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# ENT363-MACHINE VISION SYSTEMS

TUTORIAL 1

## 1. Explain the fundamental steps in digital image processing.

2. List and describe FIVE (5) applications using Image Processing.
3. Describe the advantages using Machine Vision Systems.
4. Describe the fundamental steps of a machine vision system used to identify the missing
component on PCB board in the industrial environment automatically.
5. Describe the components of machine vision system in order to identify the thickness of
books automatically.

## 1. Explain the basic concept in sampling and quantization.

2. Explain three (3) principle sensors arrangement to convert illumination energy to digital
image.
3. Determine the distance between object A with coordinate (3, 3) and B with coordinate
(17, 9) using Euclidean and city-block measure.
4. For an image of 64x64 resolution, determine the geometric distance from the pixel of [64,
60] to [50, 40] using the distance function of Euclidean, city and chess measurements.
5. Calculate the distance from pixel p (135, 180) to pixel q (240, 200 ) using:
(a) Euclidean distance
(b) City-block distance
(c) Chessboard distance
CHAPTER 3: IMAGE FILTERING

## 1. What is the use of filter in image processing?

2. Describe in detail any four (4) filtering algorithms.
3. Explain briefly about correlation and convolution
4. What is meant by smoothening and sharpening filters? Explain various smoothing and
sharpening filters in spatial domain.
5. Figure 1 shows an image which has been added with salt and pepper noise. Compare the
denoising results using a 13 averaging filter and 13 median filter.

## 150 130 125 100 117 150

Figure 1

6. Figure 2 below shows an image which has been added with salt and pepper noise. Show
the denoising results using a 33
(a) Averaging filter
(b) Median filter

70 95 112
125 198 180
50 80 90

Figure 2

7. A portion of image is shown in Figure 3 for which filtering is needed to enhance the
image. By using given masking matrix, W, compute the resulting image using:
5 8 6
= [7 3 4 ]
5 3 4
(a) Correlation method
(b) Convolution method

0 2 0 3
3 0 1 2
0 6 0 1
1 0 5 0

Figure 3
CHAPTER 4: COLOR IMAGE PROCESSING

1. Explain the difference between color image processing and grayscale image processing.
2. Explain the concept of Color Model in Machine Vision Systems.
3. Explain the relationship between coordinates, pixel, and resolution in an image.
4. A commonly weighted function shown below is used to transform a RGB colour image to
grayscale image. Using a specific function, obtain the grayscale values of pixels shown in
Figure 4 below.
R( x, y)
I ( x, y) 0.2989 0.5870 0.1140 G( x, y )
B( x, y)

30 60

40 70

20 50

Figure 4

5. A commonly weighted function shown below is used to transform a RGB color image to
L*a*b* color image. By using the function, analyze the L*a*b* color values of the pixels
shown in Figure 5 below.
L * x, y 0.588 0.179 0.183 Rx, y
a * x, y 0.29 0.606 0.105 Gx, y

b * x, y 0 0.068 1.021 Bx, y

Figure 5
CHAPTER 5: MORPHOLOGICAL BINARY IMAGE PROCESSING

## 1. Explain the application of morphological binary image processing.

2. Perform morphological dilation and erosion operation for the binary image shown in
Figure 6 using the given structuring element.

.
Structuring element

Binary image
Figure 6

## 3. Evaluate the structure of binary image shown in Figure 7. Perform morphological

dilation and erosion operations for the binary image using the given structuring element.
Discuss the results.

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0
0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0
0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0
0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0
1 1 1
0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1
0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0
1 1 1
0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0

## Binary Image Structuring element

Figure 7
4. An image as shown in Figure 8 is a binary rectangular object. Determine and illustrate
the result of that image using the following morphological operation:

## (a) Skeleton operation

(b) Thinning operation

Figure 8

## 5. Figure 9 shows some processes of a picture of a coin. Based on your understanding on

morphological image processing, describe thoroughly the operations in (i) and (ii).

(i) (ii)

Figure 9