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IGCSE QUESTIONS SET X (Energy changes and Bonding)

B9 Fertilisers are soluble salts containing one or more of the essential elements required for plant
growth.

(a) Ammonium
and [1]

(d) When seawater is evaporated a number of different compounds are formed.


State the name of the compound which is present in the greatest quantity.

[1]

(e) State the names of two ions in the table which move to the cathode when seawater is
electrolysed.

and [2]

(f) When concentrated seawater is electrolysed, chlorine is formed at one of the electrodes.

(i) To which Period in the Periodic Table does chlorine belong?

[1]

(ii) Draw the electronic structure of a chlorine molecule. Show only the outer electrons.

[2]
(g) Drinking water can be obtained by purifying seawater.
Explain why distillation rather than filtration is used to purify seawater for drinking.

[2] [Total: 11]

5 Pure dry crystals of magnesium sulphate can be made by reacting excess magnesium powder with
dilute sulphuric acid.

(a) During the reaction, bubbles of a colourless gas are given off.
State the name of this gas.

[1]

(b) (i) Why is excess magnesium used?

[1]

(ii) How is the excess magnesium removed from the reaction mixture?

[1]
(c) Describe how you can obtain pure dry crystals of magnesium sulphate from a solution of
magnesium sulphate.

[2]

(d) (i) Describe one other reaction that makes magnesium sulphate.

[1]
chloride can be prepared by the reaction between aqueous ammonia and hydrochloric acid.

Write an ionic equation for this reaction. [1]

(b) State suitable reagents and outline the experimental procedure by which a pure sample of the
fertiliser potassium chloride could be prepared in the laboratory. [4]

(c) Potassium sulphate can be prepared by the reaction between dilute sulphuric acid and
potassium carbonate.

H2SO4 + K2CO3 K2SO4 + CO2 + H2O

Calculate the mass of potassium sulphate that can be prepared from 3.45 g of potassium
carbonate. [3]

(d) Give electronic structures, including the charges, of the ions present in potassium chloride. [2]

3 The table shows the concentration of some ions present in seawater.


concentration of
name of ion formula of ion
ion in g / dm3


bromide Br 0.07

calcium Ca
2+ 0.4


chloride Cl 19.1

magnesium Mg
2+ 1.2

potassium K
+ 0.3

+
sodium Na 10.6

SO 2
4 0.8

(a) Which negative ion has the highest concentration in seawater?

[1]

(b) State the name of the ion with the formula SO 42 .

[1]

(c) Which two ions in the table are formed from Group I elements?

(ii) Write a word equation for the reaction you suggested in part (d)(i).

[1]

(iii) Magnesium sulphate can be used as a medicine. Explain why the chemicals used in
medicines need to be as pure as possible.

[1]

7 A student placed a crystal of copper(II) sulphate in a beaker of water.


After one hour the crystal had completely disappeared and a dense blue colour was
observed in the water at the bottom of the beaker. After 48 hours the blue colour had spread
throughout the water.

water

copper(II) sulphate
after 1 hour after 48 hours
crystal

(a) Use the kinetic particle theory to explain these observations. the
spot
whe
e
the
solu
ion
con
aini
ng
cop
[2] er
ions
is
plac
(b) Describe the arrangement and motion of the particles in the copper(II)
ed.
sulphate crystal. arrangement

motion

[2]

(c) Copper ions can be separated from other metal ions by paper
chromatography. Draw a labelled diagram of the apparatus for paper
chromatography.

In your diagram include

the solvent,
[2]

(d) Copper can be purified by electrolysis.

pure copper foil impure copper foil

copper(II) sulphate
solution

(i) Choose a word from the list below which describes the pure copper foil.
Put a ring around the correct answer.
anion anode cathode cation electrolyte [1]

(ii) Describe what happens during this electrolysis to

the pure copper foil,

the impure copper foil. [2]

[Total: 9]

4 This question is about some compounds of nitrogen.

A mixture of ammonium sulfate and sodium hydroxide was warmed in a test-tube.


The gas was tested with moist red litmus paper.

red litmus paper

ammonium sulfate
and sodium hydroxide

heat gently

(a
Name one other gas which relights a glowing splint.

[1]

(f) State one harmful effect of nitrogen oxides on the environment.

[1]

[Total: 10]

3 Read the foIIowing instructions for the preparation of hydrated nickeI(II) suIphate
(NiS04.7H20), then answer the questions which foIIow.
3
1 Put 25 cm of diIute suIphuric acid in a beaker. T

2 Heat the suIphuric acid untiI it is just boiIing then add a smaII amount of nickeI(II) h
carbonate.
e
3 When the nickeI(II) carbonate has dissoIved, stop heating, then add a IittIe more nickeI
carbonate. Continue in this way untiI nickeI(II) carbonate is in excess.

4 FiIter the hot mixture into a cIean beaker. e

5 Make the hydrated nickeI(II) suIphate crystaIs from the nickeI(II) suIphate soIution. q
uation for the reaction is

NiC03(s) + H2S04(aq) NiS04(aq) + C02(g) + H20(I)


3
(a) What piece of apparatus wouId you use to measure out 25 cm of suIphuric acid?

[1]

(b) Why is the nickeI(II) carbonate added in excess?

[1]

(c) When nickeI(II) carbonate is added to suIphuric acid, there is a fizzing.

ExpIain why there is a fizzing.

[1]

(d) Draw a diagram to describe step 4.

You must IabeI your diagram.

[3]
(e) After fiItration, which one of the foIIowing describes the nickeI(II) suIphate in the beaker?

Put a ring around the correct answer.

crystals filtrate precipitate water [1]

(f) ExpIain how you wouId obtain pure dry crystaIs of hydrated nickeI(II) suIphate from the
soIution of nickeI(II) suIphate.

[2]

(g) When hydrated nickeI(II) suIphate is heated gentIy in a test tube, it changes coIour
from green to white.

(i) CompIete the symboI equation for this reaction.

NiS04.7H20(s) NiS04(s) +
[1]

(ii) What does the sign mean?

) State the name of the gas released.

[1]

(b) State the colour change of the litmus paper.

[1]

(c) Complete the word equation for the reaction of ammonium carbonate with
hydrochloric acid.

ammonium + hydrochloric ....... + ....... +


...... carbonate acid
....... ........ [3]
(
i
(d) Ammonium salts such as ammonium nitrate, NH4NO3 and ammonium chloride )
NH4Cl E
are used as fertilisers. x
p
l
a
i
n
w
h
y
f
a
rmers need to use fertilisers.

[1]

(ii) Explain why ammonium nitrate is a better fertiliser than ammonium chloride.

..
[1]

(iii) Calculate the relative formula mass of ammonium nitrate.

[1]

(e) When ammonium nitrate is heated nitrogen(I) oxide is given off.


Nitrogen(I) oxide relights a glowing splint.

[1]

(iii) How can you obtain a sampIe of green nickeI(II) suIphate starting with white
nickeI(II) suIphate?

[1]

5 Two different solids, T and V, were analysed. T was a calcium salt.


The tests on the solids and some of the observations are in the following table. Complete the
observations in the table.

tests observations
tests on solid T

white solid
(a) Appearance of solid T.
(b) A little of solid T was dissolved
in distilled water. The solution
was divided into three test-
tubes.
colour orange
(i) The pH of the first portion of
the solution was tested. pH 5

(ii) To the second portion of


solution was added excess
aqueous sodium hydroxide.

[2]
(iii) To the third portion of
solution was added excess
ammonia solution.

[2]
tests observations
tests on solid V

(c) Appearance of solid V. green crystals

(d) A little of solid V was dissolved


in distilled water. The solution
was divided into three test-
tubes. The smell of the solution smells of vinegar
was noted.

(i) Test (b)(i) was repeated colour orange


using the first portion of
solution. pH 6

(ii) Test (b)(ii) was repeated pale blue precipitate


using the second portion of
the solution.

pale blue precipitate soluble in


excess to form a dark blue
(iii) Test (b)(iii) was repeated solution.
using the third portion of
solution.
(e) What do tests (b)(i) and (d)(i) tell you about solutions T and V?

[2]

(f) What additional conclusions can you draw about solid V?

[2]

[Total: 8]
5 Insoluble salts are made by precipitation.

(a) A preparation of the insoluble salt calcium fluoride is described below.


3
To 15 cm of aqueous calcium chloride,
3
of both solutions was
1.00 mol / dm . When the precipitate had settled, its height was measured.

solution

precipitate of
the phosphate
height of
of metal T
precipitate

The experiment was repeated using different volumes of the phosphate solution. The
results are shown on the following graph.
16

12
height of
precipitate 8
/ mm
4

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
volume of phosphate solution / cm3
What is the formula of the phosphate of metal T? Give your reasoning.

[3]

[Total: 8]

2 The salt copper(II) sulphate can be prepared by reacting copper(II) oxide with sulphuric acid.

Complete the list of instructions for making copper(II) sulphate using six of the words below.

blue cool dilute filter

saturated sulphate white oxide

Instructions

1 Add excess copper(II) oxide to sulphuric acid in a


beaker and boil it.

2 to remove the unreacted copper(II) oxide.

3 Heat the solution until it is .

4 the solution to form

coloured crystals of copper (II) . [6]


IGCSE CHEMISTRY SET X (Making salts)

4 Nitrogen dioxide, NO2, is a dark brown gas.

(a) Most metal nitrates decompose when heated to form the metal oxide, nitrogen dioxide
and oxygen.

(i) Write a symbol equation for the decomposition of lead(II) nitrate.

Pb(NO3)2 ............... + ............... + ............................ [2]

(ii) Potassium nitrate does not form nitrogen dioxide on heating. Write the word
equation for its decomposition.
3
30 cm of aqueous sodium fluoride is added. The concentration of both solutions is
1.00 mol / dm . The mixture is filtered and the precipitate washed with distilled water.
Finally, the precipitate is heated in an oven.

(i) Complete the equation.


2+ -
Ca + ....F ...... [2]
(ii) Why is the volume of sodium fluoride solution double that of the calcium chloride
solution?
[1]

[1]

(iii) Why is the mixture washed with distilled water?

[1]

(iv) Why is the solid heated?

(b) The formulae of insoluble compounds can be found by precipitation reactions.


3 3
To 12.0 cm of an aqueous solution of the nitrate of metal T was added 2.0 cm of aqueous
sodium phosphate, Na3PO4. The concentration
3
...............................................................................................................................[1]

(b) When nitrogen dioxide is cooled, it forms a yellow liquid and then pale yellow crystals.
These crystals are heated and the temperature is measured every minute. The
following graph can be drawn.

temperature
B yellow liquid
C
.

..........
pale yellow crystals ..........
A
..........
..........
..........
time ..........
..........
..........
(i) Describe the arrangement and movement of the molecules in the region AB. ..........
..........
.................................................................................................................................. .
(ii) Name the change that occurs in the region BC

...............................................................................................................................[4] (i
)
(c) Nitrogen dioxide and other oxides of nitrogen are formed in car engines.
Explain how these oxides are formed.

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...................................................................................................................................

(ii) How are they removed from the exhaust gases?

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...............................................................................................................................[4]

IGCSE CHEMISTRY SET X (Making salts)

1 This question is about the chemistry of chlorine and some of its compounds.

(a) Describe, with the aid of an ionic equation, the reaction of chlorine with aqueous
potassiumbromide. Explain why this reaction involves the reduction of chlorine.

......................................................................................................................................

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......................................................................................................................................[3]

(b) Magnesium reacts with chlorine to form magnesium chloride.


Draw diagrams to show the electronic structures and charges of both ions present in magnesium
chloride.

[2]

(c) Silver chloride is an insoluble salt.


Outline the preparation of pure, dry silver chloride, starting from solid silver nitrate.
.
.....................................................................................................................................

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......................................................................................................................................[4]

(d) State one environmental problem associated with the molecule C2F3Cl 3.

......................................................................................................................................[1]

[Total: 10]
3 There are three methods of preparing salts.

Method A use a burette and an indicator.

Method B mix two solutions and obtain the salt by precipitation.

Method C add an excess of base or a metal to a dilute acid and remove the excess by
filtration.

[Total: 10]
Questions
1. a) Give an example of a hydrated salt, including the formula. [2]

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b) Draw a labeled diagram of the apparatus you would use to see whether water is loss on heating this
salt. [4]

c) Is the change in b) exothermic or endothermic? Explain your answer. [2]


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d) What happens when water is added to an anhydrous salt? [4]


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2. a) Draw and label the apparatus you would use for a titration. [6]

b) how accurately can you measure volumes with this apparatus? [2]
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c) Describe how one indicator is used in titrations. [2]


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3. a) Describe how you would prepare the insoluble salt barium sulphate form soluble salts. [5]
.....................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... For each of the


following salt preparations, choose one of the methods A, B or C, name any additional reagent needed
and then write or complete the equation.
(i) the soluble salt, zinc sulphate, from the insoluble base, zinc oxide

method reagent

word equation [3]

(ii) the soluble salt, potassium chloride, from the soluble base, potassium hydroxide

method reagent

equation + KCl + H2O [3]

(iii) the insoluble salt, lead(II) iodide, from the soluble salt, lead(II) nitrate

method reagent
2+
equation Pb + [4]

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b) how could you purify the product? [2]

.....................................................................................................................................

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c) Write word and balanced symbol equations for the reaction. [2]

d) Identify the spectator ions. [1]

......................................................................................................................................

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4. a) Draw particle diagrams to explain the making of insoluble salts by precipitation. [4]
b) How could you recover the spectator ions from a precipitation reaction? [3]

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c) Give two examples of salts that can be prepared by this method and write word equations for each
reaction. [2]

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d) Add state symbols to the equations. [1]

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5. Sort the following compounds into two lists those which are soluble in water, and those which are
insoluble.
Sodium chloride, lead (ii) sulphate, xinc nitrate, calcium carbonate, iron(III) sulphate, lead(II) chloride,
Potassium ulphate, copper(II) carbonate, silver chloride, aluminum nitrate, barium sulphate,
Ammonium chloride, magnesium nitrate, calcium sulphate, sodium phosphate, nickel(II) carbonate,
chlomium(III) hydroxide, potassium dichromate(VI) [8]
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9. a) Describe in detail the preparation of pure dry sample of copper(II) sulphate crystals, CuSO4.5H2O
Starting from copper(II) oxide. [6]
.....................................................................................................................................

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b) Write full equations for i) the reaction producing copper(II) sulphate solution, ii) the crystallization
reaction. [4]
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10. a) Read the following description of method for making sodium sulphate crystals, Na2SO4.10H2O, and
then explain the reason for each of the underlined phrases or sentences.
25.0 cm3 of sodium carbonate solution was transferred to a conical flask using a pipette, and a few
drops of methyl orange were added. Dilute sulphuric acid was run in from a burette until the solution
became orange. The volume of acid added was noted. That same volume of dilute sulphuric acid was
added to a fresh clean flask, but without he methyl orange. The mixture was evaporated until a sample
taken on the end of a glass rod crystallisaed on cooling in the air. The solution was left to cool. The
crystals formed were separated from the remaining solution and dried.
b) Write equations for i) the reaction producing sodium sulphate solution, ii) the crystallization reaction.
[6]
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11. There are four main methods of making salts:


A reacting an acid with an excess of a suitable solid
B using a titration
C using a precipitation reaction
D by direct combination
For each of the following salts, write down the letter of the appropriate method, and name substances
you would react together. You should state whether they are used as solids, solutions or gases. Write an
equation (full or ionic as appropriate) for each reaction.
a) zinc sulphate [2]
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b) barium sulphate [2]


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c) potassium nitrate (nitric acid is HNO3) [2]


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d) anhydrous aluminum chloride [2]


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e) copper(II) nitrate [2]


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