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# Experimentaldesignof

Vectors

## By: Anon Durongpisitkul

Thanon Thamvorapol
Kimmy Pathanasap
Pajaree Chalongkitcharoen
Suchanuch Putaprapasri

1102

To

MissSusanaAlulod

MahidolUniversityInternationalDEmonstrationSchool

Introduction
Sir Isaac Newton was arguably, one of the greatest scientist whove ever lived. He
discovered the law of gravity and gave rise to the the three laws of Newton: Any object at rest or
in motion will remain in that state unless their is a net external force acting on it (inertia). Force
is equal to the change in momentum per change in time (F = ma). For every action there is an
equal and opposite reaction. This experiment is intended to test Newtons second law, an object
that is not accelerating must have no net force acting on it. And so we will be proving that you
can add vectors together to create a resultant and use that resultant to find a force that will
balance it. We will be using three methods: The force table, the graphical, and the analytical
methods.

Objective
The objective of this experiment is to compare two force vectors and three force vectors,
using Force table, Graphical, and Analytical methods.

Hypothesis
If balanced forces caused by strings attached to a mass pulls on a ring that is looped
around a pole, then the pole will be at the exact center of the ring.

BackgroundKnowledge:
Force is a push or pull upon an object resulting from the
object's interaction with another object. Whenever there is an
interaction between two objects, there is a force upon each of
the objects. When the interaction ceases, the two objects no
longer experience the force. Forces only exist as a result of an
interaction. A force is a vector quantity and a vector quantity
is a quantity that has both magnitude and direction.
Procedure:
1. For the first experiment, determine 2 forces, their
magnitudes and directions.
2. Stick the pin to the middle of the force table.
3. Attach 2 pulley to the force table according to their
directions.
4. Put the ring onto the pin.
5. Put 2 strings onto each pulley.
6. Hand the mass onto the end of the both string according to
the 2 force magnitudes.
7. Calculate the direction and magnitude of the resultant
force by using component method.
8. Calculate the direction and magnitude of the equilibrant
force from the resultant force.
9. Record the data into the first page of the table.
10. Repeat step 1 to 9 for the second experiment using 3
forces.
11. Use graphical method to find magnitude and direction of
the equilibrant and resultant force.
12. Record the data into the table
13. Use analytical method to find magnitude and direction of
the equilibrant and resultant force of both 2 and 3 forces.
14. Find the % difference of the first experiment (2 forces)
between experimental and graphical value, and between
experimental and analytical value.
15. Repeat step 14 with the second experiment (3 forces).
AnalyzeResults
Based on both experiment trials with two and three forces, the
resultant force is to be calculated in order to find another
force to cancel out that resultant force and to make the system
equilibrium. Therefore an equivalent amount of equilibrium force
is measured to balance the resultant force. However, since there
is a limitation on an equilibrium force sources that are
available, the canceling force of the system isnt exact, but
fortunately is able to maintain the ring to not touch the pin in
the middle. So you can see that there was a slight error between
the force table and graphical method. This was because we used
the analytical method to find the balancing force for the force
table, and also, the ring used wasnt exactly in the middle
because we didnt actually have exact weights that can be used.
As a result, what we did was rounded the numbers up and put in
the closest weight there was.

Analytical Method

## F1 = 2000N Direction = 130o

F2 = 2000N Direction = 270o
F3 = 3000N Direction = 20o

LAW OF COSINE:
2
R1 = F1 + F22 -2F1 F2 cos
R1 =

C2 = 30002 + 2000 - 2(3000)(2000)cos 40
conclusion

## To sum up, the experiment is to test the vector quantity of

the force and to demonstrate the process to equilibrate the
force. As for the experiment, the pin and the ring in the middle
of the force table indicate the equilibrium from the fact that
whether they touch each other or not. After looking at the
results, the analytical method is better because, if you do not
make any mistakes, then the numbers would be more accurate than
the other two methods. To elaborate, the Force table does not
have exact weights, and the graphical can be very different
depending on how well you scale it. That is, if you scale it
large, there is a larger margin of error when you draw the
resultant vector.
For future applications, features from this experiment can
be used again if a problem that requires the addition of vectors
come across. This could be helpful not only in mechanics, but
for anything else that involves multiple vector quantities as
well, such as electric and magnetic field lines. The analytical
method could be used to calculate a net electric/magnetic force
on the charge. Nothing would strike as a more obvious use in
real life than trying to apply force to objects. A person with
just crude knowledge of vectors would know how much and at which
angle to apply the force to maximize efficiency. For example, it
could be used to calculate how to drag a box using minimal force
(angle used to drag etc.).

Analytical Method
North = 2000*sin 50
= 1532.1 N
= 1532.1 - 2000
= -467.9 N
South = 2000 N = 467.9 N South

East = 0 N
= 0 - 1285.6
West = 2000*cos 50 = -1285.6
= 1285.6 N = 1285.6 N West

## Resultant = sq.r (467.9)2 + (1285.6)2 tan X = S/W

= sq.r 1871698 =
467.9/1285.6
= 1368.1 N 70 SW X = tan-1(0.36)
= 20
North = 2000*sin 50 + 3000*sin 20
= 1532.1 + 1026.1
= 2558.1 N = 2558.1 - 2000
= 558.1 N North
South = 2000 N

East = 3000*cos 20
= 2819.1 N
= 2819.1 - 1285.6
West = 2000*cos 50 = 1533.5 N East
= 1285.6 N

Resultant = sq.r (558.1)2 + (1533.5)2 tan X = N/E
= sq.r 2663106 = 558.1/1533.5
= 1632 N 70 NE X =tan-1(0.36)
= 20
Equilibrium is equal and opposite direction to the Resultant
force.

Reference