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dv

Calculus and Dierential Equations I F = m = m ,

dt

MATH 250 A

where F is the sum of forces applied along the positive x

direction, m is the mass of the object, x is the position of its

Modeling with dierential equations center of mass, and v = dx/dt is its velocity.

in the vertical direction. In this case, we have

dv

= g ,

dt

which is solved by direct integration.

Modeling with dierential equations Calculus and Dierential Equations I Modeling with dierential equations Calculus and Dierential Equations I

In the presence of gravity and friction, we typically have These problems typically involve a uid, of volume V (t), in

F = m g c v , c > 0, if the object is moving slowly. which a substance is dissolved. The goal is to nd the amount

F = m g + c v 2 , c > 0, if |v | >> 1, v < 0. A(t) or the concentration C (t) = A(t)/V (t) of the substance

in the uid.

It is possible to have other types of friction forces, especially in

the case of solid friction. The general way of addressing such a problem is to write a

balance equation for the amount A(t) of the substance in the

If we restrict ourselves to the above examples, we have

dv c uid,

= g v , which is linear in v . dA

dt m = input rate output rate

dt

dv c

= g + v 2 , which is separable.

dt m Example (#5 page 207): Take a 200-gallon container lled

For a spring-mass system, we have F = k(x x0 ), k > 0. with pure water. Add a salt concentration with 3 pounds of

d 2x salt per gallon, at a rate of 4 gallons per minute. At the same

Then, m 2 = k(x x0 ), which is a second order, linear time, drain the container at a rate of 5 gallons per minute.

dt

equation. Find the amount of salt in the container as a function of time.

Modeling with dierential equations Calculus and Dierential Equations I Modeling with dierential equations Calculus and Dierential Equations I

Cooling and heating Compounding interest

If money in a bank account is compounded continuously at a

Newtons law of cooling and heating says that the rate of rate of r percents per year, then in the absence of deposits or

change of the temperature T of an object is a linear function withdrawals, we have

of the dierence between T and the ambient temperature T0 : dM r

= M,

dT dt 100

= k(T T0 ), k > 0. where M is the account balance and t is time measured in

dt

years.

This equation can be solved as a linear equation, or as a The above equation describes the exponential growth of M.

separable equation, to nd After one year, the amount of money in the account is given

by

T (t) = T0 + exp(kt),

M(1) = exp(r /100) M(0).

where is an arbitrary constant. The annual interest rate is therefore larger than r /100, since

As expected, T T0 , as t +. APY = exp(r /100) 1.

Modeling with dierential equations Calculus and Dierential Equations I Modeling with dierential equations Calculus and Dierential Equations I

If a population is growing exponentially at rate r > 0, we can

dene its doubling time

If N is the population density of a region, then one can write

ln(2)

dN Td = .

= bN dN + immigration emigration, r

dt

Note the analogy with the half-life of a substance decaying

assuming that resources are not limited.

exponentially at rate r < 0,

In the above equation, b is the birth rate, and d is the death ln(2) ln(2)

rate of the population. The growth rate r of the population is T1/2 = = .

r |r |

given by

r = b d. If resources are limited, one can expect that r will depend on

N. With r = N, > 0, > 0, and in the absence of

If immigration and emigration are given functions of t, then immigration or emigration, we have logistic growth

the above equation is linear in N. dN

= N N 2 .

dt

Modeling with dierential equations Calculus and Dierential Equations I Modeling with dierential equations Calculus and Dierential Equations I

Chemical reactions

k1

For a chemical reaction of the form A + B C , the law

k2

of mass action says that

d[C ]

= k1 [A] [B] k2 [C ],

dt

where [X ] is the concentration of chemical X and k1 and k2

are the forward and backward rate constants respectively.

d[X ]

= k1 a[X ] k2 [X ]2 ,

dt

where a, k1 , and k2 are constants. This is again the logistic

equation.

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