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IGCSE chemistry Set -1

A student set up the apparatus shown below.

cotton wool soaked


in concentrated
aqueous ammonia

X Y

cotton wool
soaked in
concentrated
hydrochloric
acid

Colourless
molecules are arranged in these three states.
(d)
(a) State the name given to the change of state labelled Ch
oo
(i) A.............................................................................................................. se
fro
(ii) B m
th
............................................................................................................... (iii) e
foll
C............................................................................................................... ow
[3] in
g
(b) Which one of the following best describes the movement of molecules in list
the liquid state? of
su
Tick one box. bs
ta
nc
The molecules are not moving from place to place. es
to
an
sw
er
th
e
The molecules are sliding over each other.
qu
es
tio
ns
be
lo
The molecules are moving freely. w.

brom
sod
[1]

(c) Which of the changes A, B or C, is endothermic?


Explain your answer.

.........................................................................................................................................
.

.....................................................................................................................................[2]
Name a substance which is

(i) a gas at room temperature.

......................................................................................

(ii) a non-metallic liquid at room temperature.

....................................................................................

(iii) a compound which is a solid at room temperature

. ..................................................................................

[3] (e)
A
student set up the apparatus shown in the diagram below.

glass tube

X rubber bung

cotton wool soaked in ammonia solution cotton wool soaked in concentrated


hydrochloric acid

The white solid is formed because the molecules of hydrogen chloride gas and
ammonia gas move at random throughout the tube and eventually react with each other.

(i) State the name given to this random movement of molecules.

...................................................................................................................................
fumes of hydrogen chloride are given off by the hydrochloric acid. Colourless fumes of ammonia are
given off by the aqueous ammonia.

(a) After a few seconds, white fumes were seen at point X in the tube.
Name the compound formed at point X.

......................................................................................................................................[1]

(b) Use the kinetic particle theory to explain this observation.

........................................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................[3]

(c) The student repeated the experiment using a solution of methylamine, CH3NH2, in place
of ammonia, NH3.
The white fumes were seen at point Y in the tube, rather than at point X.
Explain this difference.

........................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................[2]

3 The states of matter are solid, liquid and gas.


The diagram below shows how the
(ii) State the name of the white solid formed at X.

...................................................................................................................................

(iii) Suggest why the white solid is formed towards one end of the tube and not in the
middle.

...................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................[3]

(f) What type of chemical reaction takes place when ammonia reacts with hydrochloric
acid?

......................................................................................................................................[1]
1 The diagram shows models of various elements.

A B C

D E

(a) Define the term element.

[1]

(b) Which one of the models A to E represents a solid containing diatomic molecules?

[1]

(c) Which two of the models A to E represent gases?

and [1]

(d) (i) Which one of the models A to E represents diamond?

[1]

(ii) State the name of the element present in diamond.

(iii) State a use of diamond other than in jewellery.

.. [1]
(e) Structure E is a metal. State three physical properties which are characteristic of all metals.

...............................................................................................................................[1]

(ii) Describe the arrangement and movement of the particles in a gas.

Arrangement .............................................................................................................

Movement .............................................................................................................[2]

(e) Two of the substances in the table are compounds.

Explain what is meant by the term compound.

..........................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................[2]
(f) The table below gives information about the electron arrangement of a sodium atom and a
chlorine atom.

atom electron arrangement

sodium 2.8.1

chlorine 2.8.7

(i) Sodium chloride, NaCl, has an ionic giant structure.


Describe the changes in electron arrangement that take place when sodium
chloride is formed from sodium and chlorine atoms.

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................[4]

(ii) Calculate the relative formula mass of sodium chloride.


Use the Periodic Table to help you.

[2]
1 The diagram shows models of various structures,

A B C

D E F

(a) Which three of the structures A to F represent elements? Give a reason for your answer.

structures

reason [2]

(b) Which one of the structures A to F represents a gas containing single atoms?

[1]

(c) (i) Which one of the structures A to F represents a gas containing diatomic molecules?

(ii) State the name of a gas which has diatomic molecules.

[2]

(d) (i) Which one of the structures A to F represents graphite?

(ii) State one use of graphite.


(f) Metals are sometimes mixed with other elements in order to change their properties.

(i) What is the name given to a mixture of metals with other elements?

[3]

[1]

(ii) Match up the metals in the boxes on the left with their uses on the right. The first
one has been done for you.

tin for making chemical plants


mild steel for plating tin cans

stainless steel for car bodies

aluminium for electrical wiring


in houses

copper for aircraft bodies

[4]
2 The table shows some properties of five substances, A, B, C, D and E.

substance melting point boiling point conducts electricity conducts electricity


/ C / C in the solid state when molten

A -7 59 no no

B 801 1413 no yes

C 1083 2567 yes yes

D -189 -186 no no

E 1610 2230 no no

(a) Which one of the substances A to E is a metal?

......................................................................................................................................[1]

(b) Which one of the substances A to E has a giant structure of ions?

......................................................................................................................................[1]

(c) Which one of the substances A to E has the lowest melting point?

......................................................................................................................................[1]

(d) (i) Which one of the substances A to E is a gas at room temperature?

(e) Structure D represents a compound.


(i) State what is meant by the term compound.

(ii) Which one of the following substances is structure E most likely to represent?

Put a ring around the correct answer.

ammonia hydrogen chloride methane water [2]

(f) Hydrogen chloride is a compound.

(i) Draw a diagram to show how the electrons are arranged in a molecule of hydrogen
chloride.

Show only the outer electrons.


show hydrogen electrons as
show chlorine electrons as x
[2]

(ii) State the name of the type of bonding present in hydrogen chloride.

[1]

(iii) Hydrogen chloride dissolves in water to form an acidic solution (hydrochloric acid).
Describe how you would use litmus paper to show that this solution is acidic.

[2]

(iv) Which one of the following values is most likely to represent the pH of a dilute
solution of hydrochloric acid?

Put a ring around the correct answer.

pH 2 pH7 pH10 pH14 [1]


(v) Complete the following equation for the reaction of hydrochloric acid with magnesium.

Mg(s) + HC1 (aq) MgC12(aq) + H2(g) [1]

(vi) Name the salt formed in this reaction.

[1]
IGCSE QUESTIONS SET X (Atomic structure & Bond)

5 Look at the Iist of five eIements beIow.

argon
bromine
chlorine
iodine
potassium

(a) Put these five eIements in order of increasing proton number.

[1]

(b) Put these five eIements in order of increasing reIative atomic mass.

[1]

(c) The orders of proton number and reIative atomic mass for these five eIements are
different. Which one of the foIIowing is the most IikeIy expIanation for this?

Tick one box.

The proton number of a particuIar eIement may vary.

The presence of neutrons.

The atoms easiIy gain or Iose eIectrons.

The number of protons must aIways equaI the number of


neutrons.
[1]

(d) Which of the five eIements


[1]

(h) Describe the change in the eIectronic structure of potassium and chIorine atoms when
they combine to make potassium chIoride.

change in potassium atom

change in chIorine atom


IGCSE chemistry Set -1(Kinetic theory & diffusion)
A student half-filled a syringe with water.
She then carefully drew up some blue ink into the syringe so that it formed a separate layer below
the water.
She then left the syringe in a clamp for twenty hours.

clamp

water water water


ink ink

After twenty hours the blue colour of the ink had spread throughout the water.

(a) Use the kinetic particle theory to explain these observations.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................... [2]

(b) Ink is a mixture of many chemicals.


What do you understand by the term mixture?

...........................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................... [1]

(c) The list shows some of the substances present in ink.


carboxylic acids
cobalt(II) ions
ethanol
iron(II) ions
nickel(II) ions
tannins
water
(i) Water is a good solvent.
From the list choose one other substance that is a good solvent.

.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(ii) What is the meaning of the symbol (II) in iron(II)?


Tick one box.

the number of outer shell electrons the

difference between the


neutron and proton number

the oxidation state

the type of isotope


[1]

(iii) Tannins are polymers.


What do you understand by the term polymer? in the Iist are in the same group of the Periodic TabIe?

[1]

(e) (i) From the Iist, choose one eIement which has one eIectron in its outer sheII.

[1]

(ii) From the Iist, choose one eIement which has a fuII outer sheII of eIectrons.

[1]

(f) Which two of the foIIowing statements about argon are correct?

Tick two boxes.

Argon is a nobIe gas.

Argon reacts readiIy with potassium.

Argon is used to fiII weather baIIoons.

Argon is used in Iight buIbs.

[2]

(g) Potassium chIoride can be made by reacting potassium with chIorine. The bonding in
potassium chIoride is ionic.

What does this information teII you about

(i) the boiIing point of potassium chIoride,

[1]

(ii) the eIectricaI conductivity of moIten potassium chIoride?

....................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................. [2]

(d) One of the carboxylic acids present in ink is gallic acid.


The structure of gallic acid is shown below.
(i) On the structure above, put a ring around the carboxylic acid functional group. [1]

(ii) Gallic acid is a good reducing agent.


What do you understand by the term reduction?

.............................................................................................................................. [1]

[Total: 9]

IGCSE QUESTIONS SET X (Diffusion & Organic compounds)

5 A student wants to separate the coloured pigments in a plant leaf by chromatography.


He grinds the plant leaf and separates the solids from the green solution.

(a) What method can he use to separate the solids from the solution?

..................................................................................................................................... [1]

(b) The student takes a drop of the green solution and puts a spot of it onto a piece of
chromatography paper.
From the diagrams below choose the letter for the most suitable piece of apparatus for
this task.

A B C D

letter ................................. [1]

(c) The student sets up the chromatography apparatus as shown.

(i) Label the diagram to show:

the solvent,
the original position of the spot of green solution,
the chromatography paper.
[3]

(ii) How many different pigments were present in the plant leaf?

.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(d) The structure of some organic compounds found in plant leaves are shown below.

A B C D

H H H O H H O H H

C C H C C H C C C H C C O H

H H H O H H H O H H H

(i) Which one of these compounds is an unsaturated hydrocarbon?

............................................................................................................................. [1]

(ii) Describe a chemical test for an unsaturated hydrocarbon.

test .............................................................................................................................

result .................................................................................................................... [2]

(iii) What do you understand by the term hydrocarbon?

.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(iv) State the name of compound B.

.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(v) To which homologous series does compound D belong?

............................................................................................................................. [1]
[Total: 12]

IGCSE QUESTIONS SET X (Atomic Structure & Periodic Table)

1 When Group I elements react with water, hydrogen gas is given off.
The diagram shows the reaction of lithium, potassium and sodium with water.

A B C

(a) Which one of these elements A, B or C is lithium?

[1]

(b) (i) Balance the equation for the reaction of sodium with water by completing the left-
hand side.
......Na + ......H2O 2NaOH + H2
[1]
5 (a) The Kinetic Theory explains the properties of solids, liquids and gases in terms of the
movement of particles.

Liquids and gases both take up the shape of the container but a gas always fills the
container. Explain this, using the ideas of the Kinetic Theory.

liquid gas

fills container

does not fill container


but has shape of bottom
of container

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................[4]

(b) The following apparatus can be used to measure the rate of diffusion of a gas.

metal foil, gas


escapes
through small
hole in foil
constant gas
pressure gas
applied syringe
(i) What measurements would need to be taken to calculate the rate of diffusion of a
gas?

...............................................................................................................................[2]

mass of water formed ............... g [3]


5 Enzymes are biological catalysts. They are used both in research laboratories and in industry.

(a) Enzymes called proteases can hydrolyse proteins to amino acids. The amino acids can
be separated and identified by chromatography. The diagram below shows a typical
chromatogram.

solvent front

samples are placed on


this line

sample B initial level of solvent

(i) The Rf value of a sample = distance travelled


by sample
distance travelled
by solvent front

Some Rf values for amino acids are:

glutamic acid = 0.4 glycine = 0.5 alanine = 0.7 leucine = 0.9

Identify the two amino acids on the chromatogram.

A is B is
[2]

(ii) Explain why the chromatogram must be exposed to a locating agent


before Rf
values can be measured.

[1]

(iii) Measuring Rf values is one way of identifying amino acids on a chromatogram.


Suggest another.

[1]

(iv) The synthetic polymer, nylon, has the same linkage as proteins. Draw the structural
formula of nylon.

[3]

(b) Enzymes called carbohydrases can hydrolyse complex carbohydrates to simple sugars
which can be represented as HO OH . Draw the structure of a complex
carbohydrate.

(ii) Which gas, carbon dioxide or sulphur dioxide, would diffuse faster?
Explain your choice.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................[3]
(c) A 20 cm sample of butyne, C4H6, is burnt in 150 cm3 of oxygen. This is an excess of oxygen.
3

2C4H6(g) + 11O2(g) 8CO2(g) + 6H2O(l)

(i) What volume of oxygen reacts?

...............................................................................................................................[1]

(ii) What volume of carbon dioxide is produced?

...............................................................................................................................[1]

(iii) What is the total volume of gases left at the end of the reaction?

...............................................................................................................................[1]

(d) Calculate the mass of water formed when 9.0 g of butyne is burnt. The mass of one mole of
butyne is 54 g.

from the above equation, 1 mole of butyne forms 3 moles of water number of

moles of butyne reacted ...............

number of moles of water formed .................


allows carbon dioxide [2]
to escape
(c) Fermentation can be carried out in the apparatus drawn below. After a few days the reaction
butethanol.
stops. It has produced a 12% aqueous solution of prevents air entering

aqueous glucose and


yeast
(i) Complete the equation.
C6H12O6 +
glucose ethanol carbon dioxide [2]

(ii) Zymase catalyses the anaerobic respiration of glucose. Define the term respiration.

[2]

(iii) Suggest a reason why the reaction stops after a few days.

[1]

(iv) Why is it essential that there is no oxygen in the flask?

[1]

(v) What technique is used to concentrate the aqueous ethanol?

[1]
(ii) Apart from fizzing, describe two things that you would see when sodium
reacts with water.

[2]

(iii) After the sodium had reacted with the water, the solution was tested with red
litmus paper.
What colour did the litmus paper
turn? Give a reason for your
answer.

colour

reason [2]

(iv) Which of the following statements about sodium are true?

Tick two boxes.

It is made by reducing sodium oxide with carbon.

It reacts with chlorine to form sodium chloride.

It reacts readily with oxygen.

It only conducts electricity when molten.

[2]

(c) Rubidium also reacts with water. How does the speed of reaction of rubidium
with water compare with that of potassium with water?

[1]

(d) Sodium has only one stable isotope whereas potassium has several isotopes.

(i) What do you understand by the term isotopes?

[1]

(ii) How many protons does sodium have in its nucleus?


Use the Periodic Table to help you.

[1]

(iii) How many electrons are there in an atom of potassium?

[1]
235
(iv) Uranium has many isotopes. One of these is uranium-235 ( U).
What is the main use of this isotope of uranium?

[1]
IGCSE QUESTIONS SET X (Periodic Table)

2. Give the name of each of the following substances.

(a) The gas that occupies about 79% of the air by volume. ..............................................
(1)

(b) A dark grey solid that sublimes to form a violet vapour. .............................................
(1)

(c) A non-metallic element that conducts electricity. ........................................................


(1)

(d) A yellow element that exists as allotropes. ..................................................................


(1)

(e) A blue solid that decomposes on heating to evolve a brown gas.

.......................................................................................................................................
(1)

(f) The gas that is given off when sodium is added to ethanol.

.......................................................................................................................................
(1) Q2

(Total 6 marks)
IGCSE QUESTIONS SET 4 (Making salts)

9. The solubility of potassium chloride at various temperatures is given in the table.

Temperature (C) 0 20 40 60 80
Solubility (g /100 g of water) 28.4 34.2 40.0 45.8 51.3

(a) Use the grid to plot the solubility curve for potassium chloride.

(2)
(b) What is the solubility of potassium chloride at 30 C?

.......................................................................................................................................
(1)

(c) If 45 g of potassium chloride is mixed with 100 g of water at 50 C, what mass of


potassium chloride remains undissolved?

.......................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................
(2)

(d) What is the minimum temperature at which 25 g of potassium chloride dissolves in


50 g of water?

.......................................................................................................................................
(1)
(e) Use the data in the table to calculate the mass of potassium chloride that crystallises when
a saturated solution in 100 g of water at 60 C cools to 20 C.

.......................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 8 marks) Q9
Creative Questions:
2.

a) What is the melting point of this wax? 1

b) How long is it before all the wax has melted? 1

c) What is the boiling point of this was? 1

d) Why do we say wax vapour and not gaseous wax? 1

3. In the table below, substances with their melting points and boiling points are listed.
Complete the table by classifying each substance as either a solid, liquid or gas at room
temperature (20oC). 10

Substance M.P(oC) B.P(oC) State(s/l/g)


Ammonia -77 -34
Petrol -40 +62
Paraffin wax +55 +160
Methylated -100 +80
Salt +801 +1413
Sugar +184 -
Cabon dioxide -111 -78
Copper(II) chloride +620 +990
Methane -182 -161
Hydrogen sulphide -85 -60

Questions
IGCSE chemistry Set -1(Kinetic theory & diffusion)

1. What name is given to each of the following change of state?


a) solid to liquid, b) liquid to solid; c) solid to gas; d) gas to solid

..............................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................

2. a) Draw simple diagrams to show the arrangement of the particles in a solid, a liquid and a gas.

b) Describe the difference between the movement of the particles in a solid and a liquid. 3

..............................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................. 3

c) The change of state from a liquid to a gas can be either evaporation or boiling. Explain the difference
between evaporation and boiling.

..............................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................. 3
d) Some liquids are stored in sealed bottles for a very long time decades or more. Explain why they dont
evaporate. 2

3. The questions refer to the substances in the table below.

Melting point (oC) Boiling point (oC)


A -259 -253
B 0 100
C 3700(sublimes)
D -116 34.5
E 801 1413

a) Write down the physical states of each substance at 20oC. 2

b) Which substance has the strongest attractions between its particles? Explain your answer. 2

c) Which substance has the weakest attractions between its particles? Explain your answer. 2

d) Which substance has the greatest distance between its particles at 20oC? Explain your answer. 2

e) Why is no boiling point given for substance C? 2

f) Which liquid substance would evaporate most quickly in the open air at 20oC? Explain your answer. 2

4. Refer to the following figure, which shows the diffusion experiment.

glass tube

X rubber bung

cotton wool soaked in ammonia solution cotton wool soaked in concentrated


hydrochloric acid

a) Explain why the ring takes a little time to form. 2

..............................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................

b) If you heat a gas, what effects will this have on the movement of the particles?
2

..............................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................

c) In the light of your answer to (b), what difference would you find if you did this
experiment outside on a day when the temperature was 2oC instead of in a
warm lab at 25oC? Explain your answer. 2

..............................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................

d) Explain why the ring was formed nearer the hydrochloric acid end of the tube.
2

..............................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................
e) Suppose you replaced the concentrated hydrochloric acid by concentrated
hydrobromic acid. This releases the gas hydrogen bromide. Hydrogen bromide also
reacts with ammonia to from a white ring. 3

(i) Suggest a name for the white ring in this case.

..............................................................................................................................

(ii) Hydrogen bromide particles are about twice as heavy as hydrogen chloride
particles. What effects do you think this would have on the experiment?

..............................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................