,-,-,-,-_: : I
number of self-propelled artillery regiments in a ::::::::: :~ i ~
: : : : : : : : : I I
mechanized corps may vary between one and four.
D1
The calibers and types of artillery weapons also may
vary. For example, the motorized heavy mortar ~~~~~ : ,- ....
If'-.,M ~

I ;'::!
I
regiment may be replaced by a 122-mm howitzer :o:,oCC'1Nl'--
:MM _
'~ :2!
1C"1!
r-...
1'""'4
regiment. There is no organization in the U. S. qaA dS ,- I ~ .
, " '~I ;
Army which is comparable to the Red Army mech- ------;--o-oo-""-~-r_-....-'_---C'l-O>-O>-O>-~ C -~~ 1-;-[
1""""1 M - ~ '' 00 I.."':;l t- ~ 1'""'4 ....... ~ C"'I 1- I 1'- j
anized corps. :- ~ I ~_I
,: ,: ,: :,.....
:N " : I "'~' ' I
The artillery commander of a mechanized corps , ,
has 336 artillery pieces at his disposal. These pieces -----Og-j-L--:--:,",-~-:::-~-~---:---',-,....- - - - : I~\
include the artillery and mortars of the mechanized
,,' ,"" :1-",,:
and tank brigades, but exclude tank guns. The UB..) slad pilllV '''': I ,.,
, 1
I
weight of a single salvo from these weapons is more
than 61;2 tons. If tank guns are included, it is more o pWlV :i~
: i
than 8Y'2 tons. (For discussion of the supporting
artillery units of the mechanized corps, see Artillery l_l
i ~
of the Tank Corps.)
I

:! - j
------:---'---'-'-------'--'-:oo~--'---'-~: loci ~
Tactical mobility of a mechanized corps is good
lWTlf :! ,~
except in swamps, wooded terrain, deep snow, or
during heavy thaws. A mechanized corps carries (.\\OH/o dS
Ulill-Zgl) Z~l ~1.S :i f,
sufficient ammunition, rations, and fuel to sustain all 1---(O-d-~--7-~--"....-o~--,--,-~~~~: 1 c
~ ~
of its components for 5 or 6 days of moderate com-
, " ' : 1

lliW-<;S) gS DS : i
~
bat. Transport and ammunition companies of the
mechanized corps carry two rations, two refills of
I!_ _ _O_Ul_ill_-9_l.--:-_:i;5_~_" _ _: ~_ _~-'-'---~:I ~ ~
fuel, and one-half unit of fire for an its organic and 0 LV :~.... :;'::! :, I ~ -I, o~
I unu-LS lO lliill-gt o~
attached units. As in the tank CC'fps, its repair and
maintenance shops operate approximately 30 miles
i. D VV llilli-L :;:; : I::: ~
I " ~
behind the front lines. They are capable of effect- pOJ"J: lliill-oc;l:~ :~ : I;'?;
ing major repairs to vehicles and ordnance such as I : I

the replacing of motors and gun tubes, welding


armor, and manufacturing and fitting some parts for
vehicles and weapons.
MECHANIZED BRIGADE. A mechanized brigade~ a OJ~VV mill-l.Zl

part of a mechanized corps, consists of a motorized


brigade (fig. 11) , and a tank regiment (fig. 18). On
roads or easy terrain, the mechanized brigade is ex- OW'! illill-ZgoL
tremely mobile, and capable of wide, bold maneu-
vers. Typically, it fights on or near roads. With OWS illill-ZgoL
organic transport and services alone, the supply and
uqO 'I' 't ~~~g~~~~~~~~8~~I~
__ .... ____ I
maintenance capabilities of the brigade is low. It 'tY8 lliUI-Zg"!.
~~ ~"' ~~r-I ~

has, however, two to four Type B mobile repair o"'~o~~r-o>"''''ooooo'; !-~


~~O~~~~OO-M~OO~~MI~

shops. The tank regiment has two recovery tanks ~~:~~~~~~~~~~~~ I ~_I
,,,,-hich endeavor to repair slightly damaged tanks on
the battlefield and tow more severely damaged ones ,,, ~, ' I
under cover. :: :~s: .,
t I ~ I b
I
:~:~i~ti~ d
TAl\"KS AND SELF-PROPELLED ARTILLERY. The c:;:: :~ ~ ~ ~ ., ~ ,: t ~ I
P:1~ tl.O?>?>t' t; t'd '':r7:l
basic organizational elements of the tank arm of oo~~~~~~~ ~~ d~oo 8
e~~<1~~<1 N '""< ~ ... 0-
the Red Army are the medium tank regiment, the 8~~~~~~i ~~ ~~8

111-17
TM 30-430 1 Mar 46

~
i'
-<=
006
0
~
~
0
~
...:l
~
r
-< t:
is-< ....
Unit
, , ~....,.....~

=--
ril
a(l a(l.
'~
S
, f&
.... I
I
-;$v
I ~.!d
I
"C
~ ~ -<
or-.: r-.: I r-.:~ -q
::!:
"?
r'~ 000. I....
r
.... I
rl
I;:;:
i"""
.-
~
~
~

Hq _____________-_.-_- __-_-i----- -- --7- - - 5 - - - - - - - - - - ~=I~~I-;I_-'--; .~~


__-_-_-
12
Hq Co:
Hq PlaL____________ 18 6 6 ____________________________________ 3 ___________ _
Rcn PIaL _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 31 10 16 2 _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ __ _ 3 _ _ _ _ 2 _______________ _

~g:f!;~~~-=
~~~ 2~~~::::::::::::: ~~
Ji !~ n8~ ___ ~6 = ~ ~~~ ~ ~~
2 142::8== =_=_=_=_ ==2== =_=_=_=_ ---~1
4 Tk ========== ====== ====== === ====== ====I ==== == =====I ==== - -

Trans & Maint Co________ 105


28
95
:::1
9 ---is ::::::::
10 ------ ------ ------ ------

~ffl~f!t~::::::::::::::: 2~ 2~ I:::: ::::: :::::: ::::::::::1 ~ ,::::: :::: --~ ::::


TotaL _______________ 543f296T2091--12-1--18- --41- --3- --2-155;-8-112 -2- --2- 51
Figure 18. Table of Organization and Equipment: Tank Regiment.

heavy tank regiment, and the tank battalion. Regi- with older model tanks. Their organization is not
mental organizational elements are found in the uniform. They differ from the organic tank bat-
mechanized brigade and as independent heavy tank talions of a tank brigade in that in addition to the
regiments. The first type of regiment (approxi- tank companies and ammunition platoons, they have
mately equivalent to the U. S. tank battalion) is a engineer, smoke, medical, and service platoons. The
balanced organization with its own reconnaissance, independent tank battalions have the same mission
engineer, signal, and maintenance units. A sub- as the independent tank regiments discussed above.
machine gun company protects the tanks from hostile It is believed that the latter have displaced the inde-
infantry. This tank regiment is organic to a mech- pendent tank battalions in the Red Army organiza-
anized brigade, thus completing the tank-infantry- tion.
artillery team of that organization. Tank battalions which are organic to a tank bri-
The second type of Red Army tank regiment IS gade generally consist of two companies of medium
the independent heavy tank regiment. Such regi- tanks, a headquarters with one tank, and an ammuni-
ments always are controlled by the commander of a tion platoon. Some battalions, however, have three
Front or an army, and are allotted to subordinate companies. In that event, there are only two such
formations according to their needs. A heavy tank battalions to a tank brigade.
regiment consists of four companies each with five In the Red Army, self-propelled artillery is a part
heavy tanks, a submachine gun platoon for protec- of the tank and mechanized forces. Organization
tion of the tanks from hostile infantry, a headquar- of the self-propelled artillery regiments reflects tank
ters company, and relatively large supply and main- rather than artillery doctrine. In fact, the organiza-
tenance units. It is used to support infantry and tion of the heavy tank regiment is the same as that
medium tanks during attacks on heavily fortified of the heavy self-propel1ed artillery regiment (fig.
positions, and as heavy artillery in support of mobile 13). It has the same supply requirements and capa-
operations. bilities, and the same mobility. The medium self-
Initial supply requirement of a heavy tank regi- propelled artillery regiment is a smaller version of
ment is 88 tons. Daily resupply requirement in the heavy regiment.
heavy combat is 48 tons. Rail movement of a heavy 4.. ARTILLERY
tank regiment requires one 40-car train. The artillery of the Red Army is organized into
TANK BATTALIONS. Two types of tank battalions corps, divisions, brigades, regiments, and battalions.
exist in the Red Army. They are the independent (The artillery corps was discussed in Section I,
tank battalion and the tank battalion which is organic Corps.)
to a tank brigade. The independent tank battalions The artillery division is a base of fire for major
are few in number, and they are generally equipped offensive and counteroffensive operations. It is es-

111-18
1 Mar 46 Tl"1 30-430
I
p I
I I
'-'
::
~<:
Q.:f 0 ~
...
<E ~ iH E-
..::;
r:n~ IJ.i <: ~ 2
~ l~ ~ ~ ~ I.~ ~ -", ~, ~
'-'
cnit

o::! .. .." -'~, ~,,..!,


0)
f"! ....;.:
"2~ I -:::
---------i-=-/ -' ~-, ;:-1 ,:; . "'- 0 -----! -i~-I "T~-I~-.~-~ ! 2_
~1~:J1r~try - -_~ 12,(5~g) I 1, ~~! ~~) i- -36 ,- 31 721:: 72 _ i I 181 721 I 2~g 5g I' - - ~ 2.~ I -82
How Brig___ ---- 2,242 i 1,892 362, 3fi 1 9 'I 721_ 48 24 I 158 13fi 214 36 -- _ 24 II 78
MG Brig ---- 2,128' 1,396 308 18 I 9 3tl I - 12 I 24 I 86 761191 18 __ __ 17 66
Hv Mort Brig- _ _ 1,705 , 1,397 i 135, 54 I 3 108 108 _ I __ ! I 268 I 35 I _ 16 I 52
Arty Obsn Bn ----I 300, 300 - I i -I - -'
- II I i (25)1 (15) - 2' (6)
SigBn_____________ 255' 200 (55)1 , , I (J.'i) (1)1 (24) 1 (10)
Serv _______________ (ROO) ~~' _ _ - 1_ _ I_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ : _ _ I _ _ _ _ _ _ ~1 (75) (8) I 4 -

TotaL _______ 9,743 7,90711,215: 144 24 28Ri 108! 72 4~ 12 24 241 262i 294 1,103
1 I--WSr----;-[-OO-z94
1
Figures in parenthesis are approximations,
Figure 19. Table of Organization and Equipment: Artillery Division.

sentially a task force- headquarters with permanent addition to their primary mission of antiaircraft
planning, fire control, reconnaissance, intelligence, defense of important installations and troop concen-
and liaison staffs. It has adequate technical and trations, antiaircraft artillery units are used for anti-
service personnel for effective employment of 24 to tank defense, support of ground troops by direct fire
36 firing battalions. The number, type, and caliber against targets whose destruction requires high-ve-
of its component units depend primarily on its mis- locity fire, and less often for indirect fire against
sion. It may be reinforced by GHQ heavy artillery general ground targets. An antiaircraft artillery
regiments, aviation units, antiaircraft artillery and
rocket regiments, army transport, and service units.
A typical artillery division is shown in Figure 19.
Tactically and strategically, the artillery division
is not highly mobile. It requires extensive engineer
assistance for road and bridge maintenance, prepa-
ration of firing positions, camouflage, and construc-
tions of shelters for personnel and equipment. Much
of its equipment is tracked. Single units of this
equipment weigh up to 35,000 pounds.
In addition to the artillery division described
above, there are also the specialized weapons-artil-
lery divisions, including the heavy gun division, and
the antiaircraft artillery division. Little is known TotaL ___________ 2,0431. 541 456 64, 48 16 1tl278 12 11 41
of the heavy gun divisions. Presumably they con- I

sist of several heavy artillery brigades. Figure 20. Tuble oj Organization and Equipment: Anti-
aircraft Artille1Y Division.
The antiaircraft artillery division consists of
three 37-mm antiaircraft automatic weapons regi- division is completely motorized and has good
ments, an 85-mm gun regiment, and divisional troops strategic mobility.
(fig. 20). The 85-mm gun regiment is approxi- a. Artillery brigades. An artillery brigade is
mately equal in personnel and armament to the U. S. a permanent tactical unit comprising a headquarters
90-mm gun battalion. The 37-mm antiaircraft auto- and a headquarters battery, two or three artillery
matic weapons regiment is approximately equal to regiments, and a service train. The headquarters
half a U. S. antiaircraft automatic weapons bat- battery has reconnaissance, survey, fire control, sig-
talion. Thus, the Red Army antiaircraft division naL and service platoons aggregating between 70
corresponds roughly to a U. S. automatic antiair- and 85 officers and enlisted men. The service train
craft weapons group. One antiaircraft artillery divi- contains an ammunition platoon, ordnance and
sion is generally assigned to each operational army, maintenance shops, fuel platoon, service and admin-
and one or more to each Army Group (Front). In istrative platoon, and a small medical unit. An ar-

111-19
TM 30-430 1 Mar 46

o(l s - s S SO
O::g S~-2 So so ~::g
0
..c:
'~Q ~::g '::g S Q)
.... <
Folt
ltl
0
::g
ril
I 3ril
0
E-<
C'I<
":Cl.Jo(l
....
~CI.J

r..:
~~
r..:
~<;
S
cO
....
as
~
...
E=
..bd
~
:>
Co
CI.J ~
'0
~
~
----------- --- - - - - - - - - - --- ------ ----- -- -- ----
Hq & Opns StL __ - _- - __ 20 5 25 25 ______ _____ _ ______ ___ __ _ ____ ___ _ 4 2 _______ _
Political Stf ___ - _- - - - - - - 3 3 3 I
Sup StL ______________ _ 10 10 20 20 4 1
Hq Btry:
Hq PIaL _ __ ______ _ 1 11 12 6 6 _ __ _ _ _ _ __ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ 1 ___________ _
Rcn PlaL_________ 1 16 17 12 5 __________________________ 2 ___________ _
SigPlat ___________ 1 34 35 30 5 __________________________ 3 4
Topo Plat_________ 1 20 21 16 5 __________________________ 3 ___________ _
AA Plat___________ 1 15 16 13 3 3 ______ ____ ____ 3 ___________ _
Sup Sec_ _ _ _ ______ _ _ ____ _ 7 7 7 ______ ___ ___ _ ____ _ _ __ ___ ____ _ __ _ 1 1 ___ _
3 76-mm G Regts__ _____ 228 1, 623 1, 851 1, 584 231 36 ______ 72 12 60 243 42 24 78
Med Plat_ __ __ _________ 3 8 11 11 ______ _____ _ ___ ___ __ ____ _ ___ ____ 1 1 _______ _
Am Colm______________ 1 20 21 21 ______ ______ ______ ______ 6 12 12 ___________ _
Wk Shops _ _ _ _ _______ __ 6 18 24 24 ___ ___ ______ ______ _ __ ___ ___ _ ____ 3 3 ____ ___ _
TotaL ___________ ~ 1, 787 2,063 1, 7721--u5-----a6--3--n-1872 280 50 25 82
Figure 21. Table of Organization and Equipment: Light Artillery Brigade, Motorized.

tillery brigade may be independent or a part of an batteries are controlled by the regimental headquar-
artillery division. ters. Battalion headquarters are eliminated.
LIGHT ARTILLERY BRIGADE. A light artillery bri- LIGHT HOWITZER BRIGADE. A light howitzer bri-
gade generally forms a part of an artillery division. gade may be either independent or a part of an artil-
It is armed with seventy-two 76-mm guns, which are lery division. It is armed with 122-mm howitzers
characterized by good muzzle velocity and great and their companion pieces, the 152-mm howitzers.
maneuverability. It is employed in close support of The 122-mm howitzer is characterized by great flex-
infantry and tanks, especially for direct fire. Its ibility in muzzle velocity and trajectory, effective
primary missions are destruction of personnel, in- burst, and good maneuverability. The 152-mm how-
fantry and light artillery weapons, and light field itzer has a lower rate of fire, greater burst, and
fortifications. A light brigade consists of three light slightly greater range than the 122-mm howitzer.
artillery regiments, and brigade troops (fig. 21). The brigade may be used for any mission except
The independent tank destroyer brigade is a varia- destruction of strong fortifications, or long-range
tion of the light artillery brigade in which the firing fire. Its primary missions include destruction of

~. 0
::sril <;t:l 0 0 ::s<;
CI.J,a
::s ::s~ ~
0
~
0

Unit
o(l
0 Eo(l
e,~.
Q CI.J
e E
<;
e
:Il
e =S ..c:
30 ~ ~ ~ e e t)
...
Co)
:>
lI::: ::s C'l
~
C'l
~
C'l
~ ~ ~ f! ~ '0
;:i ~
Co
0 ril E-< ...: ...: ...: ~ ~ E-< E= E-< CI.J ~ I

Hq & Opns StL __________ J-;;---5-~~~~=~~=~~==-4---2 = 1 ___ _


Political Stf _ _ _ _ _____ __ __ _ 3 3 3 ____ - __ _ ___ _ ____ _ __ _ _____ _____ _ ____ 1 ____ 1 ___ _
Sup StL _ _ ______ _________ 10 10 20 20 ____ ____ ___ _ _ ___ ____ ____ _ ____ _ 3 1 _______ _
Hq Btry:
Hq Plat______________ 1 11 12 6 6 ____ ____ ____ ____ _____ _____ 1 ___________ _
Ren PIaL _____ _______ 1 15 16 11 5 __ _ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 2 ___________ _

!M~~~~~~~~~:~:~:~:! ~g ~! l~ i :::: ::i: :::: ::::1::::: ::::: i :::: :::: :::~


2 12~:Ho~R~g~~===== 212-1, 2, 1, 82b 03~ 70~
338- -36- --6-1-48-1-24-11-146- -112- 17~ 28 1-- 742~
Med Plat_ _ _ _ _ ____ ____ ___ 3 8 11 11 ____________ II - - - - - - _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1 1 \_
~~ PlaL________________ 1 24 25 25 ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 12 24 12 ____ ==== _===

Sup ~~~:~~~~~:~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~I;;s:I~-JI;~~ ~


Figure 22. Table of Organization and Equipment: Light Howitzer Brigade.

m-20
1 Mar 46 TM 30-430

i' 0
~
~ -<.: 0 0 ~ 0
fO;l CO,o ~ ~ -< ~
Unit
~ 0 co H -< 0 0
0 So(! S S S S S ,Q

ca S ~ S S S Q.l
:>
~~ S S Q
~ ~ ~ t!.
~ :s E-<e: ~
~ "'0 .loI
<C>
'0 ~
<C> <0
0 fO;l E-< r..: r..: r..: ;::! ~
Co
co ~ ~'"
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ---
Hq & Opns Stf____________ 20 5 25 25 _____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 4 2 _______ _
Political Stf ______________ 3 ______ 3 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ 1 _______ _
Sup Stf__________________ 10 10 20 20 _____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 4 1 _______ _

~~Pl;t~============= ---i-1 ---ii-


Hq Rcn PlaL____________ 15 ---i2-
16 ----6-
11 ---6-
5 ====
____ ====
____ ====
____ ====
____ ====
____ ====
____ ---i-I==== ==== ====_
2 ___________
Sig Plat_ _____________ 1 24 25 20 5 _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ 3 _ __ _ _ __ _ 4
Topo PlaL___________ 1 20 21 16 5 ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 3 ___________ _
AAMG Plat__________ 1 15 16 13 3 ____ 3 ____ ____ ____ ____ 3 ___________ _
Sup Sec_ _____________ _____ 7 7 7 ____________ . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ 1 1 ___ _
2 Medium G Regts_ _______ 226 1, 692 1, 918 1, 210 284 18 6 12 24 74 52 152 10 16 62
Med Plat_________________ 3 8 11 11 _____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 1 1 _______ _
Am Plat_ ________________ 1 24 25 25 _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ 12 24 12 ___________ _
Wk Shops________________ 6 18 24 24 _____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 3 3 _______ _
Sup Sec _______ .. __________ I-=---=-=--=-=- __5_ 5_ --5-1-=---=-=--=-=- -=-=--=-=- -=-=--=-=- -=-=--=-=- -=-=--=-=- -=-=--=-=- -=-=--=-=- _~.-=-=--=-=- -=-=--=-=- -=-=--=-=-
1
_ _

TotaL _____________ !274 1,85412,12811,396 308 18 9 12 24 86 76 191 118 17 66

Figure 23. Table of Organization and Equipment: Medium Gun Brigade.

personnel in the open and in shelters; accompanying 203-mm howitzers and 152-mm guns respectively,
and antipersonnel barrages and concentrations; neu- consist of brigade headquarters and headquarters
tralization of light fortifications, mortars, and light battery, four firing battalions, and brigade services.
artillery weapons; and fire reconnaissance. Addi- The 203-mm howitzer is the most powerful piece
tional missions include destruction of minefields, habitually used by Soviet field artillery when great
antitank ditches, and medium field fortifications. A blast and penetration are required. Targets are care-
light howitzer brigade consists of two howitzer regi- fully selected because of low rate of fire and great
ments, and brigade troops (fig. 22). weight of ammunition. Primary missions of this
MEDIUM GUN BRIGADE. The medium gun brigade brigade include destruction of permanent fortifica-
consists of two medium gun regiments, and brigade tions, bridges, railroads, and buildings. In tactical
troops (fig. 23). It is armed with 152-mm gun- groupments, the 203-mm howitzer is combined with
howitzers and their companion pieces, the 122-mm its companion piece, the 152-mm gun-a weapon
guns. The 152-mm gun-howitzer is characterized by which is ch~racterized by great range, high muzzle
greater penetration, lower rate of fire, and, except velocity and penetration, low rate of fire, and poor
with the self-propelled mount KV, considerably less maneuverability.
maneu,verability than the 152-mm howitzer. The 120-MM MORTAR BRIGADE. Every artillery divi-
122-mm gun is characterized by high muzzle velocity, sion has a mortar brigade. Mortar brigades, how-
great penetration and range, good rate of fire, and ever, also may be independent. A mortar brigade has
only moderate maneuverability. good tactical and strategic mobility. It is armed
with 108 120-mm mortars which are characterized
The brigade is used against targets which are be- by high rate of fire, great maneuverability, and good
yond the range and capabilities of the light howitzer radius of burst. Primary missions of the mortar
brigade. Its primary missions are destruction or brigade include destruction of personnel in the open
neutralization of artillery and armored trains, neu- and in light shelters; destruction of light field forti-
tralization or interdiction of distant targets, de- fications and wire barriers; destruction or neutrali-
struction of field fortifications, fire reconnaissance of zation of artillery, mortar, and infantry firing posi-
important or exceptionally resistant targets, and de- tions; accompanying and defensive barrages and
struction of distant minefields. I t is likely that the concentrations; and smoke screens. A heavy mortar
new high-velocity 100-mm guns are replacing some brigade is especially useful in woods and swamps
of the 122-mm guns in the brigade. in direct support of infantry or cavalry. The bri-
HEAVY HOWITZER BRIGADE. The heavy howitzer, gade consists of three mortar regiments and brigade
and possibly the heavy gun brigade, armed with troops (fig. 24).

DI-21
TM 30-430 1 Mar 46

~ E~- = E E 0 E S
0"" E -.0 Eo So "" s~ S...: .Q
Unit ~ .;,~ .;,,':S "" E- ~ ~
~ ~~ ,,:-<~:i@ :>.~
,,--. 0 0

It: ""-<0 <o...:l -<


~ :OO~ ~ ~ ~ ~
<0 00
o E-< t-- .-.: -<"<1' ""
--- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ---1------ --- - - - - - -
1

Hq and Opns StL_________ 20 5 25 25 ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ 4 2 _______ _


Political StL _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 3 3 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1 _______ _
Sup Stf__________________ 10 10 20 20 ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ 2 1 ____ ,----
Hq Btry_________________ 5 I 119 124 98 24 ______ 3 ____________ 12 1 I 4
3 120-mm Mort Regts _____ 279 iI, 188 1,467 1,185 111 54 ______ 108 108 216 27 15 I 48

~~~d \~~akh-Op;=
======= ===
Am Plat_________________ = ~1 30l~ ~!31 31~!
II ====== ====== ====== === = ======
______________________________ == ~ ~==== ====_
30 ___________ 0

Total ______________ 3271~l,705ll,397~~I--3-108~2683516,52


Figure 24. Table of Organization and Equipment: 120-mm ~Mortar Brigade.

h. Artillery regiments. Artillery regiments are armed with the same weapon, whereas heteroge-
may be independent or may be parts of artillery neous regiments are armed with two or more com-
brigades and artillery divisions, and organic to for- panion weapons.) Homogeneous regiments include
the light artillery regiment (fig. 25), the mortar
~ ~-.2 ~ ~ i I II I regiment (fig. 26), and the rocket regiment (fig. 27).

Unit ~ ~~ ~ ~
~c ~~-
s
~ ~~o .!~ ~~
, I
~ ~,
A light artillery regiment generally forms a part of
a light artillery brigade. It consists of headquarters
-1
~ ~ ~ ~

= ~ ~
.,.
0

o ~ E- .-.: 1_ r::.E-E-IE-lx~:::::
I .... -

and headquarters battery, two battalions with three


__0'-7- --2
-H-q-&-O-p-n-s-St-r-o_-
PoliticalStL _____ 3 ___ 0
-9 -91=
3 3 1____ ____
~ ~ ~'--;'~I~ ~
--- --- --- ___ 1 ___ ,,--- ---
firing batteries each, and services. This regiment is
often combined with a tank destroyer regiment (fig.
~ufi:I~l~~t~~~::::
RcnPlaL____
o_~ ___ ~o _~~o -~~-i::~: ==== === === === -~tJ==l:=
1 10 11 21
6 1 5 ---- --- ___ 1 ___ ----1---
14) to form an antitank groupment. Other missions
of the light artillery regiment are outlined in the
5 '---- --- --- ---113 1 ___ 1___ 14
1

Si!1:PlaL-____ 1 23 24 19 t,

TopoPlat.. ___ I 20 21 16 i 5 ____ --_ -- ____ ,3 ,---:--- --- discussion of the light artillery brigade.
2i6_~~~~e~ns:~:~ -48- 4Z: 47~ 40~ -58- -i2- 24- -4- 2Q-Is! 1- 6- ~ ,-22 A heavy mortar regiment forms a part of a mortar
Med Plat __ ------- 3 S 11 1 1 _ ---- --- --- ___ 11 11 1-- .1---
Ord WkShop_____ 3 9 12 1 2 _ ---- --- --_ --_ 1 ; 1 : ___ 11 __ _
brigade, or it may be independent. It consists of
QMWkShop _____ ---- 5 5 5 _ ---- --- --- --- ___ 11 '--- ---
TransPlat. _______ 1 16 17 17 , _____ , _________ 11 5 ',---1--- headquarters and headquarters battery, two firing
SupSec ___________ ---- 3 3 3 0 _____ 1___ - - - ___ 11 ___ ,1 1---
battalions with 18 heavy mortars each, and regi-
TotaL-----76541617152STn,12!24,4;20I81i14fSfi

Figure 25. Table of Organization and Equipment: 76-mm


Gun Regiment, Jlotorized. II ~ ~z I ~ I ~ ~ i I I
Unit I, ,~ ~~ I ~ I ~ ~ I .c, I
mations of combined arms. An frtillery regiment ..... I ~
I -;::
I.;:;;
S -
N:::::
1 E lEE I
N N
:,
.!C:>
I I~
I
5!~ ~ I::;: ~ t.1$'~!~
0

generally consists of headquarters and headquarters ::


battery aggregating between 75 and 100 officers and Hq and Opns BtL _I 10 i-2-1~ -~I- - - --;- - - --
Political StL ______ ' 3 ' _____ 1 3 3 _______________ _
enlisted men, three firing battalions, and service Sup 8tL.___________ 1 i.1 S [ 15, 15 ____ ____ ____ 2
troops. The headquarters battery has reconnais-
sance, topographic, signal, and headquarters pla- Hq ~W~'i>~f!i::::==: -Ti,'--~r!--Ji---J
Sig Plat.. ______ 1 30 I
29
-T ::== =:== -T!=:l:=
31_ -____
25
:::
5 ____ ____ 4
toons. Service troops consist of ammunition ~~g~!'cl~t~:::~: __ 1 2~ 2~ I 2~ _5 --- -___ ~ ______ _
platoon, ordnance and motor work shops, supply 2120-mm Mort Bns_ 60 I 258 3181 243 -lsl-iS- -36- 44 I-~_ ~ -i2
Mea. Plat. _________ 3 I S II 11 ____ ____ ___ 1 I _____ _
Ord Wk Shop______ 31 9 12 i 12 --- . ___ ____ 1 1 _____ _
train, and a small medical unit.
Independent artillery regiments carry a full unit ~i~~~:~~~~~~==::=: ::~:I Ii I ~ I 2~ [::1::==: :==: -if} :==1===
of fire for their subordinate units. Regiments which TotaL _______ ,93f39614R91 395 i371S.36'lnl,9 "511"6
I I 1 , 1 ,I ,!!
are parts of larger artillery units or of formations of
combined arms carry one-third of a unit of fire. Figure 26. Table of Organization and Equipment: 120-mm
j\1ortar Regiment
Regiments are the lowest housekeeping and adminis-
trative units of the artillery arm. mental services. It is used for destruction of per-
Artillery regiments may be homogeneous or het- sonnel and materiel in open positions and in open
erogeneous. (All units of homogeneous regiments trenches, for destruction of wire entanglements, neu-

111-22
I Mar 46 TM 30-430
tralization of machine guns and mortars, and for the teries, an antiaircraft machine gun company, and
establishment of stationary and moving barrages. services (figs. 28 and 29). In addition to its primary
During artillery preparation for an offensive opera- mission of antiaircraft protection of ground troops
tion~ the mortar regiment is often reinforced by a and installations, it is employed for direct fire
122-mm howitzer regiment to form a countermortar against ground fortifications, antitank defense, and,
groupment. less often, for indirect fire against ground targets.
~.Heterogeneous artillery regiments include the
,..,.-
~~ ~ ~ ~ I~ c
0 " ' 101 I I divisional artillery regiment (fig. 4), the howitzer
if.t W...:l -< -< ::::: I regiment (fig. 30), and the medium gun regiment
Fnit
~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ -= .- ;i
ii
r-!: 7 ~
go ~
~ ~
'" (fig. 31). (Organization and missions of the divi-
______ ~~_~_~::._~_I ~ o~- r ~ ~ ~ ~ sional artillery regiment are outlined in the discus-
sion of the rifle division.) The howitzer regiment
B q & Stf
I i i-Ii-1- -_ ---
Hq Plat____ 12lO, ___
6 I
1
1
6 I --
2 ___ _ ___ 5 - - - - --
1 ________ _ consists of headquarters and headquarters battery,
Ren Sqd _ lO 1 l ' 9 I 1 I - -- 1_ - -
Sig Sqd ___ , 15 lO I 5 __ __ _ I - - 2 2 6 three firing battalions, and services. Its missions
Sup See I 7 7 1 I --- - , - -, - 1 1
3RktBns __ 639 i 570 691121 -- 1 24 - 48!_ 3 14 are outlined in the discussion of the howitzer brigade.
AAA W Btry I 62 35' 1 15 I - - 6 6 -- 12 -

Trnn"Co:,' . !';:t~;;o'1151-~1-6 i6!24I--i~1214 >1


d 0
0
~
-<i:l
w.c ~ -<
0
Figure 27. Table of Organization and Equipment: Rocket U W -< -<
Unit ~ a~ s a -<
Regiment a ..c::

=
~ S -
~::::: ~ s ~
>
~ r-!-
~
~ <II ~ "0
<:> <C as
8 8 ~
0.
The rocket regiment (M13) may be a part of a 0 ,-.: t-.= ~ 00 W ~

rocket brigade, or it may be independent. It has ~~ ~~~:~_~~1--;1-1-5 -1~ ~~ ~ -2- ~ ~ ~


a balanced headquarters~ three rocket battalions with Ren PlaL___ 12 ______ 12 ______ ______ 1____ __________ _
Topo PIaL 12 9 3 ______ ______ 1____ __________ _
two rocket batteries each, an antiaircraft machine Sig PlaL ____ i 35 i 30 5 ______ ______ 4____ ____ ____ 4
Engr PlaL __ i. 20 I 18 2 ______ ______ 2____ __________ _
gun company, and services. This regiment is used SupSeL----i 71' 7 i ----- ------ ------ ---- 1 ----I 1 --
4 Btrys ________ ' 360 260 I 44 ------ 16 16 16 ---- ---- 8
against area targets. Weight of metal of a single AAMG Btry_ ___I 90 57, 33 16 __________ 16 ____ ____ 1
8aho from this unit is more than 7 tons.

d-
'I
c I ~
leiI
~i~i~~~F: ~ I ;1 i:~:~: ~1 }2: : :
TotaL-----i620l454iU016I-16I16--;--21-3
. la
I
-<..0 1 ~ ! -< i 0
Wu i rL ; -< I -<r,
L'nit ~ I,a~ I I -< 1
Figure 29. Table of Organization and Equipment: 85-mm
r.:: I a...; I ~ I = I a Antiaircraft Artillery Regiment
~ i ~- ~ I ~ ~,~ .- ~

Hq &
Sig PlaL______
EngrPlaL_____
Hq PlaL ____ I',
Cir-: ir-:I~'~:r

StL=~ -~II,-~I!-i-1~~~_I:~~li-l 21
20
12!
I
14
1~,
i
7 ------ ------
56 ------ ------
______ ______
1= =~

41______
21 ------
3
------
___________ _
:::::
The medium gun regiment consists of headquar-
ters and headquarters battery, three battalions, and
services. Two of the battalions are armed with 152-
Sup See _______ 1i: i 1 ______ - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 1 ------
43i.mmBtrYs ____ 200 I 156,
'I' 44 ______ 1161 16 , ______ 4 mm gun-howitzers, and the third with 122-mm guns.
AAMG Co________ SO I 57 i 33 16 - _____ 1 16 1______ 1
Sup PlaL_________ 15, 15 i __________________ 1 11 I 1 _____ _ Missions of this regiment are the same as those of
Ord Shop ________ , 1~ 1~ ' ____________ -- ____ ',
i 2 i------ _____ _
:\Ied PlaL _______ :_ _' '~:-----;i~:-_2 I~~ 1 _ _
the medium gun brigade.
TotaL _______ I' 3971 295: 102 I 161 16; 56: 2 c. Artillery battalion. The basic organiza-
, I I : I
tional and tactical element of the artillery arm is the
Figure 28. Table of Organization and Equipment: 37-mm
Antiaircraft Automatir Weapons Regiment. battalion. The artillery battalion generally consists
of headquarters and headquarters battery, three fir-
The medium and light antiaircraft artillery regi- ing batteries, and an ammunition train. The head-
ments are also homogeneous. (The light antiaircraft quarters battery has reconnaissance, signal, topo-
artillery regiment [antiaircraft automatic weapons graphic, and fire control units comprising between 50
regiment] is discussed under tank corps.) The to 65 officers and enlisted men. Independent artil-
medium antiaircraft artillery regiment is comparable lery battalions have sufficient maintenance, repair,
to the U. S. antiaircraft artillery gun battalion. It and service personnel to effect first and second eche-
may be a part of an antiaircraft artillery division, or lon repairs and to carry one unit of fire and one
it may be independent. It consists of headquarters refill of fuel for its subordinate units. Artillery
and headquarters battery, four 4-piece firing bat- battalions which form a part of larger artillery units

ID-23
TM 30-430 1 Mar 46

~ a~ a a ad a a
o~ a -2 ad ad a::E a~ a~
Unit
It::
",",";lr>:::
"'"
~~o
~rn~
~::E
<ern
~::E
<e~
..:.....
~<
~& ~~
Nfl..!:: ~
>
..c:l

0. ._
'0
'"

;q a~~pns ~~-=I-~T~I-~~-~~- ~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~ __ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~_~oo~~~~~_ ~~


Political StL _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 3 '1_ - - - - 3 3 ------ ------ ------ ------ --- -- - ---- ---- ---- ---- --- ----
Sup StL _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 5, 3 8 8 ________________________ 1- _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Hq ~~YPlaL _ _ __ _ _ _ 1 I 9 10 6 4 ____________ !_ _ _ _ _ _
1 ______ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1 ___________ -
R;cn Plat_______ 1 I 14 15 10 5 1 ____________ 1 ______ 1 ______ - ___ -___ 1 ---- ---- ----
Slg Plat________ 1 34
I' 35 30 5 ;-----.- ------1------1--- --- ---- ---- 3 ---- ---- 4

IPI~~~~====== ~ i~
Sup Sec ____________ i 7 7
i~ ~~
7 !- - -
~ =~==== ----3-:======:======1====
-1- - - - -=== 3~
- - - - - -!- - - - - - 1- - - - -
==== ====
1
====
2 122-mm Bns ______ 48 : 482 530 436 98 12______ 24 1----- 48 36 38 6 6 22
1 152-mm Bn _______ 24 '254 278 231 49 6 ______ j______ 12 24 18 19 3 3 11

~r~d,fr~a~h~p======= ~ ~ g g 1======1======1======:======:======----- -- --~- l'=~=~'====


:_
Ig~;~I~!t~~~-}:~~ ~i ,_~t ~:~ ---::'-:-::Ui~tT-2_~:: :::: _
TataL ______ 106 I

1
910 11,016
'
853 169 18 3\ 24\ 12 I 73 i 56 I 88 14 11 37

Figure 30. Table of Organization and Equipment: 122-mm Howitzer Regiment, Motorized.

(regiments and brigades) do not have maintenance ers are organized into 12-piece battalions. The 122-
and repair personnel. Their supply train carries one- mm and 152-mm motorized howitzer battalions differ
half of a unit of fire. Artillery battalions which from the 76-mm gun battalion (fig. 32) only in hav-
form a part of a formation of combined arms also ing greater personnel strength and the addition of
have no service and maintenance personnel. Their 22 tractors and 16 trailers. The 122-mm howitzer
ammunition platoon carries only one-third of a unit battalion has 346 officers and enlisted men; the 152-
of fire. mm howitzer battalion, 359. The medium guns,
There are two basic types of artillery battalions: medium gun-howitzers, and heavy guns and howitz-
the 12-piece (fig. 32), and the 6-piece battalion (fig. ers are organized into six-piece battalions. The
33). The light guns and light and medium howitz- 122-mm gun battalion and 203-mm howitzer bat-

Unit I
I
~ i~ j J~_111J_rJJ _J~ 1~ I~I~ ~ ~_ ~ I :

~li*c~tS:f~~f_-~===='ll~ ___ :_ 1~ ___ ~~_ ====== =====_ ====== ====== ====== ==== ====1 __ :_ ==== ==== ====
~UJJgy===========
Hq PlaL _______ __ =
1 ____ =1
~~ ____ ~~_6 ======4 ======
9 ____ 10 ______ ======
______ ======
______ ======
______ ====
____ ====
____ __ :_
1 ==== ==== ====_
___________
Rcn PlaL ______ 1 118 19 14 5 ________________________________ 2 ___________ _
Topa PlaL _____ 1 120 21 16 5 ______ ______ ______ ______ ____ ____ 2 ___________ _
Sig PIaL _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1 34 35 30 5 _ __ __ _ _ _ _ __ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ __ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ 3 _ _ _ _ _ __ _ 4
AA Plat ________ ! 1 15 16 13 3 3 ____________________ 3 ____________ _
Sup Sec _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 7 7 7 _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ __ __ _ _ __ __ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ 1
2 152-mm G/How
Bns ______________ 50 464 514 228 80 6 ______ ______ 12 24 16 30 4 18
1122-mm G Bn _____ 25 208 233 190 40 3 ______ 6 ______ 12 8 15 2 9
Med PlaL----------i 3 9 12 12 --____ ______ ______ ______ ______ ____ ____ 1 1 _______ _
Ord Wk Shop_______ 3 9 12 12 ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ____ ____ ____ 1 _______ _
Qm Wk Shop_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 7 7 7 _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ __ __ _ _ __ __ _ _ __ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ 1 _______ _
Trans PIaL _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 4 32 36 36 _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ 2 13 2 _______ _
Sup Sec____________ ____ 3 3 3 ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ____ ____ 1 ____ 1 ___ _

TotaI------ __ lm846959~142I--9---3---6-12372676-5---8-31

Figure 31. Table of Organization and Equipment: MeJium Gun Regiment.

111-24
1 Mar 46 TM 30-430

tali on differ from the 152-mm gun-howitzer battalion Mortars and rockets are a part of the artillery arm.
(fig. 33) only in the size of the gun crews. Over-all The heavy mortar battalion, a part of a mortar regi-
strength of these battalions is 248 and 296 officers ment, consists of headquarters and headquarters
and enlisted men respectively. battery, which has the same organization as the head-
quarters battery of the artillery battalion, and three
::s ~- 0 0 ~ 6-piece firing batteries. Mortar battalions seldom
~ -<0 ::s ::s E-<
~
00.0
0 00 H -< have service troops. The provisional mortar bat-
Unit 0 s~ s s s C
talion of the rifle division is formed from three heavy
s- 8 S S 8
::s :5E-< .:..:c:I:.~ ...
t.l
It:: 0
c:I:. c:I:. J, S IX!
~
'd
IX!
~ mortar batteries of the rifle regiments. The 82-mm
<0
0 ~
<:l
t...=
<:l
t...= ~ <b
t- 8 8 E-< ~

mortars of the rifle battalions are organized into


Bn Hq & StL __ 8 3 11 11 ____ ____ ____ ____ ___ ___ 1 __ - __ _
HqBtry _______ -- _____ -- ___ ----- ________ ---- ____ --- --- --- --- ---
RcnSec____ ___ 8 8 4 4 ____ ____ ____ ___ ___ 1 _____ _
companies with nine medium mortars each.
Si~Sec----- ___ 8 8 5 3 ____ ____ ____ ___ ___ 2 ___ 2 The M-13 rocket battalion forms a part of the
3Btrys _________ 15168 183 159 18 6 ____ 12 ___ 618 ___ 9
Am PlaL______ 1 16 17 13 41 ____ ---- ---- 2 4 2 ---i--- tank, mechanized, and cavalry corps, and of the
Sup S~~~~~~~~~I~ ~ ~I~ ~ ~I= ~i~i~i~i~l~ ::s~ ~- 0 0 ~
0
<= ::s00 ::sH :::::
Figure 32. Table of Organization and Equipment: 76-mm ~ 005 0-
Gun Baualion, Motorized. Unit 0
~~- 8
S
S 8 ..:::
>
It:: ::s :5E-<c c:I:.~ c:I:. ~ ~
0
... ..Id
t.l
IX! 'd
IX!
~
<:l <:l <:l 0-
The 12-piece battalion may be homogeneous or 0 ~ t...= t...= t...= :2 8 8 8 00 ~

heterogeneous. The heterogeneous battalion has Hq and StL ____ 9


--11 - -11 -____________________________
- - - - -
_
- - -

three batteries, two of which are armed with the same Hq Btry:
Hq Sec_____ 1 6 7 4 3 ____ ____ ___ ___ 1 ________ _
Rcn Sec_____ ___ 6 6 3 3 ____ ____ ___ ___ 1 ________ _
weapon, and the third with a companion piece to Topo PlaL_ 1 18 19 14 5 ---- ---- --- --- 2 , ________ _
Sig Plat .. ____ 1 29 30 25 5 ____ ____ ___ ___ 3 ___ ___ 3
this weapon. Soviet artillery doctrine considers the Sup Sec_____ ___ 7 7 7 ____ ____ ____ ___ ___ 11 ___ 1 __ _
following weapons to be supplementary or com- 3 Btrys _________ 12 144 156 129 24 3 6 10 4 41 ___ --- 6
Am PlaL_______ 1 9 15 JO ___ ____ ____ 2 4 2 ______ - __

~~;~:::: '-i ,,I-,; ~ ~ ~ ~ ~1~7sI~ +~


panion pieces:
Sup
76-mm gun and 122-mm howitzer.
122-mm howitzer and 152-mm howitzer. Figure 33. Table of Organization and Equipment: 152-mm
152-mm gun-howitzer and 122-mm gun. Gun-Howitzer Baualion, Motorized.
203-mm howitzer and 152-mm gun. rocket regiment. It is a balanced organization con-
The last two pairs of companion pieces are not gen- sisting of headquarters and headquarters company,
erally found in the same battalion. Rather, they are two rocket batteries with four multiple launchers
combined in mixed regiments. each, and ammunition and maintenance platoons.

NOTE.-Figures in parenthesis are approximations.


Figure 34. Table of Organization and Equipment: Cavalry Corps.

111-25
TM 30-430 1 Mar 46

It is likely that the organization of the heavy M-30 h. Cavalry division. The cavalry division
rocket battalion is similar to that of the M-13 rocket normally forms a part of a cavalry corps. It may
battalion. also be independent. A cavalry division is a forma-
tion which is designed to perform one phase of an
5. CAVALRY operation, such as an encirclement, pursuit, or a
raid. A cavalry division consists of headquarters,
a. Cavalry corps. The cavalry corps is the three cavalry regiments, a mortar-artillery regiment,
normal operating cavalry formation which consists a light antiaircraft artillery battery, and supporting
of three cavalry divisions, two to four tank regiments arms and services (fig. 35). It lacks ,the antitank
of 41 tanks each, a medium self-propelled artillery battalion normally found in other formations of
regiment, a motorized tank destroyer artillery regi- comparable size. Its mortar-artillery regiment is
ment, a motorized heavy mortar regiment, a rocket singular in that it has no battalion organization, and
battalion, and supporting arms and services (fig. that it consists of three 76-mm batteries, and two
34) . (Individual artillery units of the cavalry corps 120-mm mortar batteries. Services of the cavalry
are discussed in conjunction with the artillery of the divil:lion are small. Its maintenance and resupply
tank corps.) facilities are sufficient to maintain it for only I to 2
The artillery commander of a cavalry corps has days of moderate combat. It has no replacement
at his disposal five artillery regiments armed with a pool.
variety of weapons. The mission of this artillery is c. Cavalry regiment. The cavalry regiment is
to support tanks and cavalry in mobile operations. normally a part of a cavalry division. However,
The type and relative numbers of artillery weapons cavalry regiments may be attached to other forma-
are selected so as to achieve maximum flexibility and tions for reconnaissance, or they may act as inde-
shock power of fire without impairing the mobility pendent units for specific missions such as night
of the corps. Including artillery and mortars of the raids. A cavalry regiment consists of headquarters,
cavalry divisions, the artillery commander of the four cavalry squadrons, and supporting arms and
cavalry corps has 346 pieces of artillery and 8 mul- services (fig. 36). The proportion of cavalry proper
tiple rocket launchers at his disposal. The weight of to the supporting arms and services is less than 50
metal of a single salvo of these weapon'3 is more percent, a much smaller ratio than the proportion
than 6 tons. of infantry to other arms and services in a rifle regi-
A cavalry corps has sufficient organic transport to ment. A cavalry regiment is strong in automatic
maintain all of its components for 5 or 6 days of and antitank weapons. In comparison to a rifle regi-
moderate combat. ment, it is weak in mortars.

r:r,-
0 0 ~
0
ri 0 0 ~ ~ r:r, ....... tIl
<::: ::s ~ I:- < Eo< ...0 0 0 o(l
Unit rf.es CI.l ..:I t::: < < ;:s
0
::s < Eo< ..c:
::sr;z;'l Eo(l El S S El S S
< < 0 ~
:>
S S E E ...
o(l ~ ~ ~ S
~ ~
~ ~
~ ~
~
~
~ "9
It;)
iii
~
<C
0 '"r-..: r-..: '"
r-..:
<C
r-..: ~ ~ ~
00 co:> ie Eo< tIl tIl i2 ~
- - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - -- - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - ---
Div Hq__________ 120 105 12 3 ____________________________ -___ ____ 5 130 1 2
Ren Sq d _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ 11 0 11 0 9 ____________________________ - _- _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ 11 0 _______ _
Sig Half-Sqd______ 53 48 5 ____________________________ ---- ____ 12 65 5
Engr Sqd_________ 70 58 12 6 ____________________________ --- _____ 12 65 1
AAAW Btry Mtz__ 80 68 12 6 ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 6 ____ -___ 6 ____ ______ 1
Mort-Arty
H -dr ___ _ __Regt
____ _ 450 400 50 12 _ __ _ _ _ _ _ 16 __ _ _ 12 _ __ _ _ _ __ 12 _______ - 570 3 17

ServCWs Sqd _ _ _ _ 64 55 6 3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5! 8 35 -- i - ----


Am CoIm_____ 143 125 14 4 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 21 ---- ------

~1dJ~~~~::: i~
3 Cav Regts ______ 13, 432 1,959 1,395 129
i~ :::::: :::: :::: :::: :::: :::: :::: :::: :::: :::: _6_ -2g- ---gf J ::::36
+,
48 9 96 36 ________ 12 12 9 345 3,543 27
TotaL ____ 64.> 12, 941 1, 616 172 4s -9- 112 3812 -6-12T24 100 404 4, 593 35 62
Figure 35. Table of Organization and Equipment: Cavalry Division.

nl-26
I Mar 46 TM 30-430

~. I C!l C!l
C!l ::E ::E
;;3,g1 ::EC!l :? -<
~
r ...,...
u U1 H ~ -< -< c
Cnit ::E s~ S S 8 S 8 ::s C!l ..c::
<:)

~ 8,~. S S S 8 S S >...
~ C'l c!. c!. c!. r-!. J, ::: ~ -t: '9 "C
0 r-..: ~ .... ~ ~ g <:J ~
r-..:
~
r-..:
<C
r-..: ;j c!.
00
L':)
r
<Il
~
-----------------i---- ---- -- -- -- -- -- ---- -------

Regtl H q _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 25 20 5 1 - - - - - ___ - - - - - - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1 30 1 2
Rcn Sqd_______________________ (40) 5 35 4 - ___________ --__ ____ ____ ____ 40 _______ _
AA PlaL______________________ 16 16 ________ --__ 3 ---- --__ ____ 3 _________________ _
Sig Plat _ __ _ __ __ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ 25 20 5 2 - _ __ _ __ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ 4 30 4
Engr Plat ____________________ -_ 18 11 5 2 ________________________ 2 20 _______ _
4 Cav Sqd _________________________ 560 140- 400 32 ________ 24 ____________ 20 600 4
HvMG Sqd________________________ 12f} 120 ---- ____ 16 ____________________ 15 130 1 3
How Btry_________________________ 86 81 5 _____________________________ 10 65 2 3
Mort Bn___________________________ (80) (~~) ____________________ 12 ________ 12 80 1
AT Btry___________________________ 55 vv 6 ____________ 8 ____ 4 ____ 10 70 _______ _
Servs ____________________ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - _- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - __ _
Sup Plat_______________________ 20 20 ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 2 20 _______ _
Am PlaL_______________________ (45) (45) ________________________________ 30 60 _______ _
CWS PlaL____________________ 12 9 2 1 ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 1 8 _______ _
Med PlaL_____________________ 26 20 2 1 ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 7 20 _______ _
Vet Plat_______________________ 11 11 ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 1 8 _______ _
TotaL _______________________ 1, 144 653 465 43 16 3 32 12 4 3 115 1, 181 9 12

Figure 36. Table of Organization and Equipment: Calvary Regiment.

Section III. TECHNICAL SERVICES regiments, and brigades which are used to support
corps, divisions, and armies. This reorganization
1. INTRODUCTION
of the engineer arm resulted in increasing specializa-
The allotment of technical services to field organiza- tion into combat engineers, ponton engineers, and
tions is based on economy of personnel and equip- construction engineers.
ment in the standard organizations, and on generous At present, the Soviet doctrine prescribes that each
reserves of these services under the control of Army active rifle battalion must be supported by a platoon
Group, army, and task force commanders. These of engineers, and each active rifle regiment must be
principles were put into effect in April 1941, and supported by a company. Therefore, each active
resulted in the activation of many specialized units rifle division must have an engineer battalion in
such as engineer brigades, signal regiments, and addition to the organic allotment of engineers of the
motor transport and road maintenance battalions. rifle regiments and the divisional engineer battalion.
Specialized equipment is similarly concentrated in The engineer platoon of the rifle regiment has 1
reserves for the commanders. Reserve signal equip- officer and 19 enlisted men. Its transport consists of
ment, for example, always is maintained under con- one horse-drawn wagon. The engineer battalion of
trol of the signal officer of a unit or formation. the rifle division has 16 officers and enlisted men
organized into headquarters and headquarters com-
2. ENGINEER pany, two engineer companies of three platoons each
Engineer units which form a part of formations of and a transport platoon. Organic transport of the
combined arms, such as rifle and cavalry divisions, divisional engineer battalion consists of four trucks
were drastically reduced in size after the first few and nine horse-drawn wagons. Its total strength is
months of the war with Germany. The engineer approximately 178 officers and enlisted men.
battalion of the rifle division, for example, was re- Engineer mining companies are organized as sup--
duced from 509 officers and enlisted men to 162. porting troops to tank and mechanized units. Their
Not only was there a reduction in the size of the mission is to lay mines during offensive operations,
companies (the pioneer company had an aggregate to protect the flanks of a tank or mechanized unit
of 170 just before the war, it now has 72) , but also during a break-through, and to secure captured posi-
specialized units such as bridging, road repair, con- tions against armored counterattacks. An engineer
struction, and demolition platoons were taken away mining company consists of headquarters and three
from the battalion. These specialized units were platoons. Each platoon has two trucks for personnel
combined to form independent engineer battalions, and one for antitank mines. The company carries

111-27
TM 30-430 I Mar 46
1,000 mines. Its strength is 121 officers and enlisted tion receives one telephone and telegraph team of
men. three to seven men for each of its major subordinate
Road construction engineers are organized into units, one radio team, and one message center team.
independent battalions, each consisting of two con- For example, a rifle regiment has a signal company
struction companies, a transport platoon, and a of 50 officers and enlisted men. This company is
small overhead. Their strength is between 230 to organized into two telephone and telegraph pla-
250 officers and enlisted men. Each road construc- toons, and a radio platoon. The first telephone and
tion company has a strength of 100 officers and en- telegraph platoon has three squads to establish wire
listed men, organized into three platoons of three lO- communications with the rifle battalions. The sec-
man sections, and a supply platoon. The mission of ond telegraph and telephone platoon establishes wire
the road construction engineers is the maintenance communications within the command, staff, and rear
and repair of existing roads, the construction of new area installations of the regiment and maintains the
dirt and corduroy roads, and the construction and message center. The radio platoon establishes and
repair of small bridges (up to 30 tons) . operates the radio nets of the regiment.
a. Bridging engineers. An independent light The signal company of the rifle division consists
hridging battalion is capable of building a 200- to of the headquarters, a signal communications com-
250-foot ponton bridge of 5- to 14-ton capacity in pany~ a signal construction company, a maintenance
70 to 90 minutes. It consists of headquarters and and repair platoon, and a supply section. Its
headquarters company, three light bridging com- strength is approximately 130 officers and enlisted
panies, and transport and service units. Each light men.
bridging company has three platoons with 18 to 23 The independent signal battalion attached to the
men in each. Strength of a light bridging battalion rifle, mechanized, tank, and cavalry corps consists of
is approximately 250 officers and enlisted men. a headquarters company, a telephone company, a
The independent light (16T) bridging battalion radio company, a signal construction company, a
is capable of constructing a 500-foot ponton bridge technical maintenance and repair platoon, and a sup-
in 2 hours. It consists of three companies of four ply section. Its strength is approximately 250 offi-
platoons each. Strength of this battalion is approxi- cers and enlisted men. The headquarters company
mately 300 officers and enlisted men. Two such of this battalion includes a telephone platoon which
battalions may be combined to form a light bridging establishes and operates communications within the
regiment capable of erecting a 1,350-foot ponton headquarters, a messenger platoon, and an air liaison
bridge in 2 hours. Strength of the light bridging platoon. The telephone company consists of three
regiment is approximately 750 officers and enlisted platoons each with 3 trucks, 9 telephones, and 15
men. miles of field cable. For extended operations (lat-
The independent medium (30T) bridging bat- erally and in depth) the signal battalion is rein-
talion is capable of erecting a 325-foot ponton bridge forced with one or more telephone companies. The
in 2Y2 hours. It consists of two companies of four signal construction company is equipped with six
bridging platoons each. Its strength is approxi- cable-laying trucks. Its strength is approximately
mately 300 officers and enlisted men. The engineer 30 officers and enlisted men.
park of each tank and mechanized corps is allotted The army signal regiment has between 700 and
sufficient ponton materials to build a 30-ton bridge 800 officers and enlisted men. Its mission is to es-
300 feet long. tablish and maintain communications for the army
A heavy (60- to 100-ton) bridging regiment is headquarters, staff, and rear area installations. For
capable of constructing a 340-foot ponton bridge in communications with subordinate units and forma-
3 hours. It consists of two heavy ponton battalions tions, it receives one additional telephone company
of four heavy ponton companies each. Its strength for each corps. It consists of headquarters, tele-
is approximately 700 officers and enlisted men. phone and telegraph battalion, a signal construction
battalion, a signal intelligence company, and a serv-
3. SIGNAL
ice battalion.
Allotment of signal personnel and equipment to the The telephone and telegraph battalion includes a
various organizations in the Red Army follows a teletype and telephone exchange, a radio company,
definite pattern. In general, each unit and forma- and a messenger company. The radio company has

llI-28
I Mar 46 TM 30-430

one transmitter for each subordinate formation, six five tractors with two trailers. It is believed that
semi-mobile transmitters, and five radio trucks. The recovery tanks with heavy cranes have been added
messenger company has 50 officers and enlisted men, to the maintenance units of formations down to and
12 staff cars, and 6 motorcycles. The signal con- including the tank and mechanized corps and, pos-
struction battalion consists of two or more cable sibly, to the work shop company of the tank and
companies, each with six cable-laying trucks. The mechanized brigades. Figure 37 shows the organi-
service battalion consists of a transportation com- zation of maintenance facilities of the army, tank
pany, maintenance company, and supply platoon. and mechanized corps, and tank and mechanized
brigades.
4. CHEMICAL WARFARE SERVICE
The chemical warfare units of Red Army field forma- 6. MEDICAL AND VETERINARY SERVICE
tions are organized into companies and platoons.
Medical and veterinary units in the Red Army, like
Chemical warfare units which are part of the tech-
other special services, are organized on the principle
nical reserves of the high command are organized
that those medical and veterinary teams organic to
into companies and battalions.
field units and formations should be kept to a mini-
Each platoon consists of an antigas squad and a
mum size, and that the specialized units constituting
decontaminating squad. Its strength is 12 to 15 men.
part of the technical services reserve of the high
Fifty to sixty officers and enlisted men form the
command should he organized into teams with ample
chemical warfare company. It is believed that each
personnel and equipment.
army has a gas defense battalion with the primary
Medical teams of the rifle battalion, rifle regi-
mission of conducting refresher and basic training
ment, and tank and artillery regiments consist of
for the gas defense personnel of subordinate forma-
from five to seven men. Their primary function
tions and units.
is to render first aid and to evacuate wounded.
Although platoons and companies are described
Tank, motorized, and mechanized brigades have
as antigas units, their primary mission has been to
medical units of approximately 32 men. Larger for-
facilitate the work of assault groups, to screen water-
mations, such as cavalry divisions and rifle brigades,
barrier crossings, and to lay smoke screens to cover
have a medical company of approximately 60 officers
the withdrawal of damaged tanks and self-propelled
and enlisted men. The rifle division, cavalry, tank,
guns from the battlefield.
and mechanized corps each have a medical battalion
Flame thrower units belong to the Chemical War-
capable of emergency surgery, but whose primary
fare Service. A flame thrower platoon with ten
functions are sorting, dressing, and evacuating
flame throwers is organic to the motorcycle battalion
wounded. This battalion consists of a sorting unit,
of the tank and mechanized corps. A flame thrower
an ambulance platoon, a divisional (corps) aid sta-
battalion is part of the supporting troops of the
tion, a collecting company, and an epidemic control
average army.
unit.
5. MAINTENANCE Medical services for the field units are concen-
The organizational element of ordnance and mainte- trated at the army level (see Section I, Armies). The
nance in the Red Army is the field work shop. Each army medical battalion, which allots reinforcing ele-
work shop is operated by 8 to 10 technicians under ments to the divisions and mobile corps, is organized
the supervision of an ordnance officer. The number into surgical and hospital teams. The number of
of work shops assigned to a unit or a formation such teams corresponds generally to the number of
depends on the armament and degree of motorization subordinate rifle corps, rifle divisions, and mobile
of the organization. The rifle division has one corps. The surgical team has a surgeon, three to five
Type A work shop. The tank brigade has two Type A physicians, four to five surgical nurses, five to six
work shops, one Type B work shop, an air com- orderlies, and a recorder. The functions of the
pressor, and three trucks. Three tractors with trail- members of this team are self-explanatory. The
ers, and 29 trucks are used to haul spare parts,fuel, recorder keeps the administrative records of the hos-
rations, and ammunition for the tank brigade. The pital, and records each operation as it takes place.
work shop company of the tank and mechanized The hospital team is organized into sections ac-
corps has two Type A and two Type B work shops, cording to types of injury. Each section consists of
electrical work shop, four to six special vehicles, and a surgeon, a physician, two to three surgical nurses

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Attached to---- Number Designation Equipment Strength Operational area Mission

Armd Bn; SP Arty l. .. Mbl Rep Shop Type A ........ . 1 GAS~AA trk or 3ton trk ZiS~5 with 8 to 10 men (1 On the hattlefield ..... Repair of slightly disabled tks (cater-
Regt; Arty Regt; R a la the. welding equipment and re- tech off, 5 pillars, transmissions, welding jobs).
Div. pair parts. locksmiths, 1
lathe opera-
tor, 1 welder).

Tech Sup Co with:


Tk Brig ....... .
Tk Reg<-. }1 to 2. Mbl Rep Shops Type A. Same 3S above. Same as above .. 2 to 5 km behind the front line ,. (a) Hauling.
Mecz Brig ..... 2 to 4. Mbl Rep Shops Type B ..... Each Rep Hhop has 1 ('overed ZiS-6 trk 9 men each ..... (b) Current ~imple and medium repair
with lathe, and tools, spare parts. of tks and mtr vehs. (For in-
crune and storage. battery charger. stance, replacement of engines
In addition: and of other parts.)
] Milling machine and welding
eqllip.
2 to 3 "Stalinets" tracs.
6 to 8 TrkR.
1 Passenger car.

Tk Corps .. . MI.l Fld Hep B e or Hep Bn. A pprox. 200 10 to 30 km behind the front Same as above.
Mecz Corps .... . I{L~ in::' MI.l Hep Sh"r'. Type A .. .
Mbl Hep Shops Type B .. .
Same 3S ahove ...
Same as ahove.
specialists. line.
In addition:
]0 Mtr vehs.
8 to 9 Tracs.

Anny ............ 1 1.. .... ..1 Large M 1.1 Hep Shop Type Can"
probably several Fld Mep [luHCS.
:i tn 6 HI{ cars .................... .
2 I .. atheR, (Irillin/.{, cutting, milling, and
10fT; 1 Engr;
41 EM.
I
50 to 100 kw behind the front
line.
Major repairH, supply of spare parls.
resene pools of repair shops.
Also a repair shop in a factory 10- ~rinding machines. In adflition: 30
ca ted in the army rear area. 2 ForverieH. 1 electric plnnt. electric EM.
welding equipment, repair parts.
In addition:
7 I ~'2-ton trks.
IS-ton trk.
I Paf048cnger car.
4 to 5 Tracs.

Army ........ . ASl4Cmbly places for disahl,.d tks Are .. of sup station. . . . .1 Collection and probahly some repair of
and trks (SI'AM). tks and trks.

Figure 37. Red Army maintenance services.

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III

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1 Mar 46 TM 30-430

and five to seven orderlies. The infectious diseases H-dr-horse-drawn


section of the hospital team consists of a physician, Hosp-hospital
How-howitzer
a nurse, thre;. to four orderlies, and an X-ray and Hq-headquarters
physiotherapy unit. Hv-heavy
The army convalescent battalion is capable of car- HvMG-heavy machine gun
ing for 1,000 cases. It is divided into four conva- Ki-kitchen
lescent companies, a dental clinic, an infectious L-light
Ldry-Iau'lldry
diseases ward, and a pharmacy. Each convalescent LMG-light machine gun
company has a dressing station manned by two phy- L-Tk-light tank
sicians, three nurses, and three to four orderlies. M-medium
The veterinary units are organized according to Maint-maintenance
Mbl-mobiJe
the same principle as the medical units. Organic
Mecz-mechanized
veterinary units of the horsedrawn field troops are Med-medical
very small. A rifle division, for example, which has MG-machine gun
approximately 1,700 horses, has a veterinary aid mm-Millimeter
station with 11 officers and enlisted men. Like the Mort-mortar
Mtr-motor
medical services, the veterinary services are concen-
Mtrcl-motorcycle
trated at the army level. Each army has two veteri- Mtz-motorized
nary hospitals-each capable of caring for approxi- o and EM-officers and enlisted men
mately 250 horses-and one or two veterinary evacu- Obsn-observation
ation hospitals. Ofl-officer
Opns-operations
Ord-ordnance
APPENDIX QM-quartermaster
The abbreviations which are used in the Tables of Pers-personnel
Organization and Equipment are those authorized by TM Plat-platoon
20-205. They are reproduced in the table below for the R-rifle
convenience of the reader. Rad-radio
AA-antiaircraft Rcn-reconnaissance
AAA-antiaircraft artillery Regt-regiment
AAA W-antiaircraft automatic weapon Regtl-regimental
AAMG-antiaircraft machine gun Rep-repair
Am-ammunition Repl-replacement
Armd-armored Rkt-rocket
Armd C-armored car RL-rocket launcher
Armd Pers Carr-armored personnel carrier SAR-semiautomatic rifle
Arty-artillery Sec-section
AT-antitank Serv-service
ATR-antitank rifle Sig-signal
Auto R-automatic rifle SMG-submachine gun
Bkry-bakery SP-self-propelled
Bcl-bicycle Sp-special
Bn-battalion Sqd-squad
Brig-brigade Stf-stafl
Btry-battery Sup-supply
Carr-carrier TO-tank destroyer
Cay-cavalry Tech-technical
Cbn-carbine Tk-tank
Co-company Tlr-trailer
Colm-column Topo-topographic
CWS-Chemical Warfare Service Tr-troop
Div-division Trac-tractor
Dr-drawn Trans-transportatIon
EM-enlisted men Trk-truck
Engr-engineer Trk-dr-truckdrawn
Fld-field Veh-vehicle
G-gun Vet-veterinary
H-horse Wk-work

686882-46----~
111-31