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You are on page 1of 7

Pocket Guide

Version 3

1. Print one single-sided copy of this PDF file.

You will get this page of instructions plus six 8-1/2 x 11 sheets.

1st sheet, side 1 = spread of first & last pages (pages 12 & 1)

3. You may need to insert the reverse side of each sheet upside down in your

printers document feeder, depending on how your copying machine flips paper

to make double-sided copies.

4. After the sheets are printed, fold them in half to produce a 12-page booklet

measuring 5-1/2 x 8. Staple down middle, if desired.

OK/jb: 03/08

LOOP OPTIMIZATION SOFTWARE

INTUNE+ Loop Optimization Software is a plant management and

process control predictive maintenance tool that combines

process control monitoring with powerful diagnostic and PID tuning

and optimization tools, including:

Comprehensive performance analysis

Customized diagnostics for plant-specific indices

Web-based reporting and customized event notification

Pocket Guide

Version 3

Automatic, adaptive, model-based, and offline tuning

INTUNE+ can report on any Key Performance Indicator (KPI) an end user

requires. You can champion your process control strategy based on: energy

reduction; increasing productivity; more consistent product quality;

increasing plant engineering productivity; and supporting continuous

improvement.

With INTUNE+, you can finally complete your process control predictive

maintenance program by going beyond the device level. Differentiate

between hardware and tuning problems with functional, flexible, and

customizable tools that truly put you in control.

This revolutionary new software is an integral part of ControlSofts PROCESS

NAVIGATOR. INTUNE+ software is the foundation of ControlSofts partnership

to improve plant operations, maintenance, and engineering productivity.

2006 Engineers Choice EMAIL info@controlsoftinc.com

Product of the Year in the

process control category WEB www.controlsoftinc.com

To help correct loop quality problems, INTUNE provides robust tuning tools

including its auto tuning, heuristic-based adaptive tuning, offline data FAX 440-443-0249

tuning, and offline model-based tuning. Also included is a PID comparison

tool, along with a variety of online and offline process and PID simulation 5387 Avion Park Drive

features.

To learn more about these powerful problem correction tools, request a

copy of SL 106. Visit www.controlsoftinc.com or phone 440-443-3900.

Highland Heights OH 44143

Page 2 -- PID Loop Tuning Pocket Guide, Version 3 PID Loop Tuning Pocket Guide, Version 3 -- Page 11

CONTENTS

page 3 MANTRA is a state-of-the-art advanced control system. It is a fully functional,

configurable control system with more than 90 function blocks,

Description of Processes configurable faceplates, and very easy-to-use, intuitive, drag-and-drop

type of function block programming.

Advanced control functions in MANTRA include our patented model-based

page 4 control suiteIMC (Internal Model Control), CC (Coordinated Control), and

Description of PID Units MMC (Modular Multivariable Control).

MANTRA allows users to build all necessary logic on top of the model-

predictive control functions to take care of any operation or control needs.

page 5 It also allows users to switch the control back and forth between MANTRA

Closed Loop Tuning Procedure and their existing control system.

Chemical Reactors Pasteurization Ore Processing

pages 6-7 Extruders

Bio-Reactors

Autoclaves / Retorts

Cooking Stations

Inline Blending

Glass Furnaces

Open Loop Tuning Procedure Fermentation

Sterilizers

Gas Purification

pH & ORP

Dryers & Evaporators

Kilns

Chlorine Injection

pages 8-10

Our experienced controls engineering professionals perform control loop

Reference List of Common Controllers diagnostics and loop performance optimization services. Our process con-

trol experts observe and analyze the relevant processes in a plant and then

recommend changes to improve control system performance.

page 11 ADVANCED CONTROLS ENGINEERING

MANTRA & Services & Training We have developed and applied advanced process control strategies

since 1985. Our advanced process control services typically reduce

process loop variation well within the desired limits, often exceeding the

expectations of our clients.

page 12

TRAINING: PID LOOP TUNING & PROCESS CONTROL STRATEGIES

INTUNE+ Loop Optimization Software &

Designed for engineers and technicians, classes cover basic terminology

INTUNE Tuning Tools and building blocks of process control as well as fundamentals and

advanced process control techniques using our fully automated, award-

winning control solutions.

Each class is taught by instructors with many years of experience in

the industry, to insure maximum content.

Professionals who have attended these classes have given us rave

reviews on both technical content and method.

Class outlines at www.controlsoftinc.com or phone 440-443-3900.

Page 10 -- PID Loop Tuning Pocket Guide, Version 3 PID Loop Tuning Pocket Guide, Version 3 -- Page 3

continued from page 9

DESCRIPTION OF PROCESSES

MANTRA PID BLOCKS SIEMENS PID BLOCKS Fast Loops (flow, pressure)

PID Block Series TI PID Block

P Gain (Gain * 1) P Gain (Gain * 1) P - Little [Too much will cause cycling]

I Time Constant (Sec * 1) I Time Constant (Min * 1)

D Time Constant (Sec * 1) D Time Constant (Min * 1) I - More

D - Not needed

PID Block Parallel S7 controller C non-interacting

P Gain (Gain * 1) P Gain (Gain * 1)

I Reset Rate (Repeats/sec * 1) I Time Constant (Sec * 1)

D Gain (Gain * 1) D Time Constant (Sec * 1)

Slow Loops (temperature)

P - More

PID Block Non-Interacting

P Gain (Gain * 1) I - Some [Too much will cause cycling]

SQUARE D PID BLOCKS

I Time Constant (Sec * 1)

PID Block D - Some

D Time Constant (Sec * 1)

P Gain (Gain * 100)

I Reset Rate (Repeats/min * 100)

D Time Constant (Min * 6000)

Integrating (level & insulated temp)

MODICON PID BLOCKS P - More

KPID Block

P Gain (Gain * 1) I - Little [Will cause cycling]

I Time Constant (Sec * 1) WESTINGHOUSE PID BLOCKS

D Time Constant (Sec * 1) WFDP PID Block D- Must [If D is not used, the loop will cycle.]

P Gain (Gain * 100)

PID Block I Time Constant (Sec * 1)

P Gain (Gain * 1) D Gain (Gain * 1) Noisy Loops (any PID loop where the

I Time Constant (Sec * 1)

Ovation PID Block measurement is constantly changing)

D Time Constant (Sec * 1)

P Gain (Gain *1) P - Low [Will cause cycling]

PID2 Block I Time Constant (Sec *1)

P Band (Band * 1) D Gain (Gain *1) I - Most [Accumulated error]

I Reset Rate (Repeats/min * 100) D - Off [Will cause cycling]

D Time Constant (Min * 100)

PID Block

P Gain (Gain * 1)

I Time Constant (Sec * 10)

D Time Constant (Sec * 10)

Page 4 -- PID Loop Tuning Pocket Guide, Version 3 PID Loop Tuning Pocket Guide, Version 3 -- Page 9

Proportional Term is the amount added to the output based on BAILEY INFI90 PID BLOCKS GE PID BLOCKS

156,0 PID Block Series 90/30/70

the current error. P Gain (Gain *1) PID Block ISA

I Reset Rate (Repeats/min * 1) P Gain (Gain * 100)

Proportional Gain is a Multiplier. D Time Constant (Min * 1) I Reset Rate (Repeats/sec * 1000)

If the error is 10 and the Gain is .8, then output will move 8%. D Time Constant (Sec * 100)

156,1 PID Block

Proportional Band is a Divider as a percentage. P Gain (Gain * 1) Series 90/30/70

I Reset Rate (Repeats/min * 1) PID Block Independent

If the error is 10 and the Band is 125%, then output is D Time Constant (Min * 1) P Gain (Gain * 100)

(10*(100/125))=8%. I Reset Rate (Repeats/sec * 1000)

156,2 PID Block D Gain (Gain * 100)

Conversion between P-Gain and P-Band: P Gain (Gain * 1)

P-Band = 100/P-Gain I Reset Rate (Repeats/min * 1) RX3i/RX7i PID Blocks

D Time Constant (Min * 1) PID Block Parallel

P Gain (Gain * 1)

156,3 PID Block I Reset Rate (Repeats/Min * 1)

Integral Term is the amount added to the output based on the P Gain (Gain * 1) D Gain (Gain * 1)

I Time Constant (Min * 1)

sum of the error. D Time Constant (Min * 1) RX3i/RX7i PID Blocks

PID Block Series

Time Constant is the time for one full repeat of P-Term. P Gain (Gain * 1)

If the P-Term is 8% and the Time Constant is 10 seconds, I Reset Rate (Repeats/Min * 1)

then the output will ramp up 8% every 10 seconds. D Time Constant (Min * 1)

FOXBORO PID BLOCKS

I/A Series PID, PIDA, PIDE, PIDX, PIDXE

Reset Rate is amount the output will move in one second. P Band (Band * 1)

RX3i/RX7i PID Blocks

ADV_PID Block Parallel

If the P-Term is 8% and the Reset Rate is .1 repeat/sec, then I Time Constant (Min * 1) P Gain (Gain * 1)

the output will move .1*8 every second and take 10 seconds D Time Constant (Min * 1) I Reset Rate (Repeats/Min * 1)

D Gain (Gain * 1)

for the full repeat of the P-Term of 8%.

RX3i/RX7i PID Blocks

Integral Gain is the same as Reset Rate multiplied by P-Gain. ADV_PID Block Series

Conversion between Time and Reset Rate: P Gain (Gain * 1)

I Reset Rate (Repeats/Min * 1)

Reset Rate = 1/ Time Constant D Time Constant (Min * 1)

I-Gain = (1/Time Constant)*P-Gain

on the rate of change of the error. continued on page 10

forward.

Derivative Gain is the amount of time the controller looks forward

multiplied by the P-Gain.

Page 8 -- PID Loop Tuning Pocket Guide, Version 3 PID Loop Tuning Pocket Guide, Version 3 -- Page 5

Following is a summary of many of the more common controllers available

on the market. CLOSED LOOP STEP 1: KNOW THE PROCESS

Identify the loop you intend to tune and determine the speed of the loop. A rough

categorization is as follows:

For units of other controllers, please contact ControlSoft (see page 1 for

Fast loop has response time from less than one second to about 10 seconds, such as

contact information). a flow loop. Use of PI controller is sufficient.

Medium loop has response time of several seconds up to about 30 seconds, such as

flow, temperature, and pressure. Use either PI or PID controller

AB PID BLOCKS Slow loop has response time of more than 30 seconds, such as many temperature

PLC5 Integer Block ISA loops and level loops. Use of PID controller is recommended.

P Gain (Gain * 100) SLC PID Block with RG bit on

I Time Constant (Min * 100) P Gain (Gain *100)

D Time Constant (Min * 100) I Time Constant (Min * 100)

D Time Constant (Min * 100)

CLOSED LOOP STEP 2: KNOW THE CONTROLLER

PLC5 Integer Block Independent Gains

P Gain (Gain * 100) SLC PID Block with RG bit off Identify the units of your PID controller,

I Reset Rate (Repeats/sec * 1000) P Gain (Gain *10) Proportional term (P-Term) is either a Proportional Gain (P-Gain) or Proportional Band

D Gain (Gain * 100) I Time Constant (Min * 10) (P-Band).

D Time Constant (Min * 100) Integral term (I-Term) can be a Time Constant (in minutes or seconds), Reset Rate (1/

PLC5 PD Block ISA second or 1/minute), or I-Gain (Reset rate * Proportional gain).

P (Gain *1) ControlLogix PID Block Independent Derivative term (D-Term) can be Time Constant (in seconds or minutes) or Derivative

I Time Constant (Min * 1) P Gain (Gain * 1) Gain (derivative time constant * proportional gain).

D Time Constant (Min * 1) I Reset Rate (sec * 1) In this document, Proportional Gain, Integral Reset Rate, and Derivative Gain are

D Gain (Gain * 1) assumed.

PLC5 PD Block Independent Gains Convert back to your controller units if necessary.

P Gain (Gain * 1) ControlLogix PID Block Dependent The Reference section is a summary of many of the more common controllers available

I Reset Rate (Repeats/sec * 1) P Gain (Gain * 1) on the market.

D Gain (Gain * 1) I Time Constant (Min * 1) For units of other controllers, please contact ControlSoft.

D Time Constant (Min * 1)

PLC5 PCO Block Dependent Gains

P Gain (Gain * 1) ControlLogix PIDE Block Independent

I Time Constant (Min * 1) P Gain (Gain * 1)

D Time Constant (Min * 1) I Reset Rate (Min * 1) CLOSED LOOP STEP 3: WATCH THE RESPONSE

D Gain (Gain * 1) Make a small change of setpoint (say 5%) or wait for a disturbance in the process.

PLC5 PCO Block Independent Gains Then watch for process variable (PV) and control output (CO) responses.

P Gain (Gain * 1) ControlLogix PIDE Block Dependent If no visible instantaneous change of CO upon the change of setpoint or no apparent

I Reset Rate (Repeats/sec * 1) P Gain (Gain * 1) overshoot (over damped), increase your proportional gain by 50%.

D Gain (Gain * 1) I Time Constant (Min * 1) If the PV is unstable or has sustained oscillation, with overshoot greater than 25%,

D Time Constant (Min * 1) reduce Proportional Gain by 50% and reduce Integral Reset Rate by 50%.

If PV oscillation persists with tolerable overshoot, reduce Proportional Gain by 20%

and reduce Integral Reset Rate by 50%.

If 3 or more consecutive peaks occur upon the change of setpoint, reduce Integral

Reset Rate by 30% and increase Derivative Gain by 50%.

If PV stays fairly flat and below (or above) the setpoint for a long time, after change

of setpoint or beginning of disturbance (long tail scenario), increase Integral Reset

Rate by 100%.

Repeat step 3 until the closed-loop response is satisfactory to you.

Page 6 -- PID Loop Tuning Pocket Guide, Version 3 PID Loop Tuning Pocket Guide, Version 3 -- Page 7

OPEN LOOP STEP 1: OPEN LOOP STEP 3:

KNOW THE PROCESS OPEN LOOP TEST FOR NON-INTEGRATING LOOPS

Identify the loop you intend to tune and determine the speed of a. Put loop in manual control mode, keep control output constant, d. Select initial PID values such that

the loop. A rough categorization is as follows: and wait for process to stabilize. P = 2 / Model gain

Fast loop has response time from less than one second to about I = (Deadtime + Time constant)

10 seconds, such as a flow loop. Use of PI controller is b. Make a small step change on control output (say 5 or 10%), D = (Deadtime / 3) or (Time constant / 6)

sufficient. and watch the response.

Medium loop has response time of several seconds up to about For slow loop, select whichever is greater.

30 seconds, such as flow, temperature, and pressure. Use c. Estimate process model according to Figure 1: For fast loop, select smaller value.

either PI or PID controller --Model gain = PV change / CO change.

Slow loop has response time of more than 30 seconds, such as --Deadtime = time lapse between change of CO and e. These initial PID values should give you a reasonable

many temperature loops and level loops. Use of PID observable changes on PV. closed-loop response. Fine-tune the controller by using

--Time constant = the time it takes for PV to reach about 63% the closed-loop tuning method (see step 3 on page 5) to

controller is recommended.

of total changes. get your desired response.

KNOW THE CONTROLLER

Identify the units of your PID controller, Controller Output (CO)

Proportional term (P-Term) is either a Proportional Gain (P- Process Input

Gain) or Proportional Band (P-Band).

Integral term (I-Term) can be a Time Constant (in minutes or

seconds), Reset Rate (1/second or 1/minute), or I-Gain CO Change

(Reset rate * Proportional gain).

Derivative term (D-Term) can be Time Constant (in seconds or

minutes) or Derivative Gain (derivative time constant * Time

proportional gain).

In this document, Proportional Gain, Integral Time Constant (in

seconds), and Derivative Time Constant (in seconds) are

assumed.

Convert back to your controller units if necessary. Deadtime Time Constant

The Reference section (starting on page 8) is a summary of

many of the more common controllers available on the Process Value (PV)

market. Process Output

For units of other controllers, please contact ControlSoft. 63% of PV Change

PV Change

Noise Band

Figure 1.

First Order

Time

Non-Integrating Model

Calculation

Gain = PV_Change / CO_Change

DS405-03/08 -- www.controlsoftinc.com

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