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BUDDHA,THEWORD

EditedbyNyanatiloka

THEFOURNOBLETRUTHS
THUShasitbeensaidbytheBuddha,theEnlightenedOne:Itisthroughnotunderstanding,notrealizing
fourthings,thatI,Disciples,aswellasyou,hadtowandersolongthroughthisroundofrebirths.Andwhat
arethesefourthings?TheyaretheNobleTruthofSuffering,theNobleTruthoftheOriginofSuffering,
theNobleTruthoftheExtinctionofSuffering,theNobleTruthofthePaththatleadstotheExtinctionof
Suffering.AslongastheabsolutelytrueknowledgeandinsightasregardstheseFourNobleTruthswasnot
quiteclearinme,solongwasInotsure,whetherIhadwonthatsupremeEnlightenmentwhichis
unsurpassedinalltheworldwithitsheavenlybeings,evilspiritsandgods,amongstallthehostsofascetics
andpriests,heavenlybeingsandmen.Butassoonastheabsolutelytrueknowledgeandinsightasregards
theseFourNobleTruthshadbecomeperfectlyclearinme,therearoseinmetheassurancethatIhadwon
thatsupremeEnlightenmentunsurpassed.AndIdiscoveredthatprofoundtruth,sodifficulttoperceive,
difficulttounderstand,tranquilizingandsublime,whichisnottobegainedbymerereasoning,andis
visibleonlytothewise.Theworld,however,isgiventopleasure,delightedwithpleasure,enchantedwith
pleasure.Verily,suchbeingswillhardlyunderstandthelawofconditionality,theDependentOriginationof
everything;incomprehensibletothemwillalsobetheendofallformations,theforsakingofevery
substratumofrebirth,thefadingawayofcraving;detachment,extinction,Nirvana.Yettherearebeings
whoseeyesareonlyalittlecoveredwithdust:theywillunderstandthetruth.

FIRSTTRUTHTHENOBLETRUTHOF
SUFFERING
WHAT,now,istheNobleTruthofSuffering?Birthissuffering;Decayissuffering;Deathissuffering;
Sorrow,Lamentation,Pain,Grief,andDespair,aresuffering;nottogetwhatonedesires,issuffering;in
short:theFiveGroupsofExistencearesuffering.What,now,isBirth?Thebirthofbeingsbelongingto
thisorthatorderofbeings,theirbeingborn,theirconceptionandspringingintoexistence,the
manifestationofthegroupsofexistence,thearisingofsenseactivitythisiscalledBirth.Andwhatis
Decay?Thedecayofbeingsbelongingtothisorthatorderofbeings;theirgettingaged,frail,grey,and
wrinkled;thefailingoftheirvitalforce,thewearingoutofthesensesthisiscalledDecay.Andwhatis
Death?Thepartingandvanishingofbeingsoutofthisorthatorderofbeings,theirdestruction,
disappearance,death,thecompletionoftheirlifeperiod,dissolutionofthegroupsofexistence,the
discardingofthebodythisiscalledDeath.

AndwhatisSorrow?Thesorrowarisingthroughthisorthatlossormisfortunewhichoneencounters,the
worryingoneself,thestateofbeingalarmed,inwardsorrow,inwardwoethisiscalledSorrow.Andwhat
isLamentation?Whatsoever,throughthisorthatlossormisfortunewhichbefallsone,iswailandlament,
wailingandlamenting,thestateofwoeandlamentationthisiscalledLamentation.AndwhatisPain?The
bodilypainandunpleasantness,thepainfulandunpleasantfeelingproducedbybodilycontactthisis
calledPain.AndwhatisGrief?Thementalpainandunpleasantness,thepainfulandunpleasantfeeling
producedbymentalcontactthisiscalledGrief.AndwhatisDespair?Distressanddespairarisingthrough
thisorthatlossormisfortunewhichoneencounters,distressfulness,anddesperationthisiscalledDespair.
Andwhatisthe"sufferingofnotgettingwhatonedesires?"Tobeingssubjecttobirththerecomesthe
desire:"Othatwewerenotsubjecttobirth!Othatnonewbirthwasbeforeus!"Subjecttodecay,disease,
death,sorrow,lamentation,pain,grief,anddespair,thedesirecomestothem:"Othatwewerenotsubject
tothesethings!Othatthesethingswerenotbeforeus!"Butthiscannotbegotbymeredesiring;andnotto
getwhatonedesires,issuffering.

THEFIVEGROUPSOFEXISTENCE

Andwhat,inbrief,aretheFiveGroupsofExistence?TheyareCorporeality,Feeling,Perception,[mental]
Formations,andConsciousness.Anycorporealphenomenon,whetherone'sownorexternal,grossor
subtle,loftyorlow,farornear,belongstotheGroupofCorporeality;anyfeelingbelongstotheGroupof
Feeling;anyperceptionbelongstotheGroupofPerception;anymentalformationbelongstotheGroupof
Formations;allconsciousnessbelongstotheGroupofConsciousness.

[Oursocalledindividualexistenceisinrealitynothingbutamereprocessofthese"bodilyandmental"
phenomena,whichsinceimmemorialtimeswasgoingonbeforeone'sapparentbirth,andwhichalsoafter
deathwillcontinueforimmemorialperiodsoftime.Inthefollowing,weshallseethatthesefiveGroups,
orKhandhaseithertakenseparately,orcombinedinnowayconstituteanyreal"Egoentity,"andthatno
Egoentityexistsapartfromthem,andhencethatthebeliefinanEgoentityismerelyanillusion.Justas
thatwhichwedesignatebythenameof"chariot,"hasnoexistenceapartfromaxle,wheels,shaft,andso
forth:orastheword"house"ismerelyaconvenientdesignationforvariousmaterialsputtogetheraftera
certainfashionsoastoencloseaportionofspace,andthereisnoseparatehouseentityinexistence:in
exactlythesameway,thatwhichwecalla"being,"oran"individual,"ora"person,"orbythename"I,"is
nothingbutachangingcombinationofphysicalandpsychicalphenomena,andhasnorealexistencein
itself.]

THE"CORPOREALITYGROUP"OFFOURELEMENTS

What,now,istheGroupofCorporeality?Itisthefourprimaryelements,andCorporealityderivedfrom
them.Andwhatarethefourprimaryelements?TheyaretheSolidElement,theFluidElement,theHeating
Element,theVibratingElement.

[Thefourelements,ortospeakmorecorrectlythefourelementaryqualitiesofmatter,mayberenderedin
Englishas:Inertia,Cohesion,Radiation,andVibration.Thetwentyfourcorporealphenomenawhich
dependuponthemare,accordingtotheAbhidharma:eye,ear,nose,tongue,body,visibleform,sound,
odor,taste,masculinity,femininity,vitality,organofthinking,gesture,speech,space(cavitiesofear,nose,
etc.),agility,elasticity,adaptability,growth,duration,decay,variability,changeofsubstance.]

1.What,now,istheSolidElement?Thesolidelementmaybeone'sown,oritmaybeexternal.Andwhat
isone'sownsolidelement?Thedependentproperties,whichonone'sownpersonandbodyarehardand
solid,asthehairsofheadandbody,nails,teeth,skin,flesh,sinews,bones,marrow,kidneys,heart,liver,
diaphragm,spleen,lungs,stomach,bowels,mesentery,excrement,orwhateverotherdependentproperties
whichonone'sownpersonandbodyarehardandsolidthisiscalledone'sownsolidelement.Now,
whetheritbeone'sownsolidelement,orwhetheritbetheexternalsolidelement,theyarebothonlythe
solidelement.Andoneshouldunderstand,accordingtoreality,andtruewisdom:"Thisdoesnotbelongto
me;thisamInot;thisisnotmyEgo."2.What,now,istheFluidElement?Thefluidelementmaybeone's
own,oritmaybeexternal.Andwhatisoneownfluidelement?Thedependentproperties,whichonone's
ownpersonandbodyarewateryorcohesive,asbile,phlegm,pus,blood,sweat,lymph,tears,semen,spit,
nasalmucus,oilofthejoints,urineorwhateverotherdependentpropertieswhichonone'sownpersonand
bodyarewateryorcohesivethisiscalledone'sownfluidelement.Now,whetheritbeone'sownfluid
element,orwhetheritbetheexternalfluidelement,theyarebothonlythefluidelement.Andoneshould
understand,accordingtoreality,andtruewisdom:"Thisdoesnotbelongtome;thisamInot;thisisnotmy
Ego."3.What,now,istheHeatingElement?Theheatingelementmaybeone'sown,oritmaybeexternal.
Andwhatisone'sownheatingelement?Thedependentproperties,whichonone'sownpersonandbody
areheatingandradiating,asthatwherebyoneisheated,consumed,scorched,wherebythatwhichhasbeen
eaten,drunk,chewed,ortasted,isfullydigested;orwhateverotherdependentproperties,whichonone's
ownpersonandbodyareheatingandradiatingthisiscalledone'sownheatingelement.Now,whetherit
beone'sownheatingelement,orwhetheritbetheexternalheatingelement,theyarebothonlytheheating
element.Andoneshouldunderstand,accordingtoreality,andtruewisdom:"Thisdoesnotbelongtome;
thisamInot;thisisnotmyEgo."4.What,now,istheVibratingElement?Thevibratingelementmaybe
one'sown,oritmaybeexternal.Andwhatisone'sownvibratingelement?Thedependentproperties,
whichonone'sownpersonandbodyaremobileandgaseous,astheupwardgoinganddownwardgoing
winds;thewindsofstomachandintestines;inbreathingandoutbreathing;orwhateverotherdependent
properties,whichonone'sownpersonandbodyaremobileandgaseousthisiscalledone'sownvibrating
element.Now,whetheritbeone'sownvibratingelement,orwhetheritbetheexternalvibratingelement,
theyarebothonlythevibratingelement.Andoneshouldunderstand,accordingtoreality,andtrue
wisdom:"Thisdoesnotbelongtome;thisamInot;thisisnotmyEgo."Justasonecalls"hut"the
circumscribedspacewhichcomestobebymeansofwoodandrushes,reeds,andclay,evensowecall
"body"thecircumscribedspacethatcomestobebymeansofbonesandsinews,fleshandskin.

DEPENDENTORIGINATIONOFCONSCIOUSNESS

Now,thoughone'seyebeintact,yetiftheexternalformsdonotfallwithinthefieldofvision,andno
correspondingconjunctiontakesplace,inthatcasethereoccursnoformationofthecorrespondingaspect
ofconsciousness.Or,thoughone'seyebeintact,andtheexternalformsfallwithinthefieldofvision,yetif
nocorrespondingconjunctiontakesplace,inthatcasealsothereoccursnoformationofthecorresponding
aspectofconsciousness.If,however,one'seyeisintact,andtheexternalformsfallwithinthefieldof
vision,andthecorrespondingconjunctiontakesplace,inthatcasetherearisesthecorrespondingaspectof
consciousness.Hence,Isay:thearisingofconsciousnessisdependentuponconditions;andwithoutthese
conditions,noconsciousnessarises.Anduponwhatsoeverconditionsthearisingofconsciousnessis
dependent,aftertheseitiscalled.Consciousnesswhosearisingdependsontheeyeandforms,iscalled
"eyeconsciousness."Consciousnesswhosearisingdependsontheearandsound,iscalled"ear
consciousness."Consciousnesswhosearisingdependsontheolfactoryorganandodors,iscalled"nose
consciousness."Consciousnesswhosearisingdependsonthetongueandtaste,iscalled"tongue
consciousness."Consciousnesswhosearisingdependsonthebodyandbodilycontacts,iscalled"body
consciousness."Consciousnesswhosearisingdependsonthemindandideas,iscalled"mind
consciousness."Whatsoeverthereisof"corporeality"intheconsciousnessthusarisen,thatbelongstothe
GroupofCorporeality.Whatsoeverthereisof"feeling"bodilyease,pain,joy,sadness,orindifferent
feelingbelongstotheGroupofFeeling.Whatsoeverthereisof"perception"visualobjects,sounds,
odors,tastes,bodilyimpressions,ormindobjectsbelongstotheGroupofPerception.Whatsoeverthere
areofmental"formations"impression,volition,etc.belongtotheGroupofmentalFormations.
Whatsoeverthereisof"consciousness"therein,belongstotheGroupofConsciousness.Anditis
impossiblethatanyonecanexplainthepassingoutofoneexistence,andtheenteringintoanewexistence,
orthegrowth,increase,anddevelopmentofconsciousness,independentofcorporeality,feeling,
perception,andmentalformations.

THETHREECHARACTERISTICSOFEXISTENCE

Allformationsare"transient";allformationsare"subjecttosuffering";allthingsare"withoutanEgo
entity."Corporealityistransient,feelingistransient,perceptionistransient,mentalformationsare
transient,consciousnessistransient.Andthatwhichistransient,issubjecttosuffering;andofthatwhichis
transient,andsubjecttosufferingandchange,onecannotrightlysay:"Thisbelongstome;thisamI;thisis
myEgo."Therefore,whatevertherebeofcorporeality,offeeling,perception,mentalformations,or
consciousness,whetherone'sownorexternal,whethergrossorsubtle,loftyorlow,farornear,oneshould
understand,accordingtoreality,andtruewisdom:"Thisdoesnotbelongtome;thisamInot;thisisnotmy
Ego."Suppose,amanwhoisnotblind,weretobeholdthemanybubblesontheGangesastheyaredriving
along;andheshouldwatchthem,andcarefullyexaminethem.Aftercarefullyexaminingthem,theywill
appeartohimempty,unreal,andunsubstantial.Inexactlythesameway,doesthemonkbeholdallthe
corporealphenomena,feelings,perceptions,mentalformations,andstatesofconsciousnesswhetherthey
beofthepast,orthepresent,orthefuture,far,ornear.Andhewatchesthem,andexaminesthemcarefully;
and,aftercarefullyexaminingthem,theyappeartohimempty,void,andwithoutanEgoWhosodelightsin
corporeality,orfeeling,orperception,ormentalformations,orconsciousness,hedelightsinsuffering;and
whosodelightsinsuffering,willnotbefreedfromsuffering.ThusIsay

Howcanyoufinddelightandmirth,Wherethereisburningwithoutend?Indeepestdarknessyouare
wrapped!Whydoyounotseekforthelight?

Lookatthispuppethere,wellrigged,Aheapofmanysores,piledup,Diseased,andfullofgreediness,
Unstable,andimpermanent!

Devouredbyoldageisthisframe,Apreyofsickness,weakandfrail;Topiecesbreaksthisputridbody,
Alllifemusttrulyendindeath.

THETHREEWARNINGS

Didyouneverseeintheworldaman,orawoman,eighty,ninety,orahundredyearsold,frail,crookedas
agableroof,bentdown,restingoncrutches,withtotteringsteps,infirm,youthlongsincefled,withbroken
teeth,greyandscantyhair,orbaldheaded,wrinkled,withblotchedlimbs?Anddidthethoughtnevercome
toyouthatalsoyouaresubjecttodecay,thatalsoyoucannotescapeit?Didyouneverseeintheworlda
man,orawoman,whobeingsick,afflicted,andgrievouslyill,andwallowinginhisownfilth,waslifted
upbysomepeople,andputtobedbyothers?Anddidthethoughtnevercometoyouthatalsoyouare
subjecttodisease,thatalsoyoucannotescapeit?Didyouneverseeintheworldthecorpseofaman,ora
woman,one,ortwo,orthreedaysafterdeath,swollenup,blueblackincolor,andfullofcorruption?And
didthethoughtnevercometoyouthatalsoyouaresubjecttodeath,thatalsoyoucannotescapeit?

SAMSARA,THEWHEELOFEXISTENCE

InconceivableisthebeginningofthisSamsara;nottobediscoveredisanyfirstbeginningofbeings,who,
obstructedbyignorance,andensnaredbycraving,arehurryingandhasteningthroughthisroundof
rebirths.

[SamsaratheWheelofExistence,lit.,the"PerpetualWandering"isthenamebywhichisdesignatedthe
seaoflifeeverrestlesslyheavingupanddown,thesymbolofthiscontinuousprocessofeveragainand
againbeingborn,growingold,suffering,anddying.Morepreciselyput:Samsaraistheunbrokenchainof
thefivefoldKhandhacombinations,which,constantlychangingfrommomenttomoment,follow
continuouslyoneupontheotherthroughinconceivableperiodsoftime.OfthisSamsara,asinglelifetime
constitutesonlyavanishinglytinyfraction;hence,tobeabletocomprehendthefirstnobletruth,onemust
letone'sgazerestupontheSamsara,uponthisfrightfulchainofrebirths,andnotmerelyupononesingle
lifetime,which,ofcourse,maybesometimesnotverypainful.]

Whichdoyouthinkisthemore:thefloodoftears,whichweepingandwailingyouhavesheduponthis
longwayhurryingandhasteningthroughthisroundofrebirths,unitedwiththeundesired,separatedfrom
thedesiredthis,orthewatersofthefouroceans?Longtimehaveyousufferedthedeathoffatherand
mother,ofsons,daughters,brothers,andsisters.Andwhilstyouwerethussuffering,youhave,verily,shed
moretearsuponthislongwaythanthereiswaterinthefouroceans.Whichdoyouthinkisthemore:the
streamsofbloodthat,throughyourbeingbeheaded,havefloweduponthislongway,orthewatersinthe
fouroceans?Longtimehaveyoubeencaughtasdacoits,orhighwaymen,oradulterers;and,throughyour
beingbeheaded,verily,morebloodhasfloweduponthislongwaythanthereiswaterinthefouroceans.
Buthowisthispossible?InconceivableisthebeginningofthisSamsara;nottobediscoveredisanyfirst
beginningofbeings,who,obstructedbyignorance,andensnaredbycraving,arehurryingandhastening
throughthisroundofrebirths.Andthushaveyoulongtimeundergonesuffering,undergonetorment,
undergonemisfortune,andfilledthegraveyardsfull;verily,longenoughtobedissatisfiedwithallthe
formsofexistence,longenoughtoturnaway,andfreeyourselvesfromthemall.

SECONDTRUTHTHENOBLETRUTHOFTHE
ORIGINOFSUFFERING
WHAT,now,istheNobleTruthoftheOriginofSuffering?Itisthatcravingwhichgivesrisetofresh
rebirth,and,boundupwithpleasureandlust,nowhere,nowthere,findseverfreshdelight.

[Intheabsolutesense,itisnorealbeing,noselfdetermined,unchangeable,Egoentitythatisreborn.
Moreover,thereisnothingthatremainsthesameevenfortwoconsecutivemoments;fortheFive
Khandhas,orGroupsofExistence,areinastateofperpetualchange,ofcontinualdissolutionandrenewal.
Theydieeverymoment,andeverymomentnewonesareborn.Henceitfollowsthatthereisnosuchthing
asarealexistence,or"being"(Latinesse),butonlyasitwereanendlessprocess,acontinuouschange,a
"becoming,"consistingina"producing,"andina"beingproduced";ina"processofaction,"andina
"processofreaction,"or"rebirth."Thisprocessofperpetual"producing"and"beingproduced"maybestbe
comparedwithanoceanwave.Inthecaseofawave,thereisnottheslightestquantityofwatertraveling
overthesurfaceofthesea.Butthewavestructure,thathastensoverthesurfaceofthewater,creatingthe
appearanceofoneandthesamemassofwater,is,inreality,nothingbutthecontinuousrisingandfallingof
continuous,butquitedifferent,massesofwater,producedbythetransmissionofforcegeneratedbythe
wind.Evenso,theBuddhadidnotteachthatEgoentitieshastenthroughtheoceanofrebirth,butmerely
lifewaves,which,accordingtotheirnatureandactivities(good,orevil),manifestthemselveshereasmen,
thereasanimals,andelsewhereasinvisiblebeings.]

THETHREEFOLDCRAVING

Thereisthe"SensualCraving,"the"CravingforEternalExistence,"the"CravingforSelfAnnihilation."

[The"CravingforEternalExistence,"accordingtotheVisuddhiMagga,isintimatelyconnectedwiththe
socalled"EternityBelief,"i.e.,thebeliefinanabsolute,eternal,Egoentitypersistingindependentlyofour
body.TheCravingforSelfAnnihilationistheoutcomeofthesocalled"AnnihilationBelief,"thedelusive
materialisticnotionofanEgowhichisannihilatedatdeath,andwhichdoesnotstandinanycausalrelation
withthetimebeforebirthorafterdeath.]

But,wheredoesthiscravingariseandtakeroot?Whereverintheworldtherearedelightfulandpleasurable
things,therethiscravingarisesandtakesroot.Eye,ear,nose,tongue,body,andmind,aredelightfuland
pleasurable:therethiscravingarisesandtakesroot.Visualobjects,sounds,smells,tastes,bodily
impressions,andmindobjects,aredelightfulandpleasurable:therethiscravingarisesandtakesroot.
Consciousness,senseimpression,feelingbornofsenseimpression,perception,will,craving,thinking,and
reflecting,aredelightfulandpleasurable:therethiscravingarisesandtakesroot.If,namely,when
perceivingavisualobject,asound,odor,taste,bodilyimpression,oramindobject,theobjectispleasant,
oneisattracted;andifunpleasant,oneisrepelled.Thus,whateverkindof"Feeling"oneexperiences,
pleasant,unpleasant,orindifferentoneapprovesof,andcherishesthefeeling,andclingstoit;andwhile
doingso,lustspringsup;butlustforfeelings,meansClinging;andonClinging,dependsthe"Processof
Becoming";ontheProcessofBecoming(Karmaprocess),depends(future)"Birth";anddependenton
Birth,areDecayandDeath,Sorrow,Lamentation,Pain,Grief,andDespair.Thusarisesthiswholemassof
suffering.ThisiscalledtheNobleTruthoftheOriginofSuffering.

HEAPINGUPOFPRESENTSUFFERING

Verily,duetosensuouscraving,conditionedthroughsensuouscraving,impelledbysensuouscraving,
entirelymovedbysensuouscraving,kingsfightwithkings,princeswithprinces,priestswithpriests,
citizenswithcitizens;themotherquarrelswiththeson,thesonwiththemother,thefatherwiththeson,the
sonwiththefather;brotherquarrelswithbrother,brotherwithsister,sisterwithbrother,friendwithfriend.
Thus,giventodissension,quarrelingandfighting,theyfallupononeanotherwithfists,sticks,orweapons.
Andtherebytheysufferdeathordeadlypain.Andfurther,duetosensuouscraving,conditionedthrough
sensuouscraving,impelledbysensuouscraving,entirelymovedbysensuouscraving,peoplebreakinto
houses,rob,plunder,pillagewholehouses,commithighwayrobbery,seducethewivesofothers.Then,the
rulershavesuchpeoplecaught,andinflictonthemvariousformsofpunishment.Andtherebytheyincur
deathordeadlypain.Now,thisisthemiseryofsensuouscraving,theheapingupofsufferinginthis
presentlife,duetosensuouscraving,conditionedthroughsensuouscraving,causedbysensuouscraving,
entirelydependentonsensuouscraving.

HEAPINGUPOFFUTURESUFFERING

Andfurther,peopletaketheevilwayindeeds,theevilwayinwords,theevilwayinthoughts;andby
takingtheevilwayindeeds,words,andthoughts,atthedissolutionofthebody,afterdeath,theyfallintoa
downwardstateofexistence,astateofsuffering,intoperdition,andtheabyssofhell.But,thisisthe
miseryofsensuouscraving,theheapingupofsufferinginthefuturelife,duetosensuouscraving,
conditionedthroughsensuouscraving,causedbysensuouscraving,entirelydependentonsensuous
craving.

Notintheair,noroceanmidst,Norhiddeninthemountainclefts,Nowhereisfoundaplaceonearth,
Wheremanisfreedfromevildeeds.

INHERITANCEOFDEEDS(KARMA)

For,ownersoftheirdeeds(karma)arethebeings,heirsoftheirdeeds;theirdeedsarethewombfrom
whichtheysprang;withtheirdeedstheyareboundup;theirdeedsaretheirrefuge.Whateverdeedsthey
dogoodorevilofsuchtheywillbetheheirs.Andwhereverthebeingsspringintoexistence,theretheir
deedswillripen;andwherevertheirdeedsripen,theretheywillearnthefruitsofthosedeeds,beitinthis
life,orbeitinthenextlife,orbeitinanyotherfuturelife.Therewillcomeatime,whenthemightyocean
willdryup,vanish,andbenomore.Therewillcomeatime,whenthemightyearthwillbedevouredby
fire,perish,andbenomore.But,yettherewillbenoendtothesufferingofbeings,who,obstructedby
ignorance,andensnaredbycraving,arehurryingandhasteningthroughthisroundofrebirths.

THIRDTRUTHTHENOBLETRUTHOFTHE
EXTINCTIONOFSUFFERING
WHAT,now,istheNobleTruthoftheExtinctionofSuffering?Itisthecompletefadingawayand
extinctionofthiscraving,itsforsakingandgivingup,theliberationanddetachmentfromit.Butwhere
maythiscravingvanish,wheremayitbeextinguished?Whereverintheworldtherearedelightfuland
pleasurablethings,therethiscravingmayvanish,thereitmaybeextinguished.Beitinthepast,present,or
future,whosoeverofthemonksorpriestsregardsthedelightfulandpleasurablethingsintheworldas
"impermanent,""miserable,"and"withoutanEgo,"asadiseaseandcancer;itishewhoovercomesthe
craving.AndreleasedfromSensualCraving,releasedfromtheCravingforExistence,hedoesnotreturn,
doesnotenteragainintoexistence.

DEPENDENTEXTINCTIONOFALLPHENOMENA

For,throughthetotalfadingawayandextinctionofCraving,Clingingisextinguished;throughthe
extinctionofclinging,theProcessofBecomingisextinguished;throughtheextinctionofthe(karmic)
processofbecoming,Rebirthisextinguished;andthroughtheextinctionofrebirth,DecayandDeath,
Sorrow,Lamentation,Suffering,Grief,andDespair,areextinguished.Thuscomesabouttheextinctionof
thiswholemassofsuffering.Hence,theannihilation,cessation,andovercomingofcorporeality,feeling,
perception,mentalformations,andconsciousness,thisistheextinctionofsuffering,theendofdisease,the
overcomingofoldageanddeath.

[Theundulatorymotion,whichwecallwavewhichinthespectatorcreatestheillusionofasinglemassof
watermovingoverthesurfaceofthelakeisproducedandfedbythewind,andmaintainedbythestored
upenergies.Afterthewindhasceased,andnofreshwindagainwhipsupthewater,thestoredupenergies
willgraduallybeconsumed,andthewholeundulatorymotioncometoanend.Similarly,iffiredoesnot
getnewfuel,itwillbecomeextinct.Justso,thisFiveKhandhaprocesswhich,intheignorantworldling,
createstheillusionofanEgoentityisproducedandfedbythelifeaffirmingcraving,andmaintainedfor
sometimebymeansofthestoreduplifeenergies.Now,afterthefuel,i.e.,thecravingandclingingtolife,
hasceased,andnonewcravingimpelsagainthisFiveKhandhaprocess,lifewillcontinueaslongasthere
arestilllifeenergiesstoredup,butattheirdestructionatdeath,theFiveKhandhaprocesswillreachfinal
extinction.Thus,nirvanaor"Extinction"(Sanskrit:toceaseblowing,tobecomeextinct),maybe
consideredundertwoaspects:1."ExtinctionofImpurities,"reachedattheattainmentofArahatship,or
Holiness,whichtakesplaceduringthelifetime.2."ExtinctionoftheFiveKhandhaprocess,"whichtakes
placeatthedeathoftheArahat.]

NIRVANA

This,truly,isthePeace,thisistheHighest,namelytheendofallformations,theforsakingofevery
substratumofrebirth,thefadingawayofcraving:detachment,extinctionNirvana.Enrapturedwithlust,
enragedwithanger,blindedbydelusion,overwhelmed,withmindensnared,manaimsathisownruin,at
others'ruin,attheruinofbothparties,andheexperiencesmentalpainandgrief.But,iflust,anger,and
delusionaregivenup,manaimsneitherathisownruin,noratothers'ruin,norattheruinofbothparties,
andheexperiencesnomentalpainandgrief.ThusisNirvanaimmediate,visibleinthislife,inviting,
attractive,andcomprehensibletothewise.Theextinctionofgreed,theextinctionofanger,theextinction
ofdelusion:this,indeed,iscalledNirvana.

THEARAHAT,ORHOLYONE

Andforadisciplethusfreed,inwhoseheartdwellspeace,thereisnothingtobeaddedtowhathasbeen
done,andnaughtmoreremainsforhimtodo.Justasarockofonesolidmassremainsunshakenbythe
wind,evenso,neitherforms,norsounds,norodors,nortastes,norcontactsofanykind,neitherthedesired,
northeundesired,cancausesuchanonetowaver.Steadfastishismind,gainedisdeliverance.Andhewho
hasconsideredallthecontrastsonthisearth,andisnomoredisturbedbyanythingwhateverintheworld,
thePeacefulOne,freedfromrage,fromsorrow,andfromlonging,hehaspassedbeyondbirthanddecay.

THEIMMUTABLE
Thereisarealm,wherethereisneitherthesolid,northefluid,neitherheat,normotion,neitherthisworld,
noranyotherworld,neithersun,normoon.ThisIcallneitherarising,norpassingaway,neitherstanding
stillnorbeingborn,nordying.Thereisneitherfoothold,nordevelopment,noranybasis.Thisistheendof
suffering.ThereisanUnborn,Unoriginated,Uncreated,Unformed.IftherewerenotthisUnborn,this
Unoriginated,thisUncreated,thisUnformed,escapefromtheworldoftheborn,theoriginated,thecreated,
theformed,wouldnotbepossible.ButsincethereisanUnborn,Unoriginated,Uncreated,Unformed,
thereforeisescapepossiblefromtheworldoftheborn,theoriginated,thecreated,theformed.

FOURTHTRUTHTHENOBLETRUTHOFTHE
PATHTHATLEADSTOTHEEXTINCTIONOF
SUFFERING
THETWOEXTREMESANDTHEMIDDLEPATH

TOGIVEoneselfuptoindulgenceinsensualpleasure,thebase,common,vulgar,unholy,unprofitable;
andalsotogiveoneselfuptoselfmortification,thepainful,unholy,unprofitable:boththesetwoextremes
thePerfectOnehasavoided,andfoundouttheMiddlePath,whichmakesonebothtoseeandtoknow,
whichleadstopeace,todiscernment,toenlightenment,toNirvana.

THEEIGHTFOLDPATH

ItistheNobleEightfoldPath,thewaythatleadstotheextinctionofsuffering,namely:1.Right
Understanding,2.RightMindedness,whichtogetherareWisdom.3.RightSpeech,4.RightAction,5.
RightLiving,whichtogetherareMorality.6.RightEffort,7.RightAttentiveness,8.RightConcentration,
whichtogetherareConcentration.ThisistheMiddlePathwhichthePerfectOnehasfoundout,which
makesonebothtoseeandtoknow,whichleadstopeace,todiscernment,toenlightenment,toNirvana.
Freefrompainandtortureisthispath,freefromgroaningandsuffering;itistheperfectpath.Truly,like
thispaththereisnootherpathtothepurityofinsight.Ifyoufollowthispath,youwillputanendto
suffering.Buteachonehastostruggleforhimself,thePerfectOneshaveonlypointedouttheway.Give
earthen,fortheImmortalisfound.Ireveal,IsetforththeTruth.AsIrevealittoyou,soact!Andthat
supremegoaloftheholylife,forthesakeofwhich,sonsofgoodfamiliesrightlygoforthfromhometothe
homelessstate:thisyouwill,innolongtime,inthisverylife,makeknowntoyourself,realize,andmake
yourown.

THEEIGHTFOLDPATH
FIRSTSTEPRIGHTUNDERSTANDING

WHAT,now,isRightUnderstanding?ItisunderstandingtheFourTruths.Tounderstandsuffering;to
understandtheoriginofsuffering;tounderstandtheextinctionofsuffering;tounderstandthepaththat
leadstotheextinctionofsuffering:ThisiscalledRightUnderstanding.Or,whenthenobledisciple
understandswhatiskarmicallywholesome,andtherootofwholesomekarma;whatiskarmically
unwholesome,andtherootofunwholesomekarma,thenhehasRightUnderstanding.

["Karmicallyunwholesome"iseveryvolitionalactofbody,speech,ormindwhichisrootedingreed,
hatred,ordelusion,andproducesevilandpainfulresultsinthisoranyfutureformofexistence.]
What,now,is"karmicallyunwholesome?"InBodilyActionitisdestructionoflivingbeings;stealing;and
unlawfulsexualintercourse.InVerbalActionitislying;talebearing;harshlanguage;andfrivoloustalk.In
MentalActionitiscovetousness;illwill;andwrongviews.Andwhatistherootofunwholesomekarma?
Greedisarootofunwholesomekarma;Angerisarootofunwholesomekarma;Delusionisarootof
unwholesomekarma.

[Thestateofgreed,aswellasthatofanger,isalwaysaccompaniedbydelusion;anddelusion,ignorance,is
theprimaryrootofallevil.]

Therefore,Isay,thesedemeritoriousactionsareofthreekinds:eitherduetogreed,orduetoanger,ordue
todelusion.What,now,is"karmicallywholesome?"InBodilyActionitistoabstainfromkilling;to
abstainfromstealing;andtoabstainfromunlawfulsexualintercourse.InVerbalActionitistoabstain
fromlying;toabstainfromtalebearing;toabstainfromharshlanguage;andtoabstainfromfrivoloustalk.
InMentalActionitisabsenceofcovetousness;absenceofillwill;andrightunderstanding.Andwhatis
therootofwholesomekarma?Absenceofgreed(unselfishness)isarootofwholesomekarma;absenceof
anger(benevolence)isarootofwholesomekarma;absenceofdelusion(wisdom)isarootofwholesome
karma.Or,whenoneunderstandsthatcorporeality,feeling,perception,mentalformation,and
consciousness,aretransient[subjecttosuffering,andwithoutanEgo],alsointhatcaseonepossessesRight
Understanding.

UNPROFITABLEQUESTIONS

ShouldanyonesaythathedoesnotwishtoleadtheholylifeundertheBlessedOne,unlesstheBlessed
Onefirsttellshim,whethertheworldiseternalortemporal,finiteorinfinite;whetherthelifeprincipleis
identicalwiththebody,orsomethingdifferent;whetherthePerfectOnecontinuesafterdeath,andsoon
suchamanwoulddie,erethePerfectOnecouldtellhimallthis.Itisasifamanwerepiercedbya
poisonedarrow,andhisfriends,companions,ornearrelations,shouldsendforasurgeon;butthatman
shouldsay:"Iwillnothavethisarrowpulledout,untilIknowwhothemanisthathaswoundedme:
whetherheisanoble,apriest,acitizen,oraservant";or:"whathisnameis,andtowhatfamilyhe
belongs";or:"whetherheistall,orshort,orofmediumheight."Verily,suchamanwoulddie,erehecould
adequatelylearnallthis.Therefore,themanwhoseekshisownwelfare,shouldpulloutthisarrowthis
arrowoflamentation,pain,andsorrow.For,whetherthetheoryexists,orwhetheritdoesnotexist,thatthe
worldiseternal,ortemporal,orfinite,orinfinitecertainly,thereisbirth,thereisdecay,thereisdeath,
sorrow,lamentation,pain,grief,anddespair,theextinctionofwhich,attainableeveninthispresentlife,I
makeknownuntoyou.Thereis,forinstance,anunlearnedworldling,voidofregardforholymen,ignorant
oftheteachingofholymen,untrainedinthenobledoctrine.Andhisheartispossessedandovercomeby
SelfIllusion,bySkepticism,byattachmenttomereRuleandRitual,bySensualLust,andbyIllwill;and
howtofreehimselffromthesethings,hedoesnotreallyknow.

[SelfIllusionmayrevealitselfas"Eternalism"or"Eternitybelief"i.e.,thebeliefthatone'sEgoisexisting
independentlyofthematerialbody,andcontinuingevenafterthedissolutionofthelatter;oras
"Annihilationism,"or"Annihilationbelief"i.e.,thematerialisticbeliefthatthispresentlifeconstitutesthe
Ego,andhencethatitisannihilatedatthedeathofthematerialbody.]

Notknowingwhatisworthyofconsideration,andwhatisunworthyofconsideration,heconsidersthe
unworthy,andnottheworthy.Andunwiselyheconsidersthus:"HaveIbeeninthepast?Or,haveInot
beeninthepast?WhathaveIbeeninthepast?HowhaveIbeeninthepast?Fromwhatstateintowhat
statedidIchangeinthepast?ShallIbeinthefuture?Or,shallInotbeinthefuture?WhatshallIbein
thefuture?HowshallIbeinthefuture?FromwhatstateintowhatstateshallIchangeinthefuture?"And
thepresentalsofillshimwithdoubt:"AmI?Or,amInot?WhatamI?HowamI?Thisbeing,whencehas
itcome?Whitherwillitgo?"Andwithsuchunwiseconsiderations,hefallsintooneorotherofthesix
views,anditbecomeshisconvictionandfirmbelief:"IhaveanEgo";or:"IhavenoEgo";or:"Withthe
EgoIperceivetheEgo";or:"WiththatwhichisnoEgo,IperceivetheEgo";or:"WiththeEgoIperceive
thatwhichisnoEgo."Or,hefallsintothefollowingview:"ThismyEgo,whichcanthinkandfeel,and
which,nowhere,nowthere,experiencesthefruitofgoodandevildeeds;thismyEgoispermanent,stable,
eternal,notsubjecttochange,andwillthuseternallyremainthesame."IftherereallyexistedtheEgo,there
wouldbealsosomethingwhichbelongedtotheEgo.As,however,intruthandreality,neithertheEgo,nor
anythingbelongingtotheEgo,canbefound,isitnotthereforereallyanutterfool'sdoctrinetosay:"Thisis
theworld,thisamI;afterdeath,Ishallbepermanent,persisting,andeternal?"Thesearecalledmere
views,athicketofviews,apuppetshowofviews,atoilofviews,asnareofviews;andensnaredinthe
fetterofviews,theignorantworldlingwillnotbefreedfromrebirth,fromdecay,andfromdeath,from
sorrow,pain,grief,anddespair;hewillnotbefreed,Isay,fromsuffering.

THESOTAPAN,OR"STREAMENTERER"

Thelearnedandnobledisciple,however,whohasregardforholymen,knowstheteachingofholymen,is
welltrainedinthenobledoctrine,heunderstandswhatisworthyofconsideration,andwhatisunworthy.
Andknowingthis,heconsiderstheworthy,andnottheunworthy.Whatsufferingis,hewiselyconsiders.
Whattheoriginofsufferingis,hewiselyconsiders;whattheextinctionofsufferingis,hewiselyconsiders;
whatthepathisthatleadstotheextinctionofsuffering,hewiselyconsiders.Andbythusconsidering,
threefettersvanish,namely:Selfillusion,Skepticism,andAttachmenttomereRuleandRitual.Butthose
disciplesinwhomthesethreefettershavevanishedhave"enteredtheStream,"haveforeverescapedthe
statesofwoe,andareassuredoffinalenlightenment.

Morethananyearthlypower,Morethanallthejoysofheaven,Morethanruleo'eralltheworld,Isthe
EntrancetotheStream.

And,verily,thosewhoarefilledwithunshakenfaithinme,allthosehaveenteredthestream.

[Thereareten"Fetters"bywhichbeingsareboundtothewheelofexistence.Theyare:SelfIllusion,
Skepticism,AttachmenttomereRuleandRitual,SensualLust,Illwill,CravingfortheWorldofpure
Form,CravingfortheFormlessWorld,Conceit,Restlessness,Ignorance.ASotapan,or"StreamEnterer"
i.e."onewhohasenteredthestreamleadingtoNirvana,"isfreefromthefirstthreefetters.ASakadagamin,
or"OnceReturned"namelytothissensuousspherehasovercomethe4thand5thfettersintheirgrosser
form.AnAnagamin,or"NonReturner,"iswhollyfreedfromthefirstfivefetters,whichbindtorebirthin
thesensuoussphere;afterdeath,whilstlivinginthesphereofpureform,hewillreachthegoal.AnArahat,
orperfectly"HolyOne,"isfreedfromallfetters.]

THETWOUNDERSTANDINGS

Therefore,Isay,RightUnderstandingisoftwokinds:1.Theviewthatalmsandofferingsarenotuseless;
thatthereisfruitandresult,bothofgoodandbadactions;thattherearesuchthingsasthislife,andthenext
life;thatfatherandmotherasspontaneouslybornbeings(intheheavenlyworlds)arenomerewords;that
therearemonksandpriestswhoarespotlessandperfect,whocanexplainthislifeandthenextlife,which
theythemselveshaveunderstood:thisiscalledthe"MundaneRightUnderstanding,"whichyieldsworldly
fruits,andbringsgoodresults.2.Butwhatsoeverthereisofwisdom,ofpenetration,ofrightunderstanding,
conjoinedwiththePaththemindbeingturnedawayfromtheworld,andconjoinedwiththepath,theholy
pathbeingpursued;thisiscalledthe"UltramundaneRightUnderstanding,"whichisnotoftheworld,but
isultramundane,andconjoinedwiththePath.

[Thus,therearetwokindsoftheEightfoldPath:the"mundane,"practicedbythe"worldling";andthe
"ultramundane,"practicedbythe"NobleOnes."]
Now,inunderstandingwrongunderstandingaswrong,andrightunderstandingasright,onepracticesRight
Understanding[1ststep];andinmakingeffortstoovercomewrongunderstanding,andtoarouseright
understanding,onepracticesRightEffort[6thstep];andinovercomingwrongunderstandingwithattentive
mind,anddwellingwithattentivemindinthepossessionofrightunderstanding,onepracticesRight
Attentiveness[7thstep].Hence,therearethreethingsthataccompanyandfollowuponrightunderstanding,
namely:rightunderstanding,righteffort,andrightattentiveness.

COMPLETEDELIVERANCE

Now,ifanyoneshouldputthequestion,whetherIadmitanyviewatall,heshouldbeansweredthus:The
PerfectOneisfreefromanytheory,forthePerfectOnehasunderstoodwhatcorporealityis,andhowit
arises,andpassesaway.Hehasunderstoodwhatfeelingis,andhowitarises,andpassesaway.Hehas
understoodwhatperceptionis,andhowitarises,andpassesaway.Hehasunderstoodwhatthemental
formationsare,andhowtheyarise,andpassaway.Hehasunderstoodwhatconsciousnessis,andhowit
arises,andpassesaway.Therefore,Isay,thePerfectOnehaswoncompletedeliverancethroughthe
extinction,fadingaway,disappearance,rejection,andgettingridofallopinionsandconjectures,ofall
inclinationtothevaingloryof"I"and"mine."WhetherPerfectOnes[Buddhas]appearintheworldor
whetherPerfectOnesdonotappearintheworld,itstillremainsafirmcondition,animmutablefactand
fixedlaw:thatallformationsare"impermanent";thatallformationsare"subjecttosuffering";that
everythingis"withoutanEgo."

[Thewordsankhara(formations)comprisesallthingswhichhaveabeginningandanend,thesocalled
created,or"formed"things,i.e.,allpossiblephysicalandmentalconstituentsofexistence.]

Acorporealphenomenon,afeeling,aperception,amentalformation,aconsciousness,thatispermanent
andpersistent,eternalandnotsubjecttochange:suchathingthewisemeninthisworlddonotrecognize;
andIalsosay,thereisnosuchthing.AnditisimpossiblethatabeingpossessedofRightUnderstanding
shouldregardanythingastheEgo.Now,ifsomeoneshouldsaythatFeelingishisEgo,heshouldbe
answeredthus:"Therearethreekindsoffeeling:pleasurable,painful,andindifferentfeeling.Whichof
thesethreefeelings,now,doyouconsideryourEgo?"Atthemomentnamelyofexperiencingoneofthese
feelingsonedoesnotexperiencetheothertwo.Thesethreekindsoffeelingsareimpermanent,of
dependentorigin,aresubjecttodecayanddissolution,tofadingawayandextinction.Whosoever,in
experiencingoneofthesefeelings,thinksthatthisishisEgo,will,aftertheextinctionofthatfeeling,admit
thathisEgohasbecomedissolved.AndthushewillconsiderhisEgoalreadyinthispresentlifeas
impermanent,mixedupwithpleasureandpain,subjecttorisingandpassingaway.Ifanyoneshouldsay
thatFeelingisnothisEgo,andthathisEgoisinaccessibletofeeling,heshouldbeaskedthus:"Now,
wherethereisnofeeling,isittherepossibletosay:'ThisamI?'"Or,someonemightsay:"Feeling,indeed,
isnotmyEgo,butitalsoisuntruethatmyEgoisinaccessibletofeeling;foritismyEgothatfeels,formy
Egohasthefacultyoffeeling."Suchaoneshouldbeansweredthus:"Suppose,feelingshouldbecome
altogethertotallyextinguished;now,ifthere,aftertheextinctionoffeeling,nofeelingwhateverexists,itis
thenpossibletosay:'ThisamI?'"Tosaythatthemind,orthemindobjects,orthemindconsciousness,
constitutetheEgo;suchanassertionisunfounded.Foranarisingandapassingawayisseenthere;and
seeingthis,oneshouldcometotheconclusionthatone'sEgoarisesandpassesaway.Itwouldbebetterfor
theunlearnedworldlingtoregardthisbody,builtupofthefourelements,ashisEgo,ratherthanthemind.
Foritisevidentthatthisbodymaylastforayear,fortwoyears,forthreeyears,four,five,ortenyears,or
evenahundredyearsandmore;butthatwhichiscalledthought,ormind,orconsciousness,is
continuously,duringdayandnight,arisingasonething,andpassingawayasanotherthing.Therefore,
whatsoeverthereisofcorporeality,offeeling,ofperception,ofmentalformations,ofconsciousness,
whetherone'sownorexternal,grossorsubtle,loftyorlow,farornear;thereoneshouldunderstand
accordingtorealityandtruewisdom:"Thisdoesnotbelongtome;thisamInot;thisisnotmyEgo."

[ToshowtheEgolessness,utteremptinessofexistence,VisuddhiMaggaXVIquotesthefollowingverse:
Meresufferingexists,nosuffererisfound;Thedeedis,butnodoerofthedeedisthere;Nirvanais,butnot
themanthatentersit;ThePathis,butnotraveleronitisseen.]

PAST,PRESENT,ANDFUTURE

If,now,anyoneshouldask:"Haveyoubeeninthepast,andisituntruethatyouhavenotbeen?Willyou
beinthefuture,andisituntruethatyouwillnotbe?Areyou,andisituntruethatyouarenot?"youmay
saythatyouhavebeeninthepast,anditisuntruethatyouhavenotbeen;thatyouwillbeinthefuture,and
itisuntruethatyouwillnotbe;thatyouare,anditisuntruethatyouarenot.Inthepastonlythepast
existencewasreal,butunrealthefutureandpresentexistence.Inthefutureonlythefutureexistencewill
bereal,butunrealthepastandpresentexistence.Nowonlythepresentexistenceisreal,butunrealthepast
andfutureexistence.Verily,hewhoperceivestheDependentOrigination,perceivesthetruth;andhewho
perceivesthetruth,perceivesthedependentorigination.For,justasfromthecowcomesmilk,frommilk
curds,fromcurdsbutter,frombutterghee,fromgheethescumofghee;andwhenitismilk,itisnot
countedascurds,orbutter,orghee,orscumofghee,butonlyasmilk;andwhenitiscurds,itisonly
countedascurdsjustsowasmypastexistenceatthattimereal,butunrealthefutureandpresent
existence;andmyfutureexistencewillbeatonetimereal,butunrealthepastandpresentexistence;and
mypresentexistenceisnowreal,butunrealthepastandfutureexistence.Allthesearemerelypopular
designationsandexpressions,mereconventionaltermsofspeaking,merepopularnotions.ThePerfectOne,
indeed,makesuseofthese,without,however,clingingtothem.Thus,hewhodoesnotunderstand
corporeality,feeling,perception,mentalformationsandconsciousnessaccordingtoreality[i.e.,asvoidof
apersonality,orEgo],andnottheirarising,theirextinction,andthewaytotheirextinction,heisliableto
believe,eitherthatthePerfectOnecontinuesafterdeath,orthathedoesnotcontinueafterdeath,andso
forth.Verily,ifoneholdstheviewthatthevitalprinciple[Ego]isidenticalwiththisbody,inthatcasea
holylifeisnotpossible;or,ifoneholdstheviewthatthevitalprincipleissomethingquitedifferentfrom
thebody,inthatcasealsoaholylifeisnotpossible.BoththesetwoExtremesthePerfectOnehasavoided,
andshowntheMiddleDoctrine,saying:

DEPENDENTORIGINATION

OnDelusiondependtheKarmaFormations.OnthekarmaformationsdependsConsciousness[starting
withrebirthconsciousnessinthewombofthemother].OnconsciousnessdependstheMentaland
PhysicalExistence.OnthementalandphysicalexistencedependtheSixSenseOrgans.Onthesixsense
organsdependstheSensoryImpression.OnthesensoryimpressiondependsFeeling.Onfeelingdepends
Craving.OncravingdependsClinging.OnclingingdependstheProcessofBecoming.Ontheprocessof
becoming[here:karmaprocess]dependsRebirth.OnrebirthdependDecayandDeath,sorrow,
lamentation,pain,griefanddespair.Thusarisesthiswholemassofsuffering.Thisiscalledthenobletruth
oftheoriginofsuffering.Inwhom,however,Delusionhasdisappearedandwisdomarisen,suchadisciple
heapsupneithermeritorious,nordemeritorious,norimperturbableKarmaformations.Thus,throughthe
entirefadingawayandextinctionofthisDelusion,theKarmaFormationsareextinguished.Throughthe
extinctionoftheKarmaformations,Consciousness[rebirth]isextinguished.Throughtheextinctionof
consciousness,theMentalandPhysicalExistenceisextinguished.Throughtheextinctionofthementaland
physicalexistence,thesixSenseOrgansareextinguished.Throughtheextinctionofthesixsenseorgans,
theSensoryImpressionisextinguished.Throughtheextinctionofthesensoryimpression,Feelingis
extinguished.Throughtheextinctionoffeeling,Cravingisextinguished.Throughtheextinctionofcraving,
Clingingisextinguished.Throughtheextinctionofclinging,theProcessofBecomingisextinguished.
Throughtheextinctionoftheprocessofbecoming,Rebirthisextinguished.Throughtheextinctionof
rebirth,DecayandDeath,sorrow,lamentation,pain,griefanddespairareextinguished.Thustakesplace
theextinctionofthiswholemassofsuffering.ThisiscalledtheNobleTruthoftheExtinctionofSuffering.

KARMA:REBIRTHPRODUCINGANDBARREN
Verily,becausebeings,obstructedbyDelusion,andensnaredbyCraving,nowherenowthereseekever
freshdelight,thereforesuchactioncomestoeverfreshRebirth.Andtheactionthatisdoneoutofgreed,
angeranddelusion,thatspringsfromthem,hasitssourceandoriginthere:thisactionripenswhereverone
isreborn;andwhereverthisactionripens,thereoneexperiencesthefruitsofthisaction,beitinthislife,or
thenextlife,orinsomefuturelife.However,throughthefadingawayofdelusionthroughthearisingof
wisdom,throughtheextinctionofcraving,nofuturerebirthtakesplaceagain.Fortheactions,whichare
notdoneoutofgreed,angeranddelusion,whichhavenotsprungfromthem,whichhavenottheirsource
andorigintheresuchactionsare,throughtheabsenceofgreed,angeranddelusion,abandoned,rootedout,
likeapalmtreetornoutofthesoil,destroyed,andnotliabletospringupagain.Inthisrespectonemay
rightlysayofme:thatIteachannihilation,thatIpropoundmydoctrineforthepurposeofannihilation,and
thatIhereintrainmydisciples;for,certainly,Idoteachannihilationtheannihilation,namely,ofgreed,
angeranddelusion,aswellasofthemanifoldevilandunwholesomethings.

["DependentOrigination"istheteachingofthestrictconformitytolawofeverythingthathappens,
whetherintherealmofthephysical,orthepsychical.Itshowshowthetotalityofphenomena,physicaland
mental,theentirephenomenalworldthatdependswhollyuponthesixsenses,togetherwithallits
sufferingandthisisthevitalpointoftheteachingisnotthemereplayofblindchance,buthasan
existencethatisdependentuponconditions;andthat,preciselywiththeremovaloftheseconditions,those
thingsthathavearisenindependenceuponthemthusalsoallsufferingmustperforcedisappearandcease
tobe.]

SECONDSTEPRIGHTMINDEDNESS

WHAT,now,isRightMindedness?Itisthoughtsfreefromlust;thoughtsfreefromillwill;thoughtsfree
fromcruelty.Thisiscalledrightmindedness.Now,RightMindedness,letmetellyou,isoftwokinds:1.
Thoughtsfreefromlust,fromillwill,andfromcruelty:thisiscalledthe"MundaneRightMindedness,"
whichyieldsworldlyfruitsandbringsgoodresults.2.But,whatsoeverthereisofthinking,considering,
reasoning,thought,ratiocination,applicationthemindbeingholy,beingturnedawayfromtheworld,and
conjoinedwiththepath,theholypathbeingpursued:these"VerbalOperations"ofthemindarecalledthe
"UltramundaneRightMindedness,"whichisnotoftheworld,butisultramundane,andconjoinedwiththe
paths.Now,inunderstandingwrongmindednessaswrong,andrightmindednessasright,onepractices
RightUnderstanding[1ststep];andinmakingeffortstoovercomeevilmindedness,andtoarouseright
mindedness,onepracticesRightEffort[6thstep];andinovercomingevilmindednesswithattentivemind,
anddwellingwithattentivemindinpossessionofrightmindedness,onepracticesRightAttentiveness[7th
step].Hence,therearethreethingsthataccompanyandfollowuponrightmindedness,namely:right
understanding,righteffort,andrightattentiveness.

THIRDSTEPRIGHTSPEECH

WHAT,now,isRightSpeech?Itisabstainingfromlying;abstainingfromtalebearing;abstainingfrom
harshlanguage;abstainingfromvaintalk.There,someoneavoidslying,andabstainsfromit.Hespeaksthe
truth,isdevotedtothetruth,reliable,worthyofconfidence,isnotadeceiverofmen.Beingatameeting,or
amongstpeople,orinthemidstofhisrelatives,orinasociety,orintheking'scourt,andcalleduponand
askedaswitness,totellwhatheknows,heanswers,ifheknowsnothing:"Iknownothing";andifhe
knows,heanswers:"Iknow";ifhehasseennothing,heanswers:"Ihaveseennothing,"andifhehasseen,
heanswers:"Ihaveseen."Thus,heneverknowinglyspeaksalie,neitherforthesakeofhisown
advantage,norforthesakeofanotherperson'sadvantage,norforthesakeofanyadvantagewhatsoever.
Heavoidstalebearing,andabstainsfromit.Whathehasheardhere,hedoesnotrepeatthere,soasto
causedissensionthere;andwhatheheardthere,hedoesnotrepeathere,soastocausedissensionhere.
Thusheunitesthosethataredivided;andthosethatareunited,heencourages.Concordgladdenshim,he
delightsandrejoicesinconcord,anditisconcordthathespreadsbyhiswords.Heavoidsharshlanguage,
andabstainsfromit.Hespeakssuchwordsasaregentle,soothingtotheear,loving,goingtotheheart,
courteousanddear,andagreeabletomany.

[InMajjhimaNikaya,No.21,theBuddhasays:"Even,Omonks,shouldrobbersandmurdererssaw
throughyourlimbsandjoints,whosogavewaytoangerthereat,wouldnotbefollowingmyadvice.For
thusoughtyoutotrainyourselves:"'Undisturbedshallourmindremain,noevilwordsshallescapeour
lips;friendlyandfullofsympathyshallweremain,withheartfulloflove,andfreefromanyhidden
malice;andthatpersonshallwepenetratewithlovingthoughts,wide,deep,boundless,freedfromanger
andhatred.'"]

Heavoidsvaintalk,andabstainsfromit.Hespeaksattherighttime,inaccordancewithfacts,speakswhat
isuseful,speaksaboutthelawandthediscipline;hisspeechislikeatreasure,attherightmoment
accompaniedbyarguments,moderateandfullofsense.Thisiscalledrightspeech.Now,rightspeech,let
metellyou,isoftwokinds:1.Abstainingfromlying,fromtalebearing,fromharshlanguage,andfrom
vaintalk;thisiscalledthe"MundaneRightSpeech,"whichyieldsworldlyfruitsandbringsgoodresults.2.
Buttheabhorrenceofthepracticeofthisfourfoldwrongspeech,theabstaining,withholding,refraining
therefromthemindbeingholy,beingturnedawayfromtheworld,andconjoinedwiththepath,theholy
pathbeingpursued:thisiscalledthe"UltramundaneRightSpeech,"whichisnotoftheworld,butis
ultramundane,andconjoinedwiththepaths.Now,inunderstandingwrongspeechaswrong,andright
speechasright,onepracticesRightUnderstanding[1ststep);andinmakingeffortstoovercomeevil
speechandtoarouserightspeech,onepracticesRightEffort[6thstep];andinovercomingwrongspeech
withattentivemind,anddwellingwithattentivemindinpossessionofrightspeech,onepracticesRight
Attentiveness[7thstep].Hence,therearethreethingsthataccompanyandfollowuponrightattentiveness.

FOURTHSTEPRIGHTACTION

WHAT,now,isRightAction?Itisabstainingfromkilling;abstainingfromstealing;abstainingfrom
unlawfulsexualintercourse.There,someoneavoidsthekillingoflivingbeings,andabstainsfromit.
Withoutstickorsword,conscientious,fullofsympathy,heisanxiousforthewelfareofalllivingbeings.
Heavoidsstealing,andabstainsfromit;whatanotherpersonpossessesofgoodsandchattelsinthevillage
orinthewood,thathedoesnottakeawaywiththievishintent.Heavoidsunlawfulsexualintercourse,and
abstainsfromit.Hehasnointercoursewithsuchpersonsasarestillundertheprotectionoffather,mother,
brother,sisterorrelatives,norwithmarriedwomen,norfemaleconvicts,nor,lastly,withbetrothedgirls.
ThisiscalledRightAction.Now,RightAction,letmetellyou,isoftwokinds:1.Abstainingfromkilling,
fromstealing,andfromunlawfulsexualintercoursethisiscalledthe"MundaneRightAction,"which
yieldsworldlyfruitsandbringsgoodresults.2.Buttheabhorrenceofthepracticeofthisthreefoldwrong
action,theabstaining,withholding,refrainingtherefromthemindbeingholy,beingturnedawayfromthe
world,andconjoinedwiththepath,theholypathbeingpursued:thisiscalledthe"UltramundaneRight
Action,"whichisnotoftheworld,butisultramundane,andconjoinedwiththepaths.Now,in
understandingwrongactionaswrong,andrightactionasright,onepracticesRightUnderstanding[1st
step];andinmakingeffortstoovercomewrongaction,andtoarouserightaction,onepracticesRight
Effort[6thstep];andinovercomingwrongactionwithattentivemind,anddwellingwithattentivemindin
possessionofrightaction,onepracticesRightAttentiveness[7thstep].Hence,therearethreethingsthat
accompanyandfollowuponrightaction,namely:rightunderstanding,righteffort,andrightattentiveness.

FIFTHSTEPRIGHTLIVING

WHAT,now,isRightLiving?Whenthenobledisciple,avoidingawrongwayofliving,getshislivelihood
byarightwayofliving,thisiscalledRightLiving.Now,rightliving,letmetellyou,isoftwokinds:1.
Whenthenobledisciple,avoidingwrongliving,getshislivelihoodbyarightwayoflivingthisiscalled
the"MundaneRightLiving,"whichyieldsworldlyfruitsandbringsgoodresults.2.Buttheabhorrenceof
wrongliving,theabstaining,withholding,refrainingtherefromthemindbeingholy,beingturnedaway
fromtheworld,andconjoinedwiththepath,theholypathbeingpursued:thisiscalledthe"Ultramundane
RightLiving,"whichisnotoftheworld,butisultramundane,andconjoinedwiththepaths.Now,in
understandingwronglivingaswrong,andrightlivingasright,onepracticesRightUnderstanding[1st
step];andinmakingeffortstoovercomewrongliving,toarouserightliving,onepracticesRightEffort
[6thstep];andinovercomingwronglivingwithattentivemind,anddwellingwithattentivemindin
possessionofrightliving,onepracticesRightAttentiveness[7thstep].Hence,therearethreethingsthat
accompanyandfollowuponrightliving,namely:rightunderstanding,righteffort,andrightattentiveness.

SIXTHSTEPRIGHTEFFORT

WHAT,now,isRightEffort?ThereareFourGreatEfforts:theefforttoavoid,theefforttoovercome,the
efforttodevelop,andtheefforttomaintain.What,now,istheefforttoavoid?There,thediscipleincites
hismindtoavoidthearisingofevil,demeritoriousthingsthathavenotyetarisen;andhestrives,putsforth
hisenergy,strainshismindandstruggles.Thus,whenheperceivesaformwiththeeye,asoundwiththe
ear,anodorwiththenose,atastewiththetongue,acontactwiththebody,oranobjectwiththemind,he
neitheradherestothewhole,nortoitsparts.Andhestrivestowardoffthatthroughwhicheviland
demeritoriousthings,greedandsorrow,wouldarise,ifheremainedwithunguardedsenses;andhewatches
overhissenses,restrainshissenses.Possessedofthisnoble"ControlovertheSenses,"heexperiences
inwardlyafeelingofjoy,intowhichnoevilthingcanenter.Thisiscalledtheefforttoavoid.What,now,is
theefforttoOvercome?There,thediscipleinciteshismindtoovercometheevil,demeritoriousthingsthat
havealreadyarisen;andhestrives,putsforthhisenergy,strainshismindandstruggles.Hedoesnotretain
anythoughtofsensuallust,illwill,orgrief,oranyotherevilanddemeritoriousstatesthatmayhave
arisen;heabandonsthem,dispelsthem,destroysthem,causesthemtodisappear.

FIVEMETHODSOFEXPELLINGEVILTHOUGHTS

If,whilstregardingacertainobject,thereariseinthedisciple,onaccountofit,evilanddemeritorious
thoughtsconnectedwithgreed,angeranddelusion,thenthediscipleshould,bymeansofthisobject,gain
anotherandwholesomeobject.Or,heshouldreflectonthemiseryofthesethoughts:"Unwholesome,truly,
arethesethoughts!Blameablearethesethoughts!Ofpainfulresultarethesethoughts!"Or,heshouldpay
noattentiontothesethoughts.Or,heshouldconsiderthecompoundnatureofthesethoughts.Or,withteeth
clenchedandtonguepressedagainstthegums,heshould,withhismind,restrain,suppressandrootout
thesethoughts;andindoingso,theseevilanddemeritoriousthoughtsofgreed,angeranddelusionwill
dissolveanddisappear;andthemindwillinwardlybecomesettledandcalm,composedandconcentrated.
Thisiscalledtheefforttoovercome.What,now,istheefforttoDevelop?Therethediscipleinciteshiswill
toarousemeritoriousconditionsthathavenotyetarisen;andhestrives,putsforthhisenergy,strainshis
mindandstruggles.Thushedevelopsthe"ElementsofEnlightenment,"bentonsolitude,ondetachment,
onextinction,andendingindeliverance,namely:Attentiveness,InvestigationoftheLaw,Energy,Rapture,
Tranquility,Concentration,andEquanimity.Thisiscalledtheefforttodevelop.What,now,istheeffortto
Maintain?There,thediscipleinciteshiswilltomaintainthemeritoriousconditionsthathavealready
arisen,andnottoletthemdisappear,buttobringthemtogrowth,tomaturityandtothefullperfectionof
development;andhestrives,putsforthhisenergy,strainshismindandstruggles.Thus,forexample,he
keepsfirmlyinhismindafavorableobjectofconcentrationthathasarisen,asthementalimageofa
skeleton,ofacorpseinfestedbyworms,ofacorpseblueblackincolor,ofafesteringcorpse,ofacorpse
riddledwithholes,ofacorpseswollenup.Thisiscalledtheefforttomaintain.Truly,thedisciplewhois
possessedoffaithandhaspenetratedtheTeachingoftheMaster,heisfilledwiththethought:"Mayrather
skin,sinewsandboneswitheraway,maythefleshandbloodofmybodydryup:Ishallnotgiveupmy
effortssolongasIhavenotattainedwhateverisattainablebymanlyperseverance,energyandendeavor!"
Thisiscalledrighteffort.
TheeffortofAvoiding,Overcoming,OfDevelopingandMaintaining:Thesefourgreateffortshavebeen
shownByhim,thescionofthesun.Andhewhofirmlyclingstothem,Mayputanendtoallthepain.

SEVENTHSTEPRIGHTATTENTIVENESS

WHAT,now,isRightAttentiveness?Theonlywaythatleadstotheattainmentofpurity,tothe
overcomingofsorrowandlamentation,totheendofpainandgrief,totheenteringupontherightpathand
therealizationofNirvana,isthe"FourFundamentalsofAttentiveness."Andwhicharethesefour?Inthem,
thediscipledwellsincontemplationoftheBody,incontemplationofFeeling,incontemplationofthe
Mind,incontemplationoftheMindobjects,ardent,clearlyconsciousandattentive,afterputtingaway
worldlygreedandgrief.

CONTEMPLATIONOFTHEBODY

But,howdoesthediscipledwellincontemplationofthebody?There,thediscipleretirestotheforest,to
thefootofatree,ortoasolitaryplace,sitshimselfdown,withlegscrossed,bodyerect,andwith
attentivenessfixedbeforehim.Withattentivemindhebreathesin,withattentivemindhebreathesout.
Whenmakingalonginhalation,heknows:"Imakealonginhalation";whenmakingalongexhalation,he
knows:"Imakealongexhalation."Whenmakingashortinhalation,heknows:"Imakeashortinhalation";
whenmakingashortexhalation,heknows:"Imakeashortexhalation.""Clearlyperceivingtheentire
[breath]body,Iwillbreathein":thushetrainshimself;"clearlyperceivingtheentire[breath]body,Iwill
breatheout":thushetrainshimself."Calmingthisbodilyfunction,Iwillbreathein":thushetrainshimself;
"calmingthisbodilyfunction,Iwillbreatheout":thushetrainshimself.Thushedwellsincontemplation
ofthebody,eitherwithregardtohisownperson,ortootherpersons,ortoboth.Hebeholdshowthebody
arises;beholdshowitpassesaway;beholdsthearisingandpassingawayofthebody."Abodyisthere

"Abodyisthere,butnolivingbeing,noindividual,nowoman,noman,noself,andnothingthatbelongsto
aself;neitheraperson,noranythingbelongingtoaperson"

thisclearconsciousnessispresentinhim,becauseofhisknowledgeandmindfulness,andhelives
independent,unattachedtoanythingintheworld.Thusdoesthediscipledwellincontemplationofthe
body.Andfurther,whilstgoing,standing,sitting,orlyingdown,thediscipleunderstandstheexpressions:
"Igo";"Istand";"Isit";"Iliedown";heunderstandsanypositionofthebody.

[Thediscipleunderstandsthatitisnotabeing,arealEgo,thatgoes,stands,etc.,butthatitisbyamere
figureofspeechthatonesays:"Igo,""Istand,"andsoforth.]

Andfurther,thediscipleisclearlyconsciousinhisgoingandcoming;clearlyconsciousinlookingforward
andbackward;clearlyconsciousinbendingandstretching;clearlyconsciousineating,drinking,chewing,
andtasting;clearlyconsciousindischargingexcrementandurine;clearlyconsciousinwalking,standing,
sitting,fallingasleepandawakening;clearlyconsciousinspeakingandinkeepingsilent.

"Inallthediscipleisdoing,heisclearlyconscious:ofhisintention,ofhisadvantage,ofhisduty,ofthe
reality."

Andfurther,thedisciplecontemplatesthisbodyfromthesoleofthefootupward,andfromthetopofthe
hairdownward,withaskinstretchedoverit,andfilledwithmanifoldimpurities:"Thisbodyconsistsof
hairs,nails,teeth,skin,flesh,sinews,bones,marrow,kidneys,heart,liver,diaphragm,spleen,lungs,
intestines,bowels,stomach,andexcrement;ofbile,phlegm,pus,blood,sweat,lymph,tears,semen,spittle,
nasalmucus,oilofthejoints,andurine."Justasiftherewereasack,withopeningsatbothends,filledwith
allkindsofgrainwithpaddy,beans,sesamumandhuskedriceandamannotblindopeneditand
examineditscontents,thus:"Thatispaddy,thesearebeans,thisissesamum,thisishuskedrice":justso
doesthediscipleinvestigatethisbody.Andfurther,thedisciplecontemplatesthisbodywithregardtothe
elements:"Thisbodyconsistsofthesolidelement,theliquidelement,theheatingelementandthevibrating
element."Justasaskilledbutcherorbutcher'sapprentice,whohasslaughteredacowanddivideditinto
separateportions,shouldsitdownatthejunctionoffourhighroads:justsodoesthedisciplecontemplate
thisbodywithregardtotheelements.Andfurther,justasifthediscipleshouldseeacorpsethrownintothe
burialground,one,two,orthreedaysdead,swollenup,blueblackincolor,fullofcorruptionhedraws
theconclusionastohisownbody:"Thismybodyalsohasthisnature,hasthisdestiny,andcannotescape
it."Andfurther,justasifthediscipleshouldseeacorpsethrownintotheburialground,eatenbycrows,
hawksorvultures,bydogsorjackals,orgnawedbyallkindsofwormshedrawstheconclusionastohis
ownbody:"Thismybodyalsohasthisnature,hasthisdestiny,andcannotescapeit."Andfurther,justasif
thediscipleshouldseeacorpsethrownintotheburialground,aframeworkofbones,fleshhangingfromit,
bespatteredwithblood,heldtogetherbythesinews;aframeworkofbones,strippedofflesh,bespattered
withblood,heldtogetherbythesinews;aframeworkofbones,withoutfleshandblood,butstillheld
togetherbythesinews;bones,disconnectedandscatteredinalldirections,hereaboneofthehand,therea
boneofthefoot,thereashinbone,thereathighbone,therethepelvis,therethespine,theretheskullhe
drawstheconclusionastohisownbody:"Thismybodyalsohasthisnature,hasthisdestiny,andcannot
escapeit."Andfurther,justasifthediscipleshouldseeboneslyingintheburialground,bleachedand
resemblingshells;bonesheapedtogether,afterthelapseofyears;bonesweatheredandcrumbledtodust;
hedrawstheconclusionastohisownbody:"Thismybodyalsohasthisnature,hasthisdestiny,and
cannotescapeit"Thushedwellsincontemplationofthebody,eitherwithregardtohisownperson,orto
otherpersons,ortoboth.Hebeholdshowthebodyarises;beholdshowitpassesaway;beholdsthearising
andpassingofthebody."Abodyisthere":thisclearconsciousnessispresentinhim,becauseofhis
knowledgeandmindfulness;andhelivesindependent,unattachedtoanythingintheworld.Thusdoesthe
discipledwellincontemplationofthebody.

THETENBLESSINGS

Oncethecontemplationofthebodyispracticed,developed,oftenrepeated,hasbecomeone'shabit,one's
foundation,isfirmlyestablished,strengthenedandwellperfected,onemayexpecttenblessings:Over
DelightandDiscontentonehasmastery;onedoesnotallowhimselftobeovercomebydiscontent;one
subduesit,assoonasitarises.OneconquersFearandAnxiety;onedoesnotallowhimselftobeovercome
byfearandanxiety;onesubduesthem,assoonastheyarise.Oneendurescoldandheat,hungerandthirst,
windandsun,attacksbygadflies,mosquitoesandreptiles;patientlyoneendureswickedandmalicious
speech,aswellasbodilypains,thatbefallone,thoughtheybepiercing,sharp,bitter,unpleasant,
disagreeableanddangeroustolife.Thefour"Trances,"themindpurifying,bestowinghappinessevenhere:
theseonemayenjoyatwill,withoutdifficulty,withouteffort.Onemayenjoythedifferent"Magical
Powers."Withthe"HeavenlyEar,"thepurified,thesuperhuman,onemayhearbothkindsofsounds,the
heavenlyandtheearthly,thedistantandthenear.Withthemindonemayobtain"InsightintotheHeartsof
OtherBeings,"ofotherpersons.Onemayobtain"RemembranceofmanyPreviousBirths."Withthe
"HeavenlyEye,"thepurified,thesuperhuman,onemayseebeingsvanishandreappear,thebaseandthe
noble,thebeautifulandtheugly,thehappyandtheunfortunate;onemayperceivehowbeingsarereborn
accordingtotheirdeeds.Onemay,throughthe"CessationofPassions,"cometoknowforoneself,evenin
thislife,thestainlessdeliveranceofmind,thedeliverancethroughwisdom.

CONTEMPLATIONOFTHEFEELINGS

Buthowdoesthediscipledwellincontemplationofthefeelings?Inexperiencingfeelings,thedisciple
knows:"Ihaveanagreeablefeeling,"or"Ihaveadisagreeablefeeling,"or"Ihaveanindifferentfeeling,"
or"Ihaveaworldlyagreeablefeeling,"or"Ihaveanunworldlyagreeablefeeling,"or"Ihaveaworldly
disagreeablefeeling,"or"Ihaveanunworldlydisagreeablefeeling,"or"Ihaveaworldlyindifferent
feeling,"or"Ihaveanunworldlyindifferentfeeling."Thushedwellsincontemplationofthefeelings,
eitherwithregardtohisownperson,ortootherpersons,ortoboth.Hebeholdshowthefeelingsarise;
beholdshowtheypassaway;beholdsthearisingandpassingawayofthefeelings."Feelingsarethere":this
clearconsciousnessispresentinhim,becauseofhisknowledgeandmindfulness;andhelivesindependent,
unattachedtoanythingintheworld.Thusdoesthediscipledwellincontemplationofthefeelings.

[Thediscipleunderstandsthattheexpression"Ifeel"hasnovalidityexceptasanexpressionofcommon
speech;heunderstandsthat,intheabsolutesense,thereareonlyfeelings,andthatthereisnoEgo,no
person,noexperienceofthefeelings.]

CONTEMPLATIONOFTHEMIND

Buthowdoesthediscipledwellincontemplationofthemind?Thediscipleknowsthegreedymindas
greedy,andthenotgreedymindasnotgreedy;knowstheangrymindasangry,andthenotangrymindas
notangry;knowsthedeludedmindasdeluded,andtheundeludedmindasundeluded.Heknowsthe
crampedmindascramped,andthescatteredmindasscattered;knowsthedevelopedmindasdeveloped,
andtheundevelopedmindasundeveloped;knowsthesurpassablemindassurpassable,andthe
unsurpassablemindasunsurpassable;knowstheconcentratedmindasconcentrated,andthe
unconcentratedmindasunconcentrated;knowsthefreedmindasfreed,andtheunfreedmindasunfreed.

["Mind"ishereusedasacollectiveforthemomentsofconsciousness.Beingidenticalwithconsciousness,
itshouldnotbetranslatedby"thought.""Thought"and"thinking"correspondrathertothesocalled
"verbaloperationsofthemind";theyarenot,likeconsciousness,ofprimary,butofsecondarynature,and
areentirelyabsentinallsensuousconsciousness,aswellasinthesecond,thirdandfourthTrances.(See
eighthstep).]

Thushedwellsincontemplationofthemind,eitherwithregardtohisownperson,ortootherpersons,or
toboth.Hebeholdshowconsciousnessarises;beholdshowitpassesaway;beholdsthearisingandpassing
awayofconsciousness."Mindisthere";thisclearconsciousnessispresentinhim,becauseofhis
knowledgeandmindfulness;andhelivesindependent,unattachedtoanythingintheworld.Thusdoesthe
discipledwellincontemplationofthemind.

CONTEMPLATIONOFPHENOMENA(Mindobjects)

Buthowdoesthediscipledwellincontemplationofthephenomena?First,thediscipledwellsin
contemplationofthephenomen,ofthe"FiveHindrances."Heknowswhenthereis"Lust"inhim:"Inmeis
lust";knowswhenthereis"Anger"inhim:"Inmeisanger";knowswhenthereis"TorporandDrowsiness"
inhim:"Inmeistorporanddrowsiness";knowswhenthereis"RestlessnessandMentalWorry"inhim:
"Inmeisrestlessnessandmentalworry";knowswhenthereare"Doubts"inhim:"Inmearedoubts."He
knowswhenthesehindrancesarenotinhim:"Inmethesehindrancesarenot."Heknowshowtheycome
toarise;knowshow,oncearisen,theyareovercome;knowshow,onceovercome,theydonotriseagainin
thefuture.

[Forexample,Lustarisesthroughunwisethinkingontheagreeableanddelightful.Itmaybesuppressedby
thefollowingsixmethods:fixingtheminduponanideathatarousesdisgust;contemplationofthe
loathsomenessofthebody;controllingone'ssixsenses;moderationineating;friendshipwithwiseand
goodmen;rightinstruction.LustisforeverextinguisheduponentranceintoAnagamiship;Restlessnessis
extinguishedbyreachingArahatship;MentalWorry,byreachingSotapanship.]

Andfurther:thediscipledwellsincontemplationofthephenomena,ofthefiveGroupsofExistence.He
knowswhatCorporealityis,howitarises,howitpassesaway;knowswhatFeelingis,howitarises,howit
passesaway;knowswhatPerceptionis,howitarises,howitpassesaway;knowswhattheMental
Formationsare,howtheyarise,howtheypassaway;knowswhatConsciousnessis,howitarises,howit
passesaway.Andfurther:thediscipledwellsincontemplationofthephenomenaofthesixSubjective
ObjectiveSenseBases.Heknowseyeandvisualobjects,earandsounds,noseandodors,tongueand
tastes,bodyandtouches,mindandmindobjects;andthefetterthatarisesindependenceonthem,healso
knows.Heknowshowthefettercomestoarise,knowshowthefetterisovercome,andhowtheabandoned
fetterdoesnotriseagaininfuture.Andfurther:thediscipledwellsincontemplationofthephenomenaof
thesevenElementsofEnlightenment.ThediscipleknowswhenthereisAttentivenessinhim;whenthere
isInvestigationoftheLawinhim;whenthereisEnergyinhim;whenthereisEnthusiasminhim;when
thereisTranquilityinhim;whenthereisConcentrationinhim;whenthereisEquanimityinhim.He
knowswhenitisnotinhim,knowshowitcomestoarise,andhowitisfullydeveloped.Andfurther:the
discipledwellsincontemplationofthephenomenaoftheFourNobleTruths.Heknowsaccordingto
reality,whatSufferingis;knowsaccordingtoreality,whattheOriginofSufferingis;knowsaccordingto
reality,whattheExtinctionofSufferingis;knowsaccordingtoreality,whatthePathisthatleadstothe
ExtinctionofSuffering.Thushedwellsincontemplationofthephenomena,eitherwithregardtohisown
person,ortootherpersons,ortoboth.Hebeholdshowthephenomenaarise;beholdshowtheypassaway;
beholdsthearisingandpassingawayofthephenomena."Phenomenaarethere":thisclearconsciousnessis
presentinhim,becauseofhisknowledgeandmindfulness;andhelivesindependent,unattachedto
anythingintheworld.Thusdoesthediscipledwellincontemplationofthephenomena.Theonlywaythat
leadstotheattainmentofpurity,totheovercomingofsorrowandlamentation,totheendofpainandgrief,
totheenteringupontherightpath,andtherealizationofNirvana,isthesefourfundamentalsof
attentiveness.

NIRVANATHROUGHWATCHINGOVERBREATHING

"WatchingoverInandOutbreathing"practicedanddeveloped,bringsthefourFundamentalsof
Attentivenesstoperfection;thefourfundamentalsofattentiveness,practicedanddeveloped,bringthe
sevenElementsofEnlightenmenttoperfection;thesevenelementsofenlightenment,practicedand
developed,bringWisdomandDeliverancetoperfection.ButhowdoesWatchingoverInandOut
breathing,practicedanddeveloped,bringthefourFundamentalsofAttentivenesstoperfection?I.
Wheneverthediscipleisconsciousinmakingalonginhalationorexhalation,orinmakingashort
inhalationorexhalation,oristraininghimselftoinhaleorexhalewhilstfeelingthewhole[breath]body,or
whilstcalmingdownthisbodilyfunctionatsuchatimethediscipleisdwellingin"contemplationofthe
body,"fullofenergy,clearlyconscious,attentive,aftersubduingworldlygreedandgrief.For,inhalation
andexhalationIcalloneamongstthecorporealphenomena.II.Wheneverthediscipleistraininghimselfto
inhaleorexhalewhilstfeelingrapture,orjoy,orthementalfunctions,orwhilstcalmingdownthemental
functionsatsuchatimeheisdwellingin"contemplationofthefeelings,"fullofenergy,clearlyconscious,
attentive,aftersubduingworldlygreedandgrief.For,thefullawarenessofinandoutbreathingIcallone
amongstthefeelings.III.Wheneverthediscipleistraininghimselftoinhaleorexhalewhilstfeelingthe
mind,orwhilstgladdeningthemind,orwhilstconcentratingthemind,orwhilstsettingthemindfreeat
suchatimeheisdwellingin"contemplationofthemind,"fullofenergy,clearlyconscious,attentive,after
subduingworldlygreedandgrief.For,withoutattentivenessandclearconsciousness,Isay,thereisno
WatchingoverinandOutbreathing.IV.Wheneverthediscipleistraininghimselftoinhaleorexhale
whilstcontemplatingimpermanence,orthefadingawayofpassion,orextinction,ordetachmentatsucha
timeheisdwellingin"contemplationofthephenomena,"fullofenergy,clearlyconscious,attentive,after
subduingworldlygreedandgrief.WatchingoverInandOutbreathing,thuspracticedanddeveloped,
bringsthefourFundamentalsofAttentivenesstoperfection.ButhowdothefourFundamentalsof
Attentiveness,practicedanddeveloped,bringthesevenElementsofEnlightenmenttofullperfection?
Wheneverthediscipleisdwellingincontemplationofbody,feeling,mindandphenomena,strenuous,
clearlyconscious,attentive,aftersubduingworldlygreedandgriefatsuchatimehisattentivenessis
undisturbed;andwheneverhisattentivenessispresentandundisturbed,atsuchatimehehasgainedandis
developingtheElementofEnlightenment"Attentiveness";andthusthiselementofenlightenmentreaches
fullestperfection.Andwhenever,whilstdwellingwithattentivemind,hewiselyinvestigates,examinesand
thinksovertheLawatsuchatimehehasgainedandisdevelopingtheElementofEnlightenment
"InvestigationoftheLaw";andthusthiselementofenlightenmentreachesfullestperfection.And
whenever,whilstwiselyinvestigating,examiningandthinkingoverthelaw,hisenergyisfirmand
unshakenatsuchatimehehasgainedandisdevelopingtheElementofEnlightenment"Energy";andthus
thiselementofenlightenmentreachesfullestperfection.Andwheneverinhim,whilstfirminenergy,arises
supersensuousraptureatsuchatimehehasgainedandisdevelopingtheElementofEnlightenment
"Rapture";andthusthiselementofenlightenmentreachesfullestperfection.Andwhenever,whilst
enrapturedinmind,hisspiritualframeandhismindbecometranquilatsuchatimehehasgainedandis
developingtheElementofEnlightenment"Tranquility";andthusthiselementofenlightenmentreaches
fullestperfection.Andwhenever,whilstbeingtranquilizedinhisspiritualframeandhappy,hismind
becomesconcentratedatsuchatimehehasgainedandisdevelopingtheElementofEnlightenment
"Concentration";andthusthiselementofenlightenmentreachesfullestperfection.Andwheneverhe
thoroughlylookswithindifferenceonhismindthusconcentratedatsuchatimehehasgainedandis
developingtheElementofEnlightenment"Equanimity."Thefourfundamentalsofattentiveness,thus
practicedanddeveloped,bringthesevenelementsofenlightenmenttofullperfection.Buthowdothe
sevenelementsofenlightenment,practicedanddeveloped,bringWisdomandDeliverancetofull
perfection?There,thediscipleisdevelopingtheelementsofenlightenment:Attentiveness,Investigationof
theLaw,Energy,Rapture,Tranquility,ConcentrationandEquanimity,bentondetachment,onabsenceof
desire,onextinctionandrenunciation.Thuspracticedanddeveloped,dothesevenelementsof
enlightenmentbringwisdomanddeliverancetofullperfection.Justastheelephanthunterdrivesahuge
stakeintothegroundandchainsthewildelephanttoitbytheneck,inordertodriveoutofhimhiswonted
forestwaysandwishes,hisforestunruliness,obstinacyandviolence,andtoaccustomhimtothe
environmentofthevillage,andtoteachhimsuchgoodbehaviorasisrequiredamongstmen:inlike
manneralsohasthenoblediscipletofixhismindfirmlytothesefourfundamentalsofattentiveness,sothat
hemaydriveoutofhimselfhiswontedworldlywaysandwishes,hiswontedworldlyunruliness,obstinacy
andviolence,andwintotheTrue,andrealizeNirvana.

EIGHTHSTEPRIGHTCONCENTRATION

WHAT,now,isRightConcentration?Fixingthemindtoasingleobject("Onepointednessofmind"):this
isconcentration.ThefourFundamentalsofAttentiveness(seventhstep):thesearetheobjectsof
concentration.ThefourGreatEfforts(sixthstep):thesearetherequisitesforconcentration.Thepracticing,
developingandcultivatingofthesethings:thisisthe"Development"ofconcentration.

[RightConcentrationhastwodegreesofdevelopment:1."NeighborhoodConcentration,"which
approachesthefirsttrance,withouthoweverattainingit;2."AttainmentConcentration,"whichisthe
concentrationpresentinthefourtrances.Theattainmentofthetrances,however,isnotarequisiteforthe
realizationoftheFourUltramundanePathsofHoliness;andneitherNeighborhoodConcentrationnor
AttainmentConcentration,assuch,inanywaypossessesthepowerofconferringentryintotheFour
UltramundanePaths;hence,inthemisreallynopowertofreeoneselfpermanentlyfromevilthings.The
realizationoftheFourUltramundanePathsispossibleonlyatthemomentofinsightintothe
impermanency,miserablenature,andimpersonalityofphenomenalprocessofexistence.Thisinsightis
attainableonlyduringNeighborhoodConcentration,notduringAttainmentConcentration.Hewhohas
realizedoneorotheroftheFourUltramundanePathswithouteverhavingattainedtheTrances,iscalleda
"DryvisionedOne,"oronewhosepassionsare"driedupbyInsight."He,however,whoaftercultivating
theTranceshasreachedoneoftheUltramundanePaths,iscalled"onewhohastakentranquilityashis
vehicle."]

THEFOURTRANCES

Detachedfromsensualobjects,detachedfromunwholesomethings,thediscipleentersintothefirsttrance,
whichisaccompaniedby"VerbalThought,"and"Rumination,"isbornof"Detachment,"andfilledwith
"Rapture,"and"Happiness."Thisfirsttranceisfreefromfivethings,andfivethingsarepresent.Whenthe
discipleentersthefirsttrance,therehavevanished[the5Hindrances]:Lust,Illwill,TorporandDullness,
RestlessnessandMentalWorry,Doubts;andtherearepresent:VerbalThought,Rumination,Rapture,
Happiness,andConcentration.Andfurther:afterthesubsidingofverbalthoughtandrumination,andby
thegainingofinwardtranquilityandonenessofmind,heentersintoastatefreefromverbalthoughtand
rumination,thesecondtrance,whichisbornofConcentration,andfilledwithRaptureandHappiness.And
further:afterthefadingawayofrapture,hedwellsinequanimity,attentive,clearlyconscious;andhe
experiencesinhispersonthatfeeling,ofwhichtheNobleOnessay:"Happylivesthemanofequanimity
andattentivemind"thusheentersthethirdtrance.Andfurther:afterthegivingupofpleasureandpain,
andthroughthedisappearanceofpreviousjoyandgrief,heentersintoastatebeyondpleasureandpain,
intothefourthtrance,whichispurifiedbyequanimityandattentiveness.

[ThefourTrancesmaybeobtainedbymeansofWatchingoverInandOutbreathing,aswellasthrough
thefourthsublimemeditation,the"MeditationofEquanimity,"andothers.ThethreeotherSublime
Meditationsof"LovingKindness,""Compassion",and"SympatheticJoy"mayleadtotheattainmentofthe
firstthreeTrances.The"CemeteryMeditations,"aswellasthemeditation"OnLoathsomeness,"will
produceonlytheFirstTrance.The"AnalysisoftheBody,"andtheContemplationontheBuddha,theLaw,
theHolyBrotherhood,Morality,etc.,willonlyproduceNeighborhoodConcentration.]

Developyourconcentration:forhewhohasconcentrationunderstandsthingsaccordingtotheirreality.
Andwhatarethesethings?Thearisingandpassingawayofcorporeality,offeeling,perception,mental
formationsandconsciousness.Thus,thesefiveGroupsofExistencemustbewiselypenetrated;Delusion
andCravingmustbewiselyabandoned;TranquilityandInsightmustbewiselydeveloped.Thisisthe
MiddlePathwhichthePerfectOnehasdiscovered,whichmakesonebothtoseeandtoknow,andwhich
leadstopeace,todiscernment,toenlightenment,toNirvana.Andfollowinguponthispath,youwillputan
endtosuffering.

DEVELOPMENTOFTHEEIGHTFOLDPATHIN
THEDISCIPLE
CONFIDENCEANDRIGHTMINDEDNESS(2ndStep)

SUPPOSEahouseholder,orhisson,orsomeonereborninanyfamily,hearsthelaw;andafterhearingthe
lawheisfilledwithconfidenceinthePerfectOne.Andfilledwiththisconfidence,hethinks:"Fullof
hindrancesishouseholdlife,arefuseheap;butpilgrimlifeisliketheopenair.Noteasyisit,whenone
livesathome,tofulfillinallpointstherulesoftheholylife.How,ifnowIweretocutoffhairandbeard,
putontheyellowrobeandgoforthfromhometothehomelesslife?"Andinashorttime,havinggivenup
hismoreorlessextensivepossessions,havingforsakenasmallerorlargercircleofrelations,hecutsoff
hairandbeard,putsontheyellowrobe,andgoesforthfromhometothehomelesslife.

MORALITY(3rd,4th,5thStep)

Havingthuslefttheworld,hefulfillstherulesofthemonks.Heavoidsthekillingoflivingbeingsand
abstainsfromit.Withoutstickorsword,conscientious,fullofsympathy,heisanxiousforthewelfareofall
livingbeings.Heavoidsstealing,andabstainsfromtakingwhatisnotgiventohim.Onlywhatisgivento
himhetakes,waitingtillitisgiven;andheliveswithahearthonestandpure.Heavoidsunchastity,living
chaste,resigned,andkeepingalooffromsexualintercourse,thevulgarway.Heavoidslyingandabstains
fromit.Hespeaksthetruth,isdevotedtothetruth,reliable,worthyofconfidence,isnotadeceiverof
men.Heavoidstalebearingandabstainsfromit.Whathehasheardhere,hedoesnotrepeatthere,soasto
causedissensionthere;andwhathehasheardthere,hedoesnotrepeathere,soastocausedissensionhere.
Thusheunitesthosethataredivided,andthosethatareunitedheencourages;concordgladdenshim,he
delightsandrejoicesinconcord,anditisconcordthathespreadsbyhiswords.Heavoidsharshlanguage
andabstainsfromit.Hespeakssuchwordsasaregentle,soothingtotheear,loving,goingtotheheart,
courteousanddear,andagreeabletomany.Heavoidsvaintalkandabstainsfromit.Hespeaksattheright
time,inaccordancewithfacts,speakswhatisuseful,speaksaboutthelawandthedisciple;hisspeechis
likeatreasure,attherightmomentaccompaniedbyarguments,moderate,andfullofsense.Hekeepsaloof
fromdance,song,musicandthevisitingofshows;rejectsflowers,perfumes,ointments,aswellasevery
kindofadornmentandembellishment.Highandgorgeousbedshedoesnotuse.Goldandsilverhedoes
notaccept.Rawcornandmeathedoesnotaccept.Womenandgirlshedoesnotaccept.Heownsnomale
andfemaleslaves,ownsnogoats,sheep,fowls,pigs,elephants,cowsorhorses,nolandandgoods.He
doesnotgoonerrandsanddothedutiesofamessenger.Hekeepsalooffrombuyingandsellingthings.He
hasnothingtodowithfalsemeasures,metalsandweights.Heavoidsthecrookedwaysofbribery,
deceptionandfraud.Hekeepsalooffromstabbing,beating,chaining,attacking,plunderingandoppressing.
Hecontentshimselfwiththerobethatprotectshisbody,andwiththealmswithwhichhekeepshimself
alive.Whereverhegoes,heisprovidedwiththesetwothings;justasawingedbird,inflying,carrieshis
wingsalongwithhim.ByfulfillingthisnobleDomainofMoralityhefeelsinhisheartanirreproachable
happiness.

CONTROLOFTHESENSES(6thStep)

Now,inperceivingaformwiththeeyeasoundwiththeearanodorwiththenoseatastewiththe
tongueatouchwiththebodyanobjectwithhismind,hesticksneithertothewhole,nortoitsdetails.
Andhetriestowardoffthatwhich,bybeingunguardedinhissenses,mightgiverisetoeviland
unwholesomestates,togreedandsorrow;hewatchesoverhissenses,keephissensesundercontrol.By
practicingthisnoble"ControloftheSenses"hefeelsinhisheartanunblemishedhappiness.

ATTENTIVENESSANDCLEARCONSCIOUSNESS(7thStep)

Clearlyconsciousisheinhisgoingandcoming;clearlyconsciousinlookingforwardandbackward;
clearlyconsciousinbendingandstretchinghisbody;clearlyconsciousineating,drinking,chewingand
tasting;clearlyconsciousindischargingexcrementandurine;clearlyconsciousinwalking,standing,
sitting,fallingasleepandawakening;clearlyconsciousinspeakingandkeepingsilent.Now,being
equippedwiththisloftyMorality,equippedwiththisnobleControloftheSenses,andfilledwiththisnoble
"AttentivenessandClearConsciousness,"hechoosesasecludeddwellingintheforest,atthefootofatree,
onamountain,inacleft,inarockcave,onaburialground,onawoodytableland,intheopenair,orona
heapofstraw.Havingreturnedfromhisalmsround,afterthemeal,hesitshimselfdownwithlegscrossed,
bodyerect,withattentivenessfixedbeforehim.

ABSENCEOFTHEFIVEHINDRANCES

HehascastawayLust;hedwellswithaheartfreefromlust;fromlusthecleanseshisheart.Hehascast
awayIllwill;hedwellswithaheartfreefromillwill;cherishingloveandcompassiontowardallliving
beings,hecleanseshisheartfromillwill.HehascastawayTorporandDullness;hedwellsfreefrom
torporanddullness;lovingthelight,withwatchfulmind,withclearconsciousness,hecleanseshismind
fromtorporanddullness.HehascastawayRestlessnessandMentalWorry;dwellingwithmind
undisturbed,withheartfullofpeace,hecleanseshismindfromrestlessnessandmentalworry.Hehascast
awayDoubt;dwellingfreefromdoubt,fullofconfidenceinthegood,hecleanseshisheartfromdoubt.

THETRANCES(8thStep)
HehasputasidethesefiveHindrancesandcometoknowtheparalyzingcorruptionsofthemind.Andfar
fromsensualimpressions,farfromunwholesomethings,heentersintotheFourTrances.

INSIGHT(1stStep)

Butwhatsoeverthereisoffeeling,perception,mentalformation,orconsciousnessallthesephenomenahe
regardsas"impermanent,""subjecttopain,"asinfirm,asanulcer,athorn,amisery,aburden,anenemy,a
disturbance,asemptyand"voidofanEgo";andturningawayfromthesethings,hedirectshismind
towardstheabiding,thus:"This,verily,isthePeace,thisistheHighest,namelytheendofallformations,
theforsakingofeverysubstratumofrebirth,thefadingawayofcraving;detachment,extinction:Nirvana."
Andinthisstatehereachesthe"CessationofPassions."

NIRVANA

Andhisheartbecomesfreefromsensualpassion,freefromthepassionforexistence,freefromthepassion
ofignorance."FreedamI!":thisknowledgearisesintheliberatedone;andheknows:"Exhaustedis
rebirth,fulfilledtheHolyLife;whatwastobedone,hasbeendone;naughtremainsmoreforthisworldto
do."

ForeveramIliberated,ThisisthelasttimethatI'mborn,Nonewexistencewaitsforme.

This,verily,isthehighest,holiestwisdom:toknowthatallsufferinghaspassedaway.This,verily,isthe
highest,holiestpeace:appeasementofgreed,hatredanddelusion.

THESILENTTHINKER

"Iam"isavainthought;"Iamnot"isavainthought;"Ishallbe"isavainthought;"Ishallnotbe"isavain
thought.Vainthoughtsareasickness,anulcer,athorn.Butafterovercomingallvainthoughts,oneis
called"asilentthinker."Andthethinker,theSilentOne,doesnomorearise,nomorepassaway,nomore
tremble,nomoredesire.Forthereisnothinginhimthatheshouldariseagain.Andashearisesnomore,
howshouldhegrowoldagain?Andashegrowsnomoreold,howshouldhedieagain?Andashediesno
more,howshouldhetremble?Andashetremblesnomore,howshouldhehavedesire?

THETRUEGOAL

Hence,thepurposeoftheHolyLifedoesnotconsistinacquiringalms,honor,orfame,noringaining
morality,concentration,ortheeyeofknowledge.Thatunshakabledeliveranceoftheheart:that,verily,is
theobjectoftheHolyLife,thatisitsessence,thatisitsgoal.Andthose,whoformerly,inthepast,were
HolyandEnlightenedOnes,thoseBlessedOnesalsohavepointedouttotheirdisciplesthisselfsamegoal,
ashasbeenpointedoutbymetomydisciples.Andthose,whoafterwards,inthefuture,willbeHolyand
EnlightenedOnes,thoseBlessedOnesalsowillpointouttotheirdisciplesthisselfsamegoal,ashasbeen
pointedoutbymetomydisciples.However,Disciples,itmaybethat(aftermypassingaway)youmight
think:"GoneisthedoctrineofourMaster.WehavenoMastermore."Butyoushouldnotthink;forthe
LawandtheDiscipline,whichIhavetaughtyou,will,aftermydeath,beyourmaster.

TheLawbeyourlight,TheLawbeyourrefuge!Donotlookforanyotherrefuge!

Therefore,Disciples,thedoctrines,whichIadvisedyoutopenetrate,youshouldwellpreserve,wellguard,
sothatthisHolyLifemaytakeitscourseandcontinueforages,forthewealandwelfareofthemany,asa
consolationtotheworld,forthehappiness,wealandwelfareofheavenlybeingsandmen.
THEENDOFBudda,TheWord