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Digital signal procssing notes

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com

Senkottai Village, Madurai Sivagangai Main Road,

Madurai -625 020

An ISO 9001:2008 Certified Institution

SEMESTER : 6

YEAR :III

BRANCH : CSE

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Signal:

Signal is a function of one or more independent variables which contain

some information.

together and produces an output in response to an input signal.

Processing:

Operations performed by the system on the signal is called

processing.

Types of signal processing:

1.Analog signal processing.

2.Digital signal processing.

Analog signal processing: In this processing input signal,output signal and the

system are all analog in nature.

Dsp is the processing of signals by digital

systems.Input and output signals are also digital in nature.

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ADC:

It converts analog input to digital input.

It performs amplification,attenuation,filtering,spectral analysis,feature

extraction etc operations on digital data.

DAC:

Some of the processed signals are required back in the analog form.So we

use DAC to convert digital output to its analog equivalent.

1.Flexibility.

2.Accuracy.

3.Easy storage.

4.Mathematical processing.

5.Cost.

Applications:

1.Speech processing.

2.Telecommunication.

3.Biomedical Engineering.

4.Instrumentation

2.Discrete time signals.

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Continuous time or analog signals are signals that are

defined for every value of a < t < b, where (a, b) can be ( -, + ), i.e., x (t) = e-|t|

or x(t) = cos(pt). .

Discrete-time signals are defined at discrete-time instants and between

the two discrete time instants are undefined but are not zero. They can be obtained

either by sampling analog signals or they can be discrete in nature like discrete

measurement signals.

A discrete-time signal having a set of discrete values is called a digital

signal. Note that sampling an analog signal produces a discrete-time signal. Then

quantization of its values produces a digital signal.

Thus, the sequence values x(0) to x(N - 1) may often be considered to be the

elements of a column vector as follows:

as speech, with an analogto-digital (A/D) converter) For example, a continuous-

time signal x,(t) that is sampled at a rate of fs = l/Ts samples per second produces

the sampled signal x(n), which is related to xa(t) as follows:

x(n)=x0 (nTs)

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Periodic and Aperiodic Sequences :

periodic or aperiodic. A signal x(n) is said to be periodic if, for some positive real

integer N,

X(n)=x(n+N) (1.1)

for all n. This is equivalent to saying that the sequence repeats itself every N

samples. If a signal is periodic with

period N, it is also periodic with period 2N, period 3N, and all other integer

multiples of N. The fundamental period, which we will denote by N, is the

smallest positive integer.

If Eq. (1 .I) is not satisfied for any integer N, x(n) is said to be an aperiodic signal.

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Z Transform:

signals and systems and is the discrete -time counterpart of the Laplace transform

for continuous-time signals and systems. The z-transform may be used to solve

constant coefficient difference equations, evaluate the response of a linear time -

invariant system to a given input, and design linear filters.

The Region of Convergence (ROC) is the set of all values of z, where x(z) attains a

finite value

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Example1:

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Example2:

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Properties:

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Example:

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Example2:

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The sequence X(k ) is called the N-point DFT of

x(n). These coefficients are related to x(n) as follows :

Let x(n) be a finite-length sequence of length N that is equal to zero outside the interval

[0, N - I].

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Sectioned Convolution:

In spite of its computational advantages, there are some difficulties with the DFT approach. For

example, if x(n) is very long, we must commit a significant amount of time computing very long

DFTs and in the process accept very long processing delays. In some cases, it may even be

possible that x(n) is roo long to compute the DFT. The solution to these problems is to use block

convolution, which involves segmenting the signal to be filtered, x(n), into sections. Each section

is then filtered with the FIR filter h(n), and the filtered sections are pieced together to form the

sequence y(n). There are two block convolution techniques. The first is overlap-add, and the

second is overlap-save.

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The discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is used to perform convolutions. we

look at the computational requirements of the DFT and derive some fast algorithms for computing

the DFT. These algorithms are known, generically, as fast Fourier fransforms (FFTs). W e begin

with the radix-2 decimation-in-time FFT. W e then look at mixed-radix FFT algorithms and the

prime factor FFT.

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UNIT III IIR FILTER DESIGN

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Example1:

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Example 2:

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Example1:

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Type I filter:

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Type II filter:

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Example 1:

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1.Impulse invariance.

2.Bilinear transformation.

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Example1:

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Kaiser window:

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Example1:

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