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I.

Chlorinated Hydrocarbons
Highly Effective Broad Spectrum Insecticide
Has long residual effect
Persistent in environment; with slow degradation
Lipophilic & shows biomagnifaction
Carcinogenic; cause nerve damage and loss of
reproduction
Relatively cheap & available in diverse formulations
S. Name Category How Applied Used on Effective Toxicity Safe on Miscellaneous
No Based on Crops Against
. Action
1 DDT Stomach Emulsion Wide Range Household Toxic to Cucurbits, Banned for
(Dichloro- Poison Concentrate of Crops DDT
Pests Tomato, Beans agricultural use
DDT is one of the
diphenyl- well known
Contact Poison (first) synthetic pesticides.
Wettable It was banned
Mosquito in USA in 1973; Ban on DDT in USA
Reproductive helped
Kills in
by opening Na+
It was discovered by Zeidler Powder
trichloroethane) (1874); and its insecticidal revival of Bald
Larvae Eagle Pelican,
Toxicants to Birds the National Bird of USA.
channels of
properties discovered by Paul Muller Dust (1939); for this he was
Leafminers
Plight of Pelican Bird was highlighted by Americanneurons
by impairing Biologist,
awarded Nobel Prize in 1948. Podborers
Rachel Carson quality of shellinof her novel Silent Springs, as a
(1962);
After World War II, use of DDT increased worldwide; catalogue ofegg impact of DDT on environment. DDT is now
2 Toxaphene Stomach Dust Cotton,
primarily because of its effectiveness in control of mosquito Lepidopteran Toxic to Cucurbits, Harmless to Bees Chlorinated
banned for agriculture, under Stockholm Convention; and is
(Chlorinated Poison Spray Soyabean Larvae Carcinogenic, Less harmful to Terpenes
(Vector of Malaria) and lice (vector of typhus). DDT was used only fordamage
vector lungs,
control programmes.
Camphene) Thrips mammals Banned in USA
declared molecule of the month (August) 1997. Veterinary kidneys, nervous
Pests systems
3 BHC (HCH) Stomach Dust ? ? Toxic to Cucurbits, Nontoxic to Chlorinated
Hexachloro Poison Spray Carcinogenic to majority plants Benzene
Benzene Contact Poison humans Agricultural use
Aquatic organisms banned in India
(1997)
4 Chlordane Stomach Emulsion Corn, Citrus Termites, Lice, High residual Less harmful to Cyclodiene
Poison Concentrate Lawns Ticks, Fleas, toxicity birds and bees Banned except for
Contact Poison Wettable Kitchen Biting Flies Carcinogenic Nonphytotoxic termite control
Powder Garden Household
Dust Insects
5 Aldrin Contact Poison Dust Wheat, Locusts & High Dermal Nonphytotoxic Cyclodiene
Emulsion Sugarcane & Grasshoppers Toxicity Use banned in India
Concentrate Cotton Termites, Black
ants, Root
Weevils
6 Endrin Stomach Emulsion Cotton, Grasshoppers, Most Toxic Nonphytotoxic Cyclodiene
Poison Concentrate Sugarcane & Lepidopteran High residual Banned in India
Contact Poison Wettable Tobacco Larvae, toxicity
Powder Beetles, Bugs Toxic to corn &
Dust Cucumbers
Granules
7 Endosulphane Stomach ? Sugarcane, Borers, Bark Toxic to Fishes Safe to wildlife & Banned in more
Poison Mango, Eaters & bees than 50 countries
Contact Poison Tomato, Foliage pests
Cabbage,
Cotton,
Wheat