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A CASE STUDYON

A brief study of process and equipments

at ONGC Uran Plant

Uran plant, ONGC MumbaiGIT-


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Introduction:

Oil and Natural Gas Corporationis a public sector petroleum company involved in
widescale exploitation of oil as well as natural gas from the Indian mainland as well
asfrom Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean.

ONGC is one among the Indian Governments Navarathna Companies which


involves the
most profit making nine public sector companies and hence is one of the most
profitmaking companies in India.
Foundation:
In August 1956, the Oil and Natural Gas commission was formed. Raised from
meredirectorate status to commission, it had enhanced powers. In 1959, these
powers were furtherenhanced by converting the commission into a statutory body
by an act of Indian Parliament.Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited (ONGC)
(incorporated on June 23, 1993) is anIndian Public Sector Petroleum Company. It is a
fortune global 500 companies ranked 335
th
,and contributes 51% of Ind
ias crude oil production and 67% of Indias
natural gas productionin India. It was set up as a commission on August 14, 1956.
Indian government holds 74.14 %equity stake in this company.
ONGC is one of Asias largest and most active companies involved in exploration
and
production of oil .It is involved in exploring for and exploiting hydrocarbons in 26
sedimentary basins of India. It produces 30% of Indias crude oil requirem
ent. It owns andoperates more than 11,000 kilometers of pipelines in India. In 2010,
it was ranked 18th inthe Platts Top 250 Global Energy Company Rankings and is
ranked
413
st in the
2012
Fortune Global 500 list. It is the largest company in terms of market cap in India

Uran plant, ONGC MumbaiGIT-


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Introduction to Uran plant:


Uran onshore facilities of ONGC is located at longitudinal 720 5535 and latitude
180 5140
(N) approximately 15 M above mean sea level. The site is about 12 km east of
Mumbai. Western Side of the site faces sea and the east side is surrounded by hills.
The site is not on alevel land and processing areas are located at different
elevations. Site is approachable by all- weather motor able roads.The Uran Plant is
one of the most important installations not only of the entire ONGC, butalso of the
entire nation. It was established in the year 1974 and expanded in stages. Itreceives
the entire oil and part of natural gas produced in Mumbai offshore oil fields. Boththe
oil and gas received from offshore is processed at various units for producing value
addedproducts like LPG, C2-C3, LAN, apart from processing, storage and
transportation of oil.It has been also awarded as the best processing plant in India.
It is situated at the outskirts of Mumbai city, and has an excellent location with
mountains on one side and the sea on theother side. The huge pipelines from the
offshore come directly in the Uran plant. The Uranplant has an area of 5.5sq.km
Uran plant, ONGC MumbaiGIT-
CRUDE STABILISATION UNIT
INTRODUCTION:
TheCrude Stabilization Unitat Uran, Mumbai is designed to stabilize pressurized
crude oilfrom the Mumbai off-shore oil fields. It is designed to produce 20,000,000
tons of stock tankcrude oil per annum. Besides stabilization, the unit includes
provision for dehydration anddesalting crude oil whenever required

SOURCE:
The crude oil received from offshore platform is in the unstabilized form. This crude
oilreaches the Uran Plant through 3 oil trunk lines.The 30" MUT oil pipeline from
Mumbai High and 24" HUT oil pipeline from satellite off-shore platform are the
principal feed stock to plant. In addition, provision is kept to processthe slug catcher
liquid and reprocessing oil from tank area and recovered oil from theexisting
facilities at Uran. Provision is also kept to process the low aromatic naphtha (LAN)in
the LPG recovery units, Condensate Fractionate Units and liquid condensate
fromassociated gas compressors.
PROCESS DESCRIPTION:
There are five identical trains each consisting of high pressure separator (HP),
Dehydrator,pre-heater and low pressure separator. Each train has a processing
capacity of 5 MMTPA.The Pressurized crude oil received from BUT and HUT oil trunk
lines into five streams andpreheated by steam upto 45C before entering into High
Pressure Separator V-201/A/B/C/D/V-601/613 operating at pressure of 3.5
kg/cm^2g.The oil flows out under levelcontrol and can either be directly sent to low
pressure separator or can be pumped to theDehydrator system. High pressure gas
leaves the HP separators under pressure control and issent for compression.Before
entering the Dehydrators oil is preheated first by heat exchange with dehydrated
oiland then in the crude heaters upto 65C. The Dehydrators remove water and salt
from oil. Thedehydration is accomplished by the injection of demulsified, heating or
by the application of high voltage electro-static field in the oil-water emulsion. The
dehydrated oil flows underlevel control, exchange heat with feed to dehydrator and
is then sent to low PressureSeparators.The water produced by dehydration is sent to
EPTP (Effluent Pre-Treatment Plant) forpredisposal treatment.The stabilized oil is
pumped to five Main Storage Tanks T-202A/B/C/D/E, T-601/A/B/C/D.The gases from
the HP separators, Degassers and LP separators are compressed in the MultiService
Gas Compressors and sent to LPG unit combining with associated gas from the
trunkline. These are done by 3 stages reciprocating Compressors, operating at
suction pressures of 0.05 kg/cm^2g and 14.0 kg/cm^2g. The Degassers are
connected to compressors 1 and HPseparator gases are connected to 2 stage
suction.
COMPONENTS:

FEED SUPPLY :

The offshore crude oil is received at Uran through 3 oil trunk lines- 30" BUT oil
pipeline (presently isolated).- 30" MUT oil pipeline.- 24" HUT oil pipeline.MUT oil
pipelines are provided with three turbine flow meters and one bypass with
strainersup streams of interconnection. At CSU end the MUT oil feed line is provided
with two out of three turbine type flow meters in parallel and the HUT oil feed line is
provided one out of two turbines types flow meters which measures and integrates
flow to the CSU unit. Twostrainers in MUT as well as in HUT oil line have been
upstream of flow meters.

HP SEPARATORS:

The feed to each High Pressures Separator (HP Separator) is taken from the existing
24"header through a 16" line with isolation motor operated valve MOV-
201/202/203/101/1101, oneshut down valve SDV - 201/202/203/101/1101 and one
hand control valve HCV -201/202/203/101/1101. The feed is heated to 40C before
entering the HP separator, in crudePre-heater using MP steam.The HP Separator are
three phase horizontal separation vessels, capable of separation oil,free water and
gas, having a hold up time of 3 minutes with 50% filling. They are 12.2m longand
has an outer diameter of 2.74m designed for pressure of 5.5 kg/cm^2g and a
temperatureof 55C. Each HP Separator is provided with two relief valves, one
operating and other onstandby.The gas from the separator flows on pressure
control, through PCV-1010/1020/1030/101/1101 tothe compressors. The produced
water flows on interface level control through ILCV-1101/1020/1030/101/1101.The
flow of oil from HP Separator is indicated by flow indicators FI-1101/1021/1031/102 /
1102.

LP SEPARATORS:
The stabilized crude oil from the LP Separator flows by gravity into the Intermediate
Surgetanks. These are come roof atmospheric storage tanks of
24
m diameter and 12.6m heighthaving a nominal capacity of
5000m^3
each. Heating coils are provided in these tanks, withMP steam as the heating
medium. The tanks are provided with one low level alarm and onehigh level alarm.
The separated gas is continuously vented to safe location through flamearrestor

CRUDE OIL DISPATCH:


Stabilized crude oil is dispatched from the plant to various refineries in India through
tankersfrom Jawahar Deep(Butcher Island) and BPCL, HPCL refineries at Trombay
throughpipeline. In addition to above, facilities are also created for loading and oil
through tankers at JNPT

ETHANE PROPANE RECOVERY UNIT (EPRU):


Ethane and Propane recovery are among the phase-III process in the ONGC Uran
Plant,Uran, and Bombay.C2-C3 Recovery Unit (EPRU) is supplied with two feed
streams from the LPG-I & II Units.These are the high pressure Second Stage Vapour
(SSV) and low pressure feed from the LightEnds Fractionators (LEF). These streams
are partially cooled to condense them. Therefrigeration is provided by passing the
high pressure feed streams through an expander andby a propane refrigeration
system. The partially condensed feed streams are fed to theDemethaniser to
separate the methane vapours from C2-C3 liquid. The overhead gas
fromtheDemethaniseris fed to a second expander to provide cooling to the reflux
condenser. Thelean gas is then warmed to ambient temperature by the lean gas
Compressors. Refrigerationgas is provided to LPG I & II as an inter-stage product.
The C2-C3 is pumped to Area 16 forstorage as pressurized liquid.