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Research News No.

34 18/7/01 12:36 PM Page 10

A minerals systems approach to

mapping Australias endowment
AL Jaques, N Evans & S Jaireth

Mineral endowment is a key profitability). Such deposits therefore are a focus of global exploration today.
element in determining The minerals industry is undergoing radical change because of the
prospectivity. As part of an combined influences of globalisation, low metal prices, investor demands for
ongoing assessment of Australias greater return on capital, competition for risk capital, the declining position of
prospectivity, AGSO has compiled mining in equity markets, and the increased demands for community and
density plots of recorded mineral environmental accountability (the triple bottom line). In this environment, the
occurrences, which not only map industry will depend heavily on the discovery of major deposits with large,
Australias historic mineral high-grade reserves to ensure low operating costs and long mine life. Other
provinces but also highlight desired characteristics include a low environmental footprint and favourable
regions with anomalously high ore mineralogy that allow ready extraction without environmental penalties.
metal contents. The growth of the Australian minerals industry to its present position as a
Most regions with a high leading producer is built on a relatively small number of major (world-class)
abundance of recorded mineral mines. These include historic giant deposits such as Kalgoorlie and Broken
occurrences contain one or more Hill that were found more than 100 years ago. Also included in Australias list
world-class depositsalthough of major deposits and mineral districtsmost of which were found in the last
there are notable exceptions in 40 yearsare:
the case of buried deposits. An Mount Isa copper and lead-zinc-silver deposits;
abundance of occurrences can be bauxite deposits of Gove, Weipa, and the Darling Ranges;
due to the compounded effects of Bowen Basin coal seams;
sequential or overlapping Hamersley iron province;
mineralising systems. It may also Olympic Dam copper-uranium-gold deposit; and
reflect an inefficient mineralising
Yilgarn gold deposits.
process or processes that resulted
in dispersed low-grade This raises the question: What is Australias mineral endowment and
mineralisation. Nevertheless, most potential for further discoveries, especially for world-class resources?.
of the known world-class deposits
are in regions with a high density Australias mineral endowment
of mineral occurrences The distribution of known deposits and occurrences provides an insight into
suggesting surface prospecting known mineralising systems. Figures 1 af are density maps of the distribution
probably played a key role in the of significant mines and deposits (including both historic and undeveloped
discovery of many such deposits. deposits). These figures show recorded occurrences of gold, copper,
Early results of AGSOs ongoing lead/zinc, iron, nickel and uranium mineralisation from AGSOs MINLOC
assessment of Australias mineral database, which contains more than 74 000 mineral locations. The recorded
potential indicate that substantial mineral occurrences are presented as kernel density plots using a 100-
areas of potential remain kilometre radius and shown simply as low, medium and high concentrations.
(especially under cover). The plots show that gold and copper are the most widely recorded metals
in Australia. Recorded gold occurrences (figure 1a) are concentrated in the
Archaean Yilgarn craton and in the various elements of the Tasman Fold Belt.
This includes northern Tasmania, the historic major lode gold deposits of the

T he bulk of the worlds metal BallaratBendigo field of Victoria, the porphyry-epithermal and lode gold of
resources are contained in Lachlan Orogen in New South Wales, and the breccia-hosted, lode gold and
larger than the median-size epithermal deposits of central Queensland.
deposits, and most is concentrated in Copper deposits and recorded occurrences (figure 1b) are concentrated in
giant or world-class ones (namely the the Mt Isa province, the Kanmantoo province, the western Curnamona craton,
top 10% of deposits on a contained and widely distributed in the Tasman Fold Belt. These occurrences highlight
metal basis).1 Moreover, most of the the volcanic associated massive sulphide (VAMS) district of western Tasmania,
worlds base and precious metal the VAMS and porphyry deposits of the Lachlan Orogen, and the base metal
resources are contained in deposits provinces of central and north Queensland.
of higher grade, occur in relatively Figure 1c broadly maps Australias lead-zinc provinces, especially the
few ore deposit types, and are major VAMS districts of Tasmania and New South Wales, the Elura and Broken
concentrated in particular regions of Hill deposits, as well as occurrence-rich regions of North Queensland (mostly
the world. These observations lead to in the Kennedy province). Other lead-zinc mineralised districts, such as the
the conclusion that some parts of the
Lennard Shelf (the 7th largest zinc producing province in the world) and the
Earths crust are unusually endowed
Pine Creek province, are also identified. The world-class CarpentariaMt Isa
in certain metals and therefore more
prospective than other areas. zinc belt in northern Australia, however, is not especially prominent. This belt
World-class or giant deposits can hosts more zinc than any other comparable province in the world with seven
profoundly affect metal supply and world-class, Proterozoic sediment-hosted base-metals deposits: McArthur River,
have a huge influence on net present Century, Dugald River, Hilton, Mt Isa, Lady Loretta (all with 2 Mt or more
value and cash flow (mine contained zinc), and Cannington (5 Mt contained lead, 1.9 Mt contained zinc).

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Research News No.34 18/7/01 12:37 PM Page 11

Australias iron ore provinces and occurrences of banded iron formations, Figures 1 af. Kernel density plots of
iron-rich skarns and gossans are shown in figure 1d. In the case of nickel recorded mineral occurrences and
(figure 1e), the density occurrence map marks out the nickel districts of the major deposits (from AGSOs
Eastern Goldfields (Kambalda, Mount KeithAgnew), the Forrestania belt, the database) for gold, copper, lead/zinc
west Pilbara, and the lateritic deposits in eastern Australia, notably the iron, nickel, and uranium.
Greenvale area. The uranium density map (figure 1f) clearly marks out the
Rum Jungle and Alligator River uranium districts in the Northern Territory, Significant deposits
Mary Kathleen and Westmoreland uranium districts in Queensland, the
Kintyre deposit in Western Australia, and the Beverley and Honeymoon Mineral Occurrence Density
uranium districts in South Australia. No significant deposits are known from Low
the area of anomalously high, recorded uranium occurrences in the Medium
Ashburton province in Western Australia. High
1a. 1d.


1b. 1e.

1c. 1f.

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Research News No.34 18/7/01 12:37 PM Page 12

2a. 2b.

Potential Rock Units Potential Rock Units

World Class Deposits World Class Deposits
(100 t or 3.3 Moz Gold) (1 Mt Lead or 1.7 Moz Zinc)
Mineral Occurrence Density
Mineral Occurrence Density
Low Low
Medium Medium
High High
Very High Very High

Figures 2ab. Maps showing the distribution of world-class gold and lead/zinc deposits in relation to kernel density
plots of recorded mineral occurrences and prospective rock sequences from AGSOs national GIS.

World-class deposits and mineral potential do not form part of a single

population.2 Rather, the well-endowed
Most regions with an anomalously high distribution of recorded mineral
belts contain anomalously large gold
occurrences contain one or more world-class deposits of that metal(s) as
deposits.2 This is examined further in
shown, for example, in figure 2a: gold and figure 2b: lead/zinc. Clearly the
figure 3, which shows a cumulative
most endowed region in terms of gold is the Yilgarn cratonnotably the
frequency plot of gold deposits in the
Eastern Goldfields, which hosts some 16 world-class deposits. World-class
Eastern Goldfields, Murchison and
gold deposits are associated with many other concentrations of recorded gold
Southern Cross terranes of the Yilgarn
occurrences, including Ballarat, Bendigo, Cadia, Cowal, Gympie, Kidston, Mt
craton. Gold deposits from the
Leyshon and Charters Towers. A number of major depositssuch as Telfer,
Murchison and Eastern Goldfields
Boddington and Olympic Damhowever are not associated with a high
terranes show a similar distribution,
density of recorded occurrences.
except for the super-giant Kalgoorlie
World-class deposits are not always found in regions with the highest
deposit. Deposits in the Southern
density of recorded mineral occurrences. For example: no world-class lead or
Cross terranes, in contrast, define a
zinc deposits are currently associated with the high density of recorded
different curve (figure 3). This implies
occurrences in the GeorgetownMt Garnet region (although a number of
differences in the scale or efficiency
small deposits are known). Australias major lead-zinc province is not
(e.g., focusing or timing of fluid flow
highlighted as a province, even though there are concentrations centred about
and fluid trap) of the gold
the McArthur River, Century, and Mt IsaHilton deposits, and a region north
mineralising systems. The Murchison
of the Roper River. Cannington is a blind deposit under 1060 metres of
terranes are more like those of the
Eastern Goldfields than the Southern
A lack of major deposits associated with high-density occurrences in some
Cross terranes. Broken Hill is a
districts, and a paucity of occurrences associated with world-class deposits in
mineral province that shows an even
other mineral districts, may be due to several factors. Firstly, there are
greater gap between a giant and
inherent weaknesses in the database, which is influenced by such factors as
the nature of the outcrop, amount of cover, and exploration accessibility minor deposits. The giant Broken Hill
including that of early prospectors. Secondly, in some provinces high-density silver-lead-zinc deposit (>150 Mt, pre-
occurrences may reflect the influence of multiple, overlapping or sequential erosion possibly ~300 Mt) is distinct
weak mineralising events, none of which may have resulted in major from a tail of small deposits,
deposits. A third possibility is that high-density occurrences may indicate suggesting that the mineralising
dispersion of mineralising fluids through leaky or inefficient mineralising system was highly efficient in
systems (source, transport and trap). The more focused or efficient focusing and concentrating the
mineralising events, therefore, may have resulted in less minor mineralisation mineralisation.
(fewer occurrences), but significant deposits. The relationship of mineral
In a number of mineral districts2 and petroleum basins3 there is a parabolic occurrence, mineral resource and
fractal relationship between size and rank of deposits when plotted on a log- mineral potential is being further
log basis. This relationship is widely used to predict the ultimate size of oil explored by using a mineral systems
and gas fields in a basin. The relationship is less certain in the case of mineral approach and resource data such as
deposits. For example: a log-normal distribution has been demonstrated in grade and tonnage curves. AGSO is
some gold provinces but, taken as a group, giant gold deposits (>100 tonnes) undertaking an assessment of

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Research News No.34 18/7/01 12:37 PM Page 13

Australias mineral potential to

support resource exploration and as 1000
an important input to land-use
planning and infrastructure
development.4 The assessment is
using a GIS-based mineral systems 100
approach, which attempts to identify

)sennot( dloG
all geological processes that control
the generation and preservation of
mineral deposits.5 Emphasis is placed
on source(s) of heat (energy), metals
and fluids, transport mechanisms for
the migration of fluids, and trap
including the mechanical and
physico-chemical conditions that 1
0 20 40 60 80 1 00
result in precipitation of metals from Qua i
nt le

fluids, as well as post-depositional

modification and preservation of the
Figure 3. Cumulative frequency plots of gold deposit size (tonnes of
mineralisation. The approach is based
contained gold) for the Eastern Goldfields, Murchison and Southern Cross
on determining the likely presence or terranes.
absence of elements critical to
formation of some 21 different ore
deposit types known to host world-
class deposits in Australia or in 3. Most regions with a high density of recorded mineral occurrences contain
similar rocks elsewhere in the world, one or more world-class deposits, but some have no known major
based on widely adopted models.6 deposit(s). It is not clear whether major deposits remain to be found in
Assessment of potential is based on these areas. Some high concentrations appear to result primarily from the
examination of the timeevent plots cumulative effects of low levels of occurrences associated with overlapping
for each province. This includes but distinct mineralising systems. These may also represent systems where
basement geology, magmatic history, the mineralised fluids were widely dispersed rather than focused to form
and basin evolution including economic deposits.
sediment type, orogenic/metamorphic 4. Early results of an assessment of mineral potential indicate that substantial
events, and metallogenic events. areas of potential remain. The areas are likely to be in extensions of
The rock sequences prospective known provinces under cover, in poorly outcropping provinces, and
for gold and lead-zinc deposits based especially in under-explored greenfields provinces under cover. Successful
on this approach are shown in exploration of many of these areas will require a new approach that
figures 2a and 2b. These figures integrates new geophysical imaging tools (such as gravity gradiometry or
show that the areas prospective for seismic) with new conceptual approaches based on a better knowledge of
these metals extend beyond the the controls on mineralising processes.
known mineralised districts defined
by the distribution of occurrences References
and deposits. Many of these areas are 1. Singer DA. 1995. World-class base and precious metal depositsa quantitative
buried or poorly exposed, suggesting analysis. Economic Geology; 90:88104.
that considerable potential lies under 2. Hodgson CJ, Love DA & Hamilton JV. 1995. Giant ore deposits: Giant mesothermal
cover. gold depositsdescriptive characteristics, genetic model and area selection criteria.
Society of Economic Geologists, special publication 2; 157211.
Mineral occurrences, 3. Bradshaw MT, Bradshaw J, Weeden RJ, Carter P & de Vries DF. 1998. Assessment
translating the future into numbers. APPEA Journal; 38:528550.
deposits and potential 4. Jaireth S, Lambert I, Miezitis Y & Jaques L. 2000. Mineral potential of Australia.
From a preliminary examination of Geological Society of Australia, abstracts 59; 251.
mineral occurrences, deposits and 5. Wyborn LA, Heinrich CA & Jaques AL. 1984. Australian Proterozoic mineral
potential, the authors conclude that: systems: Essential ingredients and mappable criteria. AUSIMM annual conference,
1. The density maps of recorded technical program proceedings; 109115.
mineral occurrences highlight 6. Cox DP & Singer DA, eds. 1986. Mineral deposit models. Reston (Va): United States
regions of crust with anomalously Geological Survey, bulletin 1693.
high metal contents and outline
most of Australias historic mineral Acknowledgments: The authors thank Mike Huleatt, Greg Ewers, Bill McKay,
provinces. Dave Huston and Yanis Miezitis for comments and/or advice on this article.
2. Most of the known world-class
deposits, with important The maps of recorded mineral occurrences, deposits and potential can be
exceptions, occur in regions with down loaded free from
a high density of recorded
mineral occurrences. This suggest Dr Lynton Jaques, Minerals Division, AGSO, phone +61 2 6249 9745 or
that most past discoveries, with e-mail
the exception of blind deposits Neal Evans, Minerals Division, AGSO, phone +61 2 6249 9698 or
like Olympic Dam and e-mail
Cannington, were strongly driven Subhash Jaireth, Minerals Division, AGSO, phone +61 2 6249 9419 or
by surface prospecting. e-mail "

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