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5/22/2017 Hoyt Model (Sector Model) of Urban Land Use 1939 by Homer Hoyt

Sector Model or Hoyt Model 1939 of Urban Land Use by


Homer Hoyt
Hoyt model/Sector model of Urban Land Use (1939) by Homer Hoyt
Urban areas have always been area of research and caught the attention of scholars and academicians. Sector model which
is also known as Hoyt model given by Homer Hoyt in 1939 explains how cities grew. As we witness the population growth it
is becoming more and more essential to understand how cities work. Studies on patterns of urban growth, settlement
geography and land use are of great interest to the concerned people. Various theories and models have been proposed
which makes an attempt to explain how the growth took place and how different groups & activities are arranged in an urban
area. Different models pertaining to growth of urban areas include rank size rule, primate city & primacy,central place
theory, Multiple Nuclei Model, Burgess Model.

Related: Primate City & Primacy | Relationship between city sizes

Hoyt Model is somewhat similar to Burgess Model and is often considered as its improved version. Hoyt argued that cities
do not develop in form of simple rings, instead they have sectors. Homer Hoyt in 1939 suggested that few activities grow in
form of sectors which radiates out along the main travel links. Activities in a sector are considered to be same throughout
the sector because of the purpose/function it serves. Land use within each sector would remain the same because like
attracts like. The high-class sector would stay high-class because it would be the most sought after area to live, so only the
rich could afford to live there. The industrial sector would remain industrial as the area would have a common advantage of a
railway line or river.These sector can be housing, industrial activities etc. These sectors grow along railway lines, highways
or rivers.

Components of Hoyt Model

CBD Central Business District is placed at center.Sectors and the partial rings of land use/activities take place. This area
is often known as down town and has high rise buildings.

Industry Industries are represented in form of a sector radiating out from the center. These forms sector because of the
presence of a transport linkage along which the activities grew. Presence of railway line, river or road would attract similar
activity and thus a continuous corridor or sector will develop.

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5/22/2017 Hoyt Model (Sector Model) of Urban Land Use 1939 by Homer Hoyt

Apart from the industries this area also serves as residential area for lower class workers. Living conditions are bad because
of proximity to industries.

Related: Central Place Theory (CPT) by Walter Christaller (1933)

Low Class Residential

Low income groups resides in this area. Narrow roads, high population density, small houses with poor ventilation exist in
this area. Roads are narrow and often connects to the industries where most of the people from this sector works.
Closeness to industries reduces the travel cost and thus attracts industrial workers. Environmental and living conditions are
often poor because of the closeness to factories.

Middle Class Residential

This area has has middle income groups who can afford larger travel cost and want better living conditions. The activities of
people residing in this area consist of different activities and not just the industrial work. It has more linkages with CBD
along with some linkages to industries. This areas has largest residential area.

High Class residential

This is the outermost and farthest area from the downtown. Wealthy and affluent people lives in this area. This area is clean,
has less traffic, quiet and has large houses. Corridor or spine extending from CBD to edge has best housing.

Significance of Hoyt Model


Ecological factors + economic rent concept to explain the land use pattern
Stress on the role of transport routes in affecting the spatial arrangement of the city
Both the distance and direction of growth from the city center are considered
Brings location of industrial and environmental amenity values as determinants in residential location
Example: Sectors of high class residential areas tend to grow towards higher grounds, sites with better view, more
open space, the homes of influential leaders within the community and existing outlying, smaller settlements.
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Limitations of Sector Model