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Objects in motion

Newtons law: for an object moving in one dimension

dv
Calculus and Dierential Equations I F = m = m ,
dt
MATH 250 A
where F is the sum of forces applied along the positive x
direction, m is the mass of the object, x is the position of its
Modeling with dierential equations center of mass, and v = dx/dt is its velocity.

If the only force is gravity, then F = mg if x points upward

in the vertical direction. In this case, we have
dv
= g ,
dt
which is solved by direct integration.

Modeling with dierential equations Calculus and Dierential Equations I Modeling with dierential equations Calculus and Dierential Equations I

Objects in motion (continued) Mixture problems

In the presence of gravity and friction, we typically have These problems typically involve a uid, of volume V (t), in
F = m g c v , c > 0, if the object is moving slowly. which a substance is dissolved. The goal is to nd the amount
F = m g + c v 2 , c > 0, if |v | >> 1, v < 0. A(t) or the concentration C (t) = A(t)/V (t) of the substance
in the uid.
It is possible to have other types of friction forces, especially in
the case of solid friction. The general way of addressing such a problem is to write a
balance equation for the amount A(t) of the substance in the
If we restrict ourselves to the above examples, we have
dv c uid,
= g v , which is linear in v . dA
dt m = input rate output rate
dt
dv c
= g + v 2 , which is separable.
dt m Example (#5 page 207): Take a 200-gallon container lled
For a spring-mass system, we have F = k(x x0 ), k > 0. with pure water. Add a salt concentration with 3 pounds of
d 2x salt per gallon, at a rate of 4 gallons per minute. At the same
Then, m 2 = k(x x0 ), which is a second order, linear time, drain the container at a rate of 5 gallons per minute.
dt
equation. Find the amount of salt in the container as a function of time.

Modeling with dierential equations Calculus and Dierential Equations I Modeling with dierential equations Calculus and Dierential Equations I
Cooling and heating Compounding interest
If money in a bank account is compounded continuously at a
Newtons law of cooling and heating says that the rate of rate of r percents per year, then in the absence of deposits or
change of the temperature T of an object is a linear function withdrawals, we have
of the dierence between T and the ambient temperature T0 : dM r
= M,
dT dt 100
= k(T T0 ), k > 0. where M is the account balance and t is time measured in
dt
years.
This equation can be solved as a linear equation, or as a The above equation describes the exponential growth of M.
separable equation, to nd After one year, the amount of money in the account is given
by
T (t) = T0 + exp(kt),
M(1) = exp(r /100) M(0).
where is an arbitrary constant. The annual interest rate is therefore larger than r /100, since
As expected, T T0 , as t +. APY = exp(r /100) 1.

Modeling with dierential equations Calculus and Dierential Equations I Modeling with dierential equations Calculus and Dierential Equations I

Population dynamics Population dynamics (continued)

If a population is growing exponentially at rate r > 0, we can
dene its doubling time
If N is the population density of a region, then one can write
ln(2)
dN Td = .
= bN dN + immigration emigration, r
dt
Note the analogy with the half-life of a substance decaying
assuming that resources are not limited.
exponentially at rate r < 0,
In the above equation, b is the birth rate, and d is the death ln(2) ln(2)
rate of the population. The growth rate r of the population is T1/2 = = .
r |r |
given by
r = b d. If resources are limited, one can expect that r will depend on
N. With r = N, > 0, > 0, and in the absence of
If immigration and emigration are given functions of t, then immigration or emigration, we have logistic growth
the above equation is linear in N. dN
= N N 2 .
dt

Modeling with dierential equations Calculus and Dierential Equations I Modeling with dierential equations Calculus and Dierential Equations I
Chemical reactions

k1
For a chemical reaction of the form A + B  C , the law
k2
of mass action says that

d[C ]
= k1 [A] [B] k2 [C ],
dt
where [X ] is the concentration of chemical X and k1 and k2
are the forward and backward rate constants respectively.

For an autocatalytic reaction of chemical X , one may have

d[X ]
= k1 a[X ] k2 [X ]2 ,
dt
where a, k1 , and k2 are constants. This is again the logistic
equation.