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- Assignment 3
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Department of Physics

A sinusoidal voltage V ( t ) = ( 40.0 V ) sin (100t ) is applied to a series RLC circuit with L =

160 mH, C = 99.0 F , and R = 68.0 .

(b) Let the current at any instant in the circuit be I ( t ) = I 0 sin (t ) . Find I0.

Solution:

Z = R2 + ( X L X C )

2

(1.1)

where

XL = L (1.2)

and

1

XC = (1.3)

C

are the inductive reactance and the capacitive reactance, respectively. Since the general

expression of the voltage source is V ( t ) = V0 sin (t ) , where V0 is the maximum output

voltage and is the angular frequency, we have V0 = 40 V and = 100 . Thus, the

impedance Z becomes

2

1

2 1

Z = R2 + L = (68) 2

+ (100 )( .16 ) = 109 (1.4)

C (100 ) ( 99 10 6

)

1

V0 40.0 V

I0 = = = 0.367 A (1.5)

Z 109

(c) The phase angle between the current and the voltage is determined by

1

X XC

L

tan = L = C (1.6)

R R

Numerically, we have

1

(100 )( 0.160 ) 100 99.0 106

( )( ) = 51.3

= tan 1 (1.7)

68.0

2

Example 2: Series RLC Circuit

circuit where R=40.0 , L=185 mH, and C=65.0 F.

(a) VR0, VL0 and VC0, the maximum voltage drops across each circuit element, and

(b) the maximum voltage drop across points b and d shown in the figure.

Solution:

(a) The inductive reactance, capacitive reactance and the impedance of the circuit are

given by

1 1

XC = = = 49.0 (2.1)

C (100 ) ( 65.0 106 )

and

2 2 2

= 41.0 (2.3)

V0 150

I0 = = = 3.66 A (2.4)

Z 41.0

3

The maximum voltage across the resistance would be just the product of maximum

current and the resistance:

(b) The maximum input voltage V0 is related to VR0, VL0 and VC0 by

V0 = VR 0 2 + (VL 0 VC 0 ) 2 (2.8)

Thus, from b to d, the maximum voltage would be the difference between VL 0 and VC 0 :

4

Example 3: Resonance

20.0 mH, C = 100 nF and R = 20.0 . Find the following quantities:

Solution:

0 1 1 1 1

f = = = = 3560 Hz (3.1)

2 2 LC 2 ( 20.0 10 )(100 10 )

3 9

V0 100

I0 = = = 5.00 A (3.2)

R 20.0

Q= = = 22.4 (3.3)

R ( 20.0 )

(d) At resonance, the amplitude of the voltage across the inductor is

5

Example 4: High-pass RL filter

A high-pass RL filter can be represented by the circuit in the figure below, with r being

the internal resistance of the inductor.

(a) Find Vout ,0 / Vin ,0 , the ratio of the maximum output voltage Vout ,0 to the maximum input

voltage Vin ,0 .

Vout ,0 1

(b) Let r =20.0 , R=5.0 , and L=250 mH. What is the frequency if = ?

Vin ,0 2

Solution:

(R + r)

2

(a) The impedance for the input circuit is Z in = + X L2 where X L = L and

Z out = R 2 + X L2 for the output circuit. The maximum current is given by

Vin ,0 V0

I0 = = (4.1)

Z in (R + r)

2

+ X L2

This implies

Vout ,0 R 2 + X L2

= (4.3)

Vin ,0 ( R + r ) + X L2

2

Vout ,0 1

(b) For = , we have

Vin ,0 2

R 2 + X L2 1

= (4.4)

(R + r)

2

+X 2

L

4

6

Rearranging the terms, we have

(r + R)

2

4R2

XL = (4.5)

3

Since X L = L = 2 fL , we have

( 25.0 ) 4 ( 5.00 )

2 2

X 1

f = L = = 8.42 Hz (4.6)

2 L 2 ( 0.250 ) 3

Consider the circuit shown below, assuming that R, L, V0 and are known. If both

switches are closed initially, find the following:

(d) the capacitance C after switch 2 is also opened, with the current and voltage in phase,

(e) the impedance of the circuit when both switches are open,

(h) the phase difference between the current and the voltage if the frequency of the

voltage source is doubled, and

7

(i) the frequency that makes the inductive reactance one-half the capacitive reactance.

Solution:

(a) When both switches are closed, the current goes through only the generator and the

resistor, so the total impedance of the circuit is R and the current is

V0

I (t ) = cos t (5.1)

R

(b) The average power is given by

V0 2 V2

< P > = < I (t )V (t ) >= < cos 2 t >= 0 (5.2)

R 2R

(c) If only switch 1 is opened, the current will pass through the generator, the resistor and

the inductor. For this RL circuit, the impedance becomes

1 1

Z= = (5.3)

R 2 + X L2 R 2 + 2 L2

L

= tan 1 (5.4)

R

V0 L

I (t ) = cos t + tan 1 (5.5)

R + L

2

2 2 R

(d) If both switches are opened, then this would be a driven RLC circuit, with the phase

angle given by

1

X L XC

L

tan = = C (5.6)

R R

If the current and the voltage are in phase, then = 0 , implying tan = 0 . Let the

corresponding angular frequency be 0 , we then obtain

1

0 L = (5.7)

0C

8

and the capacitance is

1

C= (5.8)

0 2 L

(e) From (d), we see that when both switches are opened, the circuit is at resonance

with X L = X C . Thus, the impedance of the circuit becomes

Z = R 2 + ( X L X C )2 = R (5.9)

1 1

U C = CVC2 = CI 2 X C2 (5.10)

2 2

2

1 1 V 1 V02 L

U C ,max = CI 02 X C2 = C 0 = (5.11)

2 2 R 0 2C 2 2 R 2

1 2 LV02

U L ,max = LI 0 = (5.12)

2 2R2

(h) If the frequency of the voltage source is doubled, i.e., = 20 = 1/ LC , then the

phase angle is given by

L 1/ C

= tan 1 = tan

( 2 / LC L

1

) ( )

LC / 2C

= tan 1 3 L

(5.13)

R R 2R C

1 1

L = (5.14)

2 C

then

1

= = 0 (5.15)

2 LC 2

9

Example 6: Parallel RLC Circuit

The figures below illustrate a parallel RLC circuit and its corresponding phasor diagram.

The instantaneous voltages and rms voltages across the three circuit elements are the

same, and each is in phase with the current through the resistor. The currents in C and L

lead or lag behind the current in the resistor.

2

1 1

I rms = Vrms + C (6.1)

2

R L

Solution:

Denote I R , I L and I C as the currents that pass through the resistor, the inductor and the

capacitor, respectively. Since the instantaneous voltages and rms voltages across the three

circuit elements are the same, we then have

Vrms

IR = (6.2)

R

Vrms Vrms

IL = = (6.3)

X L L

and

Vrms

IC = = CVrms (6.4)

XC

From the phasor diagram, we see that the rms current is given by

10

I rms = I R2 + ( I C I L )

2

(6.5)

or

2 2 2

V V 1 1

I rms = rms + CVrms rms = Vrms + C (6.6)

R L 2

R L

(b) From the phasor diagram, we see that the phase angle can be obtained as

Vrms Vrms

IC I L X C X L 1 1

tan = = = R (6.7)

IR Vrms XC X L

R

or

1 1

= tan 1 R (6.8)

X C X L

11

Example 7: RL low-pass filter

Suppose the input voltage is V (t ) = (10.0 V ) sin 200t with L = 500 mH, find

(a) the value of R such that the output voltage lags behind the input voltage by 30.0 ,

Solution:

VL IX L L

tan = = = (7.1)

VR IX R R

Thus, we have

L ( 200s ) ( 0.500 H )

1

R= = = 173 (7.2)

tan tan 30.0

(b) Since

Vout VR

= = cos (7.3)

Vin Vin

we have

Vout = Vin cos = (10.0 V ) cos 30.0 = 8.66 V (7.4)

12

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