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CXC Information Technology General Proficiency Syllabus,

Spreadsheets [IT for CSEC pg. 194, Cato; IT for CSEC exams-

Campbell, pg. 190]

SECTION 7: SPREADSHEETS

Inclusive of discussion time, this topic is expected to take 30

hours, or 6 weeks.

Understand the layout and purpose of a spreadsheet

Create a spreadsheet

Describe it in the correct terminology

Use formulae and functions

Control and manipulate columns and rows

Describe the difference between absolute and relative

addressing

Apply formatting to a spreadsheet

Control and manipulate data and formulae

Sort data in a spreadsheet

Search for records

Create graphs and charts to a spreadsheet

Use multiple worksheets

Import files from different documents.

What is a Spreadsheet?

A spreadsheet is a grid of cells organized in rows and columns. A row

is horizontal, meaning that it goes from left to right and a column

is vertical, meaning that it goes from top to bottom. It is a way of

showing how numerical data items relate to each other. It enables you

to store not only numerical data but also formulae to carry out

operations on the numerical data. It can be used for any job that

involves repetitive numerical calculations. Some examples are:

1. Statistics e.g. finding averages or calculating the standard

deviation

2. Loan calculations

3. Financial plans e.g. budgeting

4. Stock-keeping in a supermarket

5. Payrolls

6. Company accounts

7. Keeping accounts in a club

8. Preparing end-of-term school reports

The Excel interface

What is a Cell?

A cell is the intersection of the rows and columns. Each cell has a

unique identification called a cell reference or cell address. This

means that each cell has a unique reference identified by the column

letter and row number. For example, B4 specifies the cell in columns B

and row 4.

By clicking with the mouse, you can select individual cells or a range

of cells.

Copying formulae can be extremely useful, and happens because the

spreadsheet is using relative cell references. A reference tells the

spreadsheet where to look for the values or data you want to use in a

formula. There are two (2) types of cell references: Relative and

Absolute.

Relative cell references are references to cells relative to the position

of the formula. For example, if you put the formula =A1 into cell B1,

A1 is the reference and the spreadsheet will automatically enter into

cell B1 whatever is in cell A1. However, what is important to note is

that a relative cell reference changes when a formula is copied

or moved.

Absolute cell referencing

If you do not want the cell reference to change in this way, you can use

an absolute cell reference. Absolute references are fixed

references that do not change when a formula is moved or

copied. In order to make a formula contain absolute references, a

dollar sign ($) is inserted before the column or row reference that you

do not want to change: for example, $A$2.

percentage that one cell is of another.

A cell can contain one of three types of information: label (text),

value (number) or formula.

Labels

A label can be used as a title or heading to describe an aspect of the

worksheet. It can contain any string of characters, meaning letters or

numbers, but must start with a character that does not indicate a

formula or number.

Values

A value is a piece of data that can be used in a calculation.

Formulae

A formula is an equation that tells the spreadsheet what actions or

calculations you wish to take on any spreadsheet data. ALL formulae

begin with an =sign.

Formulae are used to compute values. The spreadsheet package that

we will be using is Microsoft Excel. All Excel formulae begin with an

equal (=) sign. Cell references and various operators can follow your

equal sign. Operators used in formulae in spreadsheets include:

+ addition

- subtraction

* multiplication

/ division

> greater than

< less than

= is equal to

<> is not equal to

<= is less than or equal to

>= is greater than or equal to

^ exponentiation (or raising to a power)

Functions

results, perform worksheet actions, or assist with decision making

based on the information provided in your worksheet.

functions

There are a number of basic spreadsheet functions. The following are

the more-commonly used.

The =SUM( function adds all the numbers in a range of cells. If

for example you have the number 3 in cell B3, and the number 8

in cell B4, and would like to store their total in cell B5, the

formulae you would place in cell B5 would be, =SUM(B3:B4. You

would select cell B5, type in =SUM( then position your mouse at

cell B3, and drag the selection to B4, then press enter. You would

get the answer 11 in cell B5. However if for example you had the

number 18 in cell B6, and 19 in cell B28, and would like to find

the total of these two numbers in cell C29, you would do

=SUM(B6,B28.

The =PRODUCT( function is used when multiplying the contents

of one cell

against another. If for example you have the number 3 in cell B3,

and the number 8 in cell B4, and would like to store their total in

cell B5, the formulae you would place in cell B5 would be,

=PRODUCT(B3:B4. You would select cell B5, type in

=PRODUCT( then position your mouse at cell B3, and drag the

selection to B4, then press enter. You would get the answer 24 in

cell B5. However if for example you had the number 18 in cell B6,

and 19 in cell B28, and would like to find the total of these two

numbers in cell C29, you would do =PRODUCT (B6,B28.

The =IF( function allows you to set the value of a cell depending

on the outcome of a condition. For example, you might determine

whether stock needs to be replenished from the current amount

of stock.

a) The condition

b) The return value for a TRUE condition

c) The return value for a FALSE condition

example, the expression B7 = 0 would return a TRUE value IF B7

contains zero or is blank, and FALSE otherwise.

operators:

= Equal

<> Not equal

< Less than

<= Less or equal

> Greater than

>= Greater or equal

=IF(logical_test, value_if_true, value_if_false)

example, A10=25 examines whether the value in cell A10 is

equal to 25.

met. Think of it as the calculation or statement that would follow

the THEN clause in a problem question. Suppose we want

correct if A10 is equal to 25, then we set value_if_true to

correct.

argument here if you want to something else to happen should

the condition be false (not met). Think of it as the ELSE clause in

a problem question. Suppose we want incorrect if A10 is not

equal to 25, then we set value_if_false to not correct.

A B

1 $15

2 $22

3 =sum(A1,

A2

Cell A3 adds the values of cells A1 and A2. You want to create a

conditional statement in cell B1 that displays the message enough

funds if the value is $50 or over, and not enough if it is under. Here

is what you type:

set of values in a row or column. The general form of the maximum

function is =MAX(First cell:last cell). For example, if you want to find

the highest number in a range B45:B68, use the formula

=MAX(B45:B68, and the largest value will be stored in the current cell.

set of values in a row or column. The general form of the minimum

function is =MIN(First cell:last cell). For example, if you want to find the

lowest number in a range B45:B68, use the formula =MIN(B45:B68,

and the lowest value will be stored in the current cell.

The general form of the average function is =AVERAGE(First cell:last

cell). For example, if you want to find the mean of numbers in a range

B45:B68, use the formula =AVERAGE(B45:B68, and the mean value will

be stored in the current cell.

7. The =COUNT(function

The =COUNT(function counts the number of cells that contain numeric

values within a selection of cells. This function is useful if you have a

large spreaddsheet with scattered values and you want to know how

many of the cells actually contain values, or how many cells in a

particular column in the brackets, type the range of cells you want to

test. The formula should look something like this:

=COUNT(A2:B6

8.The =COUNTA(function

The =COUNTA(function counts the number of cells that contain any

kind of value within a selection. So the value can be a number, letter,

string or symbol. Specify the range of cells that must be searched:

=COUNTA(A3:D10

9. The=RANK(function

The =RANK( function displays the rank of a number in a list of

numbers. You can use it if you have a list of test marks and you want

to know how a particular student did compared to the other students

how they ranked overall. For example, to find the rank of the value in

cell B2 in the range B1:B6 sorted in ascending order:

=RANK(B2,B1:B6,1

The =VLOOKUP(function allows you to search for a value in a record.

The function looks for a value you have specified in the leftmost

column. Once this value is found, it returns a value from the same row,

but from a different column, which you also specify in the function

argument. This is a useful function if you are searching for a particular

record within a table, but you only know the value in the leftmost

column.

A B C D

1 Surname Name Mark received Percentage

2 Smith Kirk 4.5 45

3 Kelly Georgia 7 70

4 Hill Chris 8 80

Hill. Here is the way you have to use the VLOOKUP function:

=vlookup(lookup_value,table_array,col_index_num,range_lookup)

leftmost column. In this case it is Hill. Text strings must be

enclosed in quotes.

table_array: this refers to the table or set of values that must

be searched through to find the correct value. You can specify a

range here. It is usually best to start the range at the top left

corner and end at the bottom right. In this case it is A2:D4.

value returned from. In this case you want a percentage and

percentages are in column D. but VLOOKUP requires you to

specify the column as a number, where A is 1, B is 2, C is 3, D is

4, and so on.

can leave it blank or set it TRUE, which means that the function

will search for an approximate value.

=vlookup(Hill, A2:D4,4)

The cell in which you specify this function will return the value 80 when

you have entered the function. This function is useful for large tables

that are not easy to view in one glance, or tables with unsorted data.

To insert the current date into a spreadsheet you use the function,

=TODAY(.

After doing so, you can format the date to one that you prefer. You do

so by

right-clicking the cell where youve entered your date, and choosing

Format cells. In the Number tab, go down to Date, and in the right-

hand submenu, choose a date format that you would like.

To insert the date using the =DATE( function, type in

=DATE(YEAR,MONTH,DAY. Press enter. Substitute YEAR, MONTH and

DAY with the actual numeric values. You can also custom the

appearance of the date by right-clicking on the date, choosing format

cells, and then the Number Tab. Go down to custom. Click in the area

under Type, and enter the format that you would like your date to

appear in.

Formulae

Sometimes you may need to create your own formula that is not

covered by a standard function. All calculations must start with the

equal (=) sign. To understand how to construct formulae, use this

spreadsheet as an example:

A B C D

1. Month Month Month 3

1 2 3

2. 22 12 12

3. 13 22 22

4. 25 34 30

5.

that you must obey the rules of BODMAS: brackets over division,

multiplication and subtraction. Calculations in brackets are carried out

first, then division, multiplication and subtraction and addition from left

to right in the problem:

(55-3)/66*(71+12)

the calculations in the brackets are carried out first, so it becomes:

52/66*83

Now, the problem only has multiplication and division, so you follow it

from left to right.

=A2+A3+A4

The plus sign (+) can be typed using your keyboard; hold down

the Shift key while pressing the = button.

=A2-A3

The minus sign is on your keyboard.

you can enter as Shift and number 8 on your keyboard:

=B4*C4

value in D1, use the slash for division and write the formula like

this:

=(A2+B2+C2)/D1

If D1 contains 3, the formula will calculate the average of A2, B2

and C2. You cannot divide by 0. If D1 contains 3, the formula

will calculate the average of A2,B2 and C2. You cannot divide by

0. If D1contains 0, the cell containing =(A2+B2+C2)/1 will

display this error message:

#DIV/0!

Powers: to calculate the power of a base, you use the

exponential sign (). If you want to find 10 to the power 2, you

write:

=102

A Header is text that appears in the top margin of your spreadsheet. A

Footer is text that appears in the bottom margin of your spreadsheet.

To add a header or a footer:

2. Click on the header & footer button, and entered the desired

text.

Inserting Rows/Columns

To insert a Row/Column, Highlight the Row (Rows are horizontal- they

go across the screen) or Column (Columns are vertical they go down

the screen) where you would like the new Row or Column to be placed.

Next right click, and choose the Insert Option.

Merging

Titles and headings may take up a lot of space in a cell, and wrapping

is not always the best way to ensure that all text is visible. Cell

merging makes all the text visible on one line. The cells are merged

into a single cell with one cell address.

1. Highlight the text that you want to go center, and continue

highlight the number of columns that you want the text to center

across. Example, you want the text CRIMES COMMITTED

AGAINST WOMEN IN HAGLAND to go across cell A1 TO G1, you

would highlight from Cell A1 to G1.

2. You then click the Merge and Center Icon. It is a little icon with

an a between two arrows. It is located next to the right align

icon on your formatting toolbar.

Moving a block of Text

In order to do this you must first highlight all the cells that contain text

or characters, place your mouse pointer to the bottom or last row of

your highlighted text, and making sure that your pointer is an ARROW,

Hold down your LEFT mouse button, also called your Primary mouse

button, and Drag the text down to the cell that you are to move them

to.

Dividing in a spreadsheet

There is NO in-built formula for DIVIDING. So do not try =DIV,

=DIVISION, =DIVIDE. THEY DO NOT EXIST. To divide numbers, you use

the forward slash (/). For example, if you have 8 in cell A5, and 2 in

cell H15, and you would like to know what 8 divided by 2 equals, you

would use =A5/H15. If you have a range of numbers you would like to

divide by H15 in our example, you would of course have to make H15

ABSOLUTE, by using your $ sign.. It would become $H$15.

Subtracting in a spreadsheet

There is no in-built formula for subtraction. If you would like to subtract

numbers it would be for example =A4 B7.

The most important thing to remember is that THERE IS NO IN-BUILT

FUNCTION TO CALCULATE PERCENTAGE.. =PERCENT, =PERCENTAGE, or

=% do not exist.

needed in order to find percentages. You can then determine the

percentage value of a cell against another by following the format

=Cell X/ Cell Y, where cell Xs cell reference is absolute. Your result will

be in decimal format. In order for your result to appear in decimal

format, you must click on the % icon, which is located in your

formatting toolbar next to your dollar ($) sign.

each other

Now there may be times where you may want to chart, total, or

otherwise refer to cells that are not located next to each other. To get

information from Cells not located to each other you use the CTRL key..

cells A16:F17.

You may want to know only what the sum of B12 and E14 is equal to..

In that instance you would do =SUM(B12, and holding down your ctrl

key, highlight cell E14).

Applying Borders to a spreadsheet

A border is a line or lines that are used to mark out areas of your

worksheet.

To add borders to cells, you must:

a) Select the cells to which you want to apply borders.

b) Click on either Menus tab or the Home tab. select the

Borders icon. Alternately, click on the Menus tab, then

select Format, then Format cells. Navigate to borders,

and select the desired border. Right clicking on the active cell,

then selecting Format Cells, will also allow you to navigate

to the borders tab, and choose the desired border.

If you want to put border only around the sides of the cells,

choose outline; if you would like to add border to the inside of

the cells, choose Inside; if you would like to add borders to

both inside and the outline of the cell, choose both options.

Charts

Charts are graphical representations of data that can be used to show

trends, compare data and emphasise a mathematical or statistical

figure. To add charts, use the Charts group on the Insert tab. The type

of chart you use depends on what you are trying to represent, and can

also depend on the data you are using. Here are some Excel charts

that you use most often:

o A bar graph: represents data in bars that stretch horizontally,

so categories are on the vertical axis and numbers on the

horizontal axis. It is useful for comparing values.

are vertical. You use a column graph if you want categories or

text on the horizontal axis and values on the vertical axis.

o A line graph: plots points and joins them to form a line. It is

useful for showing upward and downward trends.

the whole. This type of data is useful for comparing the parts

that make up a whole. It is useful to compare proportions and

percentages.

o A scatter graph: plots points like a line graph but the scattered

points are not joined up.

If you have to create a chart, and chart information not located in

consecutive cells, you would have to use the CTRL key. ANOTHER VERY

IMPORTANT THING TO REMEMBER.

include other data, otherwise it will be included as an unnecessary

value in the chart.

2. Click the Pie chart button and select the kind of chart you want from

the drop-down list.

Select the Insert tab then click on the required chart icon.

Give the chart an appropriate title. If you are charting for example,

Crimes committed over a five- year period, do not name it Five year

chart. That is too vague.

Sorting text and columns in a spreadsheet.

There are two ways to sort: Ascending and Descending. When sorting

in ascending order information is sorted From A Z; when sorting

in descending order information is sorted from Z A. When sorting on a

particular column ensure that you place your pointer on the

title/column heading. YOU MUST then HIGHLIGHT EVERYTHING. If you dont

ONLY the specific column will be sorted, meaning that the other

information will remain unchanged.

e.g. You have a row showing the number of Red cars that were involved

in accidents in 2000. You might have 8 and the number of blue cars

involved in accidents in 2000. You might have 14. Now if you were to

sort and highlight ONLY the Colour of Car column, blue cars would show

8, red would show 14which is wrong.

Filtering

Filtering is retrieval of records based on specified criteria. This allows a

user to view only wanted records. There are two (2) types of filters:

1. Auto filter

2. Advanced filter

Auto Filter

used mainly when you have many rows of data and you want to quickly

filter that data to show only certain data that you are interested in

either by specifying a certain value, or range of values as a criteria.

The AutoFilter option is the quickest and easiest way of achieving this.

With Auto Filter, records that do not meet the conditions defined in the

criteria remain part of the spreadsheet, but are hidden until you

redisplay them

You choose the Filter command in the Data menu, and then choose

Auto filter. You will then see drop-down arrows directly on the column

labels, or column names of your list. Clicking an arrow displays a list of

all the unique items in the column. Choose Custom. Remember to

customize is to manipulate something so you can get results that

you want form it.

In custom auto filter, you will see your column label and in the

criteria range, equal. If you click on the drop-down arrow next to

equal, you will see a long list of options for your criteria. So if you want

to see all items that begin with the letter F, for example, you would

choose begins with and in the box to the right of it type in the letter

F. You then choose ok.

Advanced Filter

Advanced Filters make it possible to retrieve records from an Excel

database based on multiple conditions for one or more columns.

Advance Filters do not use the AutoFilter drop box arrows. Instead, a

criteria range is created and used to define the conditions for the

search. Like using Auto Filter, records that do not meet the conditions

defined in the criteria remain part of the spreadsheet, but are hidden

until you redisplay them.

An advanced filter is one that is done by separating the spreadsheet

into three (3) specific areas. These areas ranges are called the:

1. Database

2. Criteria

3. Extract

The Database

The Database is the area of your spreadsheet containing all the

information.

The Criteria Range is the area of your spreadsheet where you specify

the criteria of your filter.

The Extract Range is the area of your spreadsheet where the results of

your filter are to be stored, or extracted to.

As mentioned previously, the Database range is the area of your

spreadsheet where the majority of your data is concentrated. To

create the Database you must:

1. Select (highlight with your mouse) all the rows and columns of the

database, include the

headings, but do not include any blank rows or columns bordering

the database.

2. Click Insert on the menu bar hover Name and click Define. The

Define Name dialog

box appears. The first box in the dialog automatically picks up the

value that is located in the first cell of the range.

3. Type database where the value that is located in the first cell

appears.

After defining your database range you must create your criteria

range. The steps are following:

1. Copy the Headings row of the database. This is the range

containing your column headings. Paste it to a blank area of

your worksheet.

directly below them.

3. Click Insert on the menu bar hover Name and click Define.

Verify the range

is correct. Name the range Criteria.

You may create an extract range on the worksheet for Excel to display

the filtered records in. Using an Extract range allows the complete

database to remain displayed in its original position, while the

requested records are extracted and displayed for you to work with

on another area of the worksheet.

To do this you:

1. Copy the row of headings to the bottom of the worksheet

leaving at least one

blank row between them and the end of the criteria range.

the criteria range.

3. Click Insert on the menu bar hover Name and click Define.

The Define Name

dialog box appears. Verify the range is correct Name the

range Extract.

destination for Advance Filters.

are basically telling Excel that there is no limit to the space

it can use to show the results. Including one or more blank

rows below the heading row tells Excel that it can not go

beyond the designated range to show results. In this case

when more records are returned than will fit in the range

you are prompted by an alert box to instruct as to whether

you want the data below the range deleted so that all the

results may be displayed. Answering no will result in a

partial list of the results starting with the first record Excel

found matching the criteria.

following:

1. Define the filter criteria in the criteria range. This means that

under the appropriate column heading insert the criteria for your

extract. In other words, type in what information contained in the

record will cause it to be filtered.

2. Click any cell of the database. It MUST be a cell in the

DATABASE.

3. Click Data on the menu bar, hover Filter and click Advanced

Filter. The Define Name dialog box appears.

4. Change the action to Copy to another location. Enter the cell

references for the Extract range if they are not already displayed.

5. Click Ok.

extract range. The database range remains intact, displaying all its

records.

To fail yourself would be a crime.

Remember after Exams there will be enough time to lime.

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