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Embryogenesis Lab

Clay Model of Embryogenesis

Day 1: Zygote
Fertilization begins when sperm
penetrates ZP (zona pellucida -
membrane of oocyte)
Fusion of oocyte and sperm nuclei
begins formation of zygote
Clay Model of Embryogenesis

Day 2: 2-Cell Zygote


Zygote goes through first division
Produces 2 daughter cells
(blastomeres)
Clay Model of Embryogenesis

Day 3-4: 4-Cell Zygote


The 2 blastomeres divide, forming 4
then 8 blastomeres
With each division, each blastomere
decreases in size (all cells are
contained within ZP)
Clay Model of Embryogenesis

Day 4: Morula
Early embryo stage: consists of 16-32
cells now called a morula
After 16 cells, the cells of the morula
begin to differentiate
Clay Model of Embryogenesis

Day 5: Blastula
A spherical layer of about 120 cells
(trophoblast) surrounding a
fluid-filled cavity (blastocoel) forms
blastula
Two primary cell lines differentiate
into inner cell mass (epiblast) and
outer trophoblast
Trophoblast secretes an enzyme that
erodes inner lining of uterus (for
implantation)
Clay Model of Embryogenesis

Day 13: Gastrula


Cellular reorganization forms
multi-layered sphere
Primary germ layers formed
Endoderm - most internal layer.
Forms internal organs
Ectoderm - most exterior. Forms
skin, brain, nervous system
Mesoderm - middle layer. Forms
muscle, skeletal, and circulatory
systems
Clay Model of Embryogenesis: Questions
1. Highlight the stages at which the embryonic stem cells are totipotent. Underline the stage at which cells are pluripotent.

ZYGOTE 8 CELL STAGE MORULA BLASTULA GASTRULA

2. If an embryo entered the uterus at the morula stage would it implant successfully into the uterine wall? Explain your answer.
No, because the morula still has the ZD (zona pellucida membrane). The cells of the morula have not differentiated to form the
trophoblast cells, which secrete the enzyme required to erode the lining of the uterus for implantation.

3. At what stage of development do stem cells first differentiate?


Early blastocyst

4. At what stage of embryonic development are stem cells used to generate embryonic stem cell lines. Which type of stem cells are
found at this stage?
Blastula, pluripotent

5. What Type of tissue is formed from the following primary germ layers?
1. Endoderm - most internal layer. Forms internal organs, lungs and digestive system
2. Ectoderm - most exterior. Forms skin, brain, nervous system
3. Mesoderm - middle layer. Forms circulatory systems, bone, muscle, connective tissue