You are on page 1of 7

PID Loop Tuning

Pocket Guide
Version 3

Printing Notes for 12-page booklet:


1. Print one single-sided copy of this PDF file.
You will get this page of instructions plus six 8-1/2 x 11 sheets.

2. The six sheets should be arranged as follows:

1st sheet, side 1 = spread of first & last pages (pages 12 & 1)

Reverse side of 1st sheet = spread of pages 2 & 11

2nd sheet, side 1 = spread of pages 10 & 3

Reverse side of 2nd sheet = spread of pages 4 & 9

3rd sheet, side 1 = spread of pages 8 & 5

Reverse side of 3rd sheet = spread of pages 6 & 7

3. You may need to insert the reverse side of each sheet upside down in your
printers document feeder, depending on how your copying machine flips paper
to make double-sided copies.

4. After the sheets are printed, fold them in half to produce a 12-page booklet
measuring 5-1/2 x 8. Staple down middle, if desired.
OK/jb: 03/08
LOOP OPTIMIZATION SOFTWARE

PID Loop Tuning


INTUNE+ Loop Optimization Software is a plant management and
process control predictive maintenance tool that combines
process control monitoring with powerful diagnostic and PID tuning
and optimization tools, including:
Comprehensive performance analysis
Customized diagnostics for plant-specific indices
Web-based reporting and customized event notification
Pocket Guide
Version 3
Automatic, adaptive, model-based, and offline tuning
INTUNE+ can report on any Key Performance Indicator (KPI) an end user
requires. You can champion your process control strategy based on: energy
reduction; increasing productivity; more consistent product quality;
increasing plant engineering productivity; and supporting continuous
improvement.
With INTUNE+, you can finally complete your process control predictive
maintenance program by going beyond the device level. Differentiate
between hardware and tuning problems with functional, flexible, and
customizable tools that truly put you in control.
This revolutionary new software is an integral part of ControlSofts PROCESS
NAVIGATOR. INTUNE+ software is the foundation of ControlSofts partnership
to improve plant operations, maintenance, and engineering productivity.

INTUNE Loop Optimization Software


2006 Engineers Choice EMAIL info@controlsoftinc.com
Product of the Year in the
process control category WEB www.controlsoftinc.com

INTUNE TUNING TOOLS PHONE 440-443-3900


To help correct loop quality problems, INTUNE provides robust tuning tools
including its auto tuning, heuristic-based adaptive tuning, offline data FAX 440-443-0249
tuning, and offline model-based tuning. Also included is a PID comparison
tool, along with a variety of online and offline process and PID simulation 5387 Avion Park Drive
features.
To learn more about these powerful problem correction tools, request a
copy of SL 106. Visit www.controlsoftinc.com or phone 440-443-3900.
Highland Heights OH 44143

DS405-03/08 -- www.controlsoftinc.com DS405-03/08 -- www.controlsoftinc.com


Page 2 -- PID Loop Tuning Pocket Guide, Version 3 PID Loop Tuning Pocket Guide, Version 3 -- Page 11

CONTENTS
page 3 MANTRA is a state-of-the-art advanced control system. It is a fully functional,
configurable control system with more than 90 function blocks,
Description of Processes configurable faceplates, and very easy-to-use, intuitive, drag-and-drop
type of function block programming.
Advanced control functions in MANTRA include our patented model-based
page 4 control suiteIMC (Internal Model Control), CC (Coordinated Control), and
Description of PID Units MMC (Modular Multivariable Control).
MANTRA allows users to build all necessary logic on top of the model-
predictive control functions to take care of any operation or control needs.
page 5 It also allows users to switch the control back and forth between MANTRA
Closed Loop Tuning Procedure and their existing control system.

Process applications where MANTRA can be used include:


Chemical Reactors Pasteurization Ore Processing
pages 6-7 Extruders
Bio-Reactors
Autoclaves / Retorts
Cooking Stations
Inline Blending
Glass Furnaces
Open Loop Tuning Procedure Fermentation
Sterilizers
Gas Purification
pH & ORP
Dryers & Evaporators
Kilns
Chlorine Injection

CONSULTING SERVICES & LOOP TUNING


pages 8-10
Our experienced controls engineering professionals perform control loop
Reference List of Common Controllers diagnostics and loop performance optimization services. Our process con-
trol experts observe and analyze the relevant processes in a plant and then
recommend changes to improve control system performance.
page 11 ADVANCED CONTROLS ENGINEERING
MANTRA & Services & Training We have developed and applied advanced process control strategies
since 1985. Our advanced process control services typically reduce
process loop variation well within the desired limits, often exceeding the
expectations of our clients.
page 12
TRAINING: PID LOOP TUNING & PROCESS CONTROL STRATEGIES
INTUNE+ Loop Optimization Software &
Designed for engineers and technicians, classes cover basic terminology
INTUNE Tuning Tools and building blocks of process control as well as fundamentals and
advanced process control techniques using our fully automated, award-
winning control solutions.
Each class is taught by instructors with many years of experience in
the industry, to insure maximum content.
Professionals who have attended these classes have given us rave
reviews on both technical content and method.
Class outlines at www.controlsoftinc.com or phone 440-443-3900.

DS405-03/08 -- www.controlsoftinc.com DS405-03/08 -- www.controlsoftinc.com


Page 10 -- PID Loop Tuning Pocket Guide, Version 3 PID Loop Tuning Pocket Guide, Version 3 -- Page 3
continued from page 9
DESCRIPTION OF PROCESSES
MANTRA PID BLOCKS SIEMENS PID BLOCKS Fast Loops (flow, pressure)
PID Block Series TI PID Block
P Gain (Gain * 1) P Gain (Gain * 1) P - Little [Too much will cause cycling]
I Time Constant (Sec * 1) I Time Constant (Min * 1)
D Time Constant (Sec * 1) D Time Constant (Min * 1) I - More
D - Not needed
PID Block Parallel S7 controller C non-interacting
P Gain (Gain * 1) P Gain (Gain * 1)
I Reset Rate (Repeats/sec * 1) I Time Constant (Sec * 1)
D Gain (Gain * 1) D Time Constant (Sec * 1)
Slow Loops (temperature)
P - More
PID Block Non-Interacting
P Gain (Gain * 1) I - Some [Too much will cause cycling]
SQUARE D PID BLOCKS
I Time Constant (Sec * 1)
PID Block D - Some
D Time Constant (Sec * 1)
P Gain (Gain * 100)
I Reset Rate (Repeats/min * 100)
D Time Constant (Min * 6000)
Integrating (level & insulated temp)
MODICON PID BLOCKS P - More
KPID Block
P Gain (Gain * 1) I - Little [Will cause cycling]
I Time Constant (Sec * 1) WESTINGHOUSE PID BLOCKS
D Time Constant (Sec * 1) WFDP PID Block D- Must [If D is not used, the loop will cycle.]
P Gain (Gain * 100)
PID Block I Time Constant (Sec * 1)
P Gain (Gain * 1) D Gain (Gain * 1) Noisy Loops (any PID loop where the
I Time Constant (Sec * 1)
Ovation PID Block measurement is constantly changing)
D Time Constant (Sec * 1)
P Gain (Gain *1) P - Low [Will cause cycling]
PID2 Block I Time Constant (Sec *1)
P Band (Band * 1) D Gain (Gain *1) I - Most [Accumulated error]
I Reset Rate (Repeats/min * 100) D - Off [Will cause cycling]
D Time Constant (Min * 100)

OMRON PID BLOCKS


PID Block
P Gain (Gain * 1)
I Time Constant (Sec * 10)
D Time Constant (Sec * 10)

DS405-03/08 -- www.controlsoftinc.com DS405-03/08 -- www.controlsoftinc.com


Page 4 -- PID Loop Tuning Pocket Guide, Version 3 PID Loop Tuning Pocket Guide, Version 3 -- Page 9

DESCRIPTION OF PID UNITS


Proportional Term is the amount added to the output based on BAILEY INFI90 PID BLOCKS GE PID BLOCKS
156,0 PID Block Series 90/30/70
the current error. P Gain (Gain *1) PID Block ISA
I Reset Rate (Repeats/min * 1) P Gain (Gain * 100)
Proportional Gain is a Multiplier. D Time Constant (Min * 1) I Reset Rate (Repeats/sec * 1000)
If the error is 10 and the Gain is .8, then output will move 8%. D Time Constant (Sec * 100)
156,1 PID Block
Proportional Band is a Divider as a percentage. P Gain (Gain * 1) Series 90/30/70
I Reset Rate (Repeats/min * 1) PID Block Independent
If the error is 10 and the Band is 125%, then output is D Time Constant (Min * 1) P Gain (Gain * 100)
(10*(100/125))=8%. I Reset Rate (Repeats/sec * 1000)
156,2 PID Block D Gain (Gain * 100)
Conversion between P-Gain and P-Band: P Gain (Gain * 1)
P-Band = 100/P-Gain I Reset Rate (Repeats/min * 1) RX3i/RX7i PID Blocks
D Time Constant (Min * 1) PID Block Parallel
P Gain (Gain * 1)
156,3 PID Block I Reset Rate (Repeats/Min * 1)
Integral Term is the amount added to the output based on the P Gain (Gain * 1) D Gain (Gain * 1)
I Time Constant (Min * 1)
sum of the error. D Time Constant (Min * 1) RX3i/RX7i PID Blocks
PID Block Series
Time Constant is the time for one full repeat of P-Term. P Gain (Gain * 1)
If the P-Term is 8% and the Time Constant is 10 seconds, I Reset Rate (Repeats/Min * 1)
then the output will ramp up 8% every 10 seconds. D Time Constant (Min * 1)
FOXBORO PID BLOCKS
I/A Series PID, PIDA, PIDE, PIDX, PIDXE
Reset Rate is amount the output will move in one second. P Band (Band * 1)
RX3i/RX7i PID Blocks
ADV_PID Block Parallel
If the P-Term is 8% and the Reset Rate is .1 repeat/sec, then I Time Constant (Min * 1) P Gain (Gain * 1)
the output will move .1*8 every second and take 10 seconds D Time Constant (Min * 1) I Reset Rate (Repeats/Min * 1)
D Gain (Gain * 1)
for the full repeat of the P-Term of 8%.
RX3i/RX7i PID Blocks
Integral Gain is the same as Reset Rate multiplied by P-Gain. ADV_PID Block Series
Conversion between Time and Reset Rate: P Gain (Gain * 1)
I Reset Rate (Repeats/Min * 1)
Reset Rate = 1/ Time Constant D Time Constant (Min * 1)
I-Gain = (1/Time Constant)*P-Gain

Derivative Term is the amount subtracted from the output based


on the rate of change of the error. continued on page 10

Time Constant is the amount of time the controller will look


forward.
Derivative Gain is the amount of time the controller looks forward
multiplied by the P-Gain.

DS405-03/08 -- www.controlsoftinc.com DS405-03/08 -- www.controlsoftinc.com


Page 8 -- PID Loop Tuning Pocket Guide, Version 3 PID Loop Tuning Pocket Guide, Version 3 -- Page 5

REFERENCE CLOSED LOOP TUNING PROCEDURE


Following is a summary of many of the more common controllers available
on the market. CLOSED LOOP STEP 1: KNOW THE PROCESS
Identify the loop you intend to tune and determine the speed of the loop. A rough
categorization is as follows:
For units of other controllers, please contact ControlSoft (see page 1 for
Fast loop has response time from less than one second to about 10 seconds, such as
contact information). a flow loop. Use of PI controller is sufficient.
Medium loop has response time of several seconds up to about 30 seconds, such as
flow, temperature, and pressure. Use either PI or PID controller
AB PID BLOCKS Slow loop has response time of more than 30 seconds, such as many temperature
PLC5 Integer Block ISA loops and level loops. Use of PID controller is recommended.
P Gain (Gain * 100) SLC PID Block with RG bit on
I Time Constant (Min * 100) P Gain (Gain *100)
D Time Constant (Min * 100) I Time Constant (Min * 100)
D Time Constant (Min * 100)
CLOSED LOOP STEP 2: KNOW THE CONTROLLER
PLC5 Integer Block Independent Gains
P Gain (Gain * 100) SLC PID Block with RG bit off Identify the units of your PID controller,
I Reset Rate (Repeats/sec * 1000) P Gain (Gain *10) Proportional term (P-Term) is either a Proportional Gain (P-Gain) or Proportional Band
D Gain (Gain * 100) I Time Constant (Min * 10) (P-Band).
D Time Constant (Min * 100) Integral term (I-Term) can be a Time Constant (in minutes or seconds), Reset Rate (1/
PLC5 PD Block ISA second or 1/minute), or I-Gain (Reset rate * Proportional gain).
P (Gain *1) ControlLogix PID Block Independent Derivative term (D-Term) can be Time Constant (in seconds or minutes) or Derivative
I Time Constant (Min * 1) P Gain (Gain * 1) Gain (derivative time constant * proportional gain).
D Time Constant (Min * 1) I Reset Rate (sec * 1) In this document, Proportional Gain, Integral Reset Rate, and Derivative Gain are
D Gain (Gain * 1) assumed.
PLC5 PD Block Independent Gains Convert back to your controller units if necessary.
P Gain (Gain * 1) ControlLogix PID Block Dependent The Reference section is a summary of many of the more common controllers available
I Reset Rate (Repeats/sec * 1) P Gain (Gain * 1) on the market.
D Gain (Gain * 1) I Time Constant (Min * 1) For units of other controllers, please contact ControlSoft.
D Time Constant (Min * 1)
PLC5 PCO Block Dependent Gains
P Gain (Gain * 1) ControlLogix PIDE Block Independent
I Time Constant (Min * 1) P Gain (Gain * 1)
D Time Constant (Min * 1) I Reset Rate (Min * 1) CLOSED LOOP STEP 3: WATCH THE RESPONSE
D Gain (Gain * 1) Make a small change of setpoint (say 5%) or wait for a disturbance in the process.
PLC5 PCO Block Independent Gains Then watch for process variable (PV) and control output (CO) responses.
P Gain (Gain * 1) ControlLogix PIDE Block Dependent If no visible instantaneous change of CO upon the change of setpoint or no apparent
I Reset Rate (Repeats/sec * 1) P Gain (Gain * 1) overshoot (over damped), increase your proportional gain by 50%.
D Gain (Gain * 1) I Time Constant (Min * 1) If the PV is unstable or has sustained oscillation, with overshoot greater than 25%,
D Time Constant (Min * 1) reduce Proportional Gain by 50% and reduce Integral Reset Rate by 50%.
If PV oscillation persists with tolerable overshoot, reduce Proportional Gain by 20%
and reduce Integral Reset Rate by 50%.
If 3 or more consecutive peaks occur upon the change of setpoint, reduce Integral
Reset Rate by 30% and increase Derivative Gain by 50%.
If PV stays fairly flat and below (or above) the setpoint for a long time, after change
of setpoint or beginning of disturbance (long tail scenario), increase Integral Reset
Rate by 100%.
Repeat step 3 until the closed-loop response is satisfactory to you.

DS405-03/08 -- www.controlsoftinc.com DS405-03/08 -- www.controlsoftinc.com


Page 6 -- PID Loop Tuning Pocket Guide, Version 3 PID Loop Tuning Pocket Guide, Version 3 -- Page 7

OPEN LOOP TUNING PROCEDURE


OPEN LOOP STEP 1: OPEN LOOP STEP 3:
KNOW THE PROCESS OPEN LOOP TEST FOR NON-INTEGRATING LOOPS
Identify the loop you intend to tune and determine the speed of a. Put loop in manual control mode, keep control output constant, d. Select initial PID values such that
the loop. A rough categorization is as follows: and wait for process to stabilize. P = 2 / Model gain
Fast loop has response time from less than one second to about I = (Deadtime + Time constant)
10 seconds, such as a flow loop. Use of PI controller is b. Make a small step change on control output (say 5 or 10%), D = (Deadtime / 3) or (Time constant / 6)
sufficient. and watch the response.
Medium loop has response time of several seconds up to about For slow loop, select whichever is greater.
30 seconds, such as flow, temperature, and pressure. Use c. Estimate process model according to Figure 1: For fast loop, select smaller value.
either PI or PID controller --Model gain = PV change / CO change.
Slow loop has response time of more than 30 seconds, such as --Deadtime = time lapse between change of CO and e. These initial PID values should give you a reasonable
many temperature loops and level loops. Use of PID observable changes on PV. closed-loop response. Fine-tune the controller by using
--Time constant = the time it takes for PV to reach about 63% the closed-loop tuning method (see step 3 on page 5) to
controller is recommended.
of total changes. get your desired response.

OPEN LOOP STEP 2:


KNOW THE CONTROLLER
Identify the units of your PID controller, Controller Output (CO)
Proportional term (P-Term) is either a Proportional Gain (P- Process Input
Gain) or Proportional Band (P-Band).
Integral term (I-Term) can be a Time Constant (in minutes or
seconds), Reset Rate (1/second or 1/minute), or I-Gain CO Change
(Reset rate * Proportional gain).
Derivative term (D-Term) can be Time Constant (in seconds or
minutes) or Derivative Gain (derivative time constant * Time
proportional gain).
In this document, Proportional Gain, Integral Time Constant (in
seconds), and Derivative Time Constant (in seconds) are
assumed.
Convert back to your controller units if necessary. Deadtime Time Constant
The Reference section (starting on page 8) is a summary of
many of the more common controllers available on the Process Value (PV)
market. Process Output
For units of other controllers, please contact ControlSoft. 63% of PV Change

PV Change

Noise Band
Figure 1.
First Order
Time
Non-Integrating Model
Calculation
Gain = PV_Change / CO_Change

DS405-03/08 -- www.controlsoftinc.com