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IGCSE QUESTIONS SET X (Metal & Calculations)

B8 Nickel is a transition element. It is manufactured in a four-stage process from nickel(II)


sulphide, NiS.
Stage 1 nickel(II) sulphide is heated in air to form nickel(II) oxide and sulphur dioxide.
Stage 2 nickel(II) oxide is heated with carbon to give impure nickel.
Stage 3 impure nickel is reacted with carbon monoxide to make nickel tetracarbonyl,
Ni(CO)4.

of the use of nickel as a catalyst. [1]

(e) In an experiment, small amounts of three metals were added to three aqueous metal nitrate
solutions.
The results are shown in the table.

aqueous zinc aqueous aqueous


nitrate nickel(II) nitrate, copper(II) nitrate,
Zn(NO3)2 Ni(NO3)2 Cu(NO3)2

zinc no reaction green solution blue solution went


went colourless colourless and
and zinc coated zinc coated with a
with a silver solid pink solid

nickel no reaction

copper no reaction no reaction no reaction

Predict the observations when nickel is added to separate solutions of zinc nitrate and
copper(II) nitrate.
Write an ionic equation for one of the reactions that takes place. [3]
Total /
10
IGCSE QUESTIONS SET X (Metal)

B10 The table below shows some of the ores of iron.

ore formula

haematite Fe2O3
magnetite Fe3O4
siderite FeCO3

(a) Which ore in the table contains the greatest percentage by mass of iron? Explain your
answer. [2]
(b) Give the equations for the redox reactions taking place in the extraction of iron from
haematite.
In each case state which substance is oxidised and which is reduced. [4]
(c) Iron is malleable. Describe how this property can be explained in terms of its structure. [2]
(d) State and explain how the properties of iron can be changed by the addition of carbon. [2]

IGCSE QUESTIONS SET X (Metal, formula & equation)

A2 Iron is one of the most important metals. It is a transition element.


Most iron is used in the alloy steel.

(a) Explain, in terms of metallic bonding, why iron is a good electrical conductor.

..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................[2]

(b) Describe how different proportions of carbon can modify the physical properties of steel.

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................[2]

(c) When underwater, iron pipes will rust relatively rapidly.

(i) State the essential conditions needed for the rusting of iron.

...................................................................................................................................

(ii) Pieces of magnesium are often attached to underwater iron pipes. Explain how the
magnesium protects the iron pipes against rusting.

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................... [3]

(d) Write two typical properties that are generally common only to transition elements.

1. ......................................................................................................................................

2. ..................................................................................................................................[2]

(e) A sample of a compound of iron is analysed. The sample contains 0.547 g of potassium,
0.195 g of iron, 0.252 g of carbon and 0.294 g of nitrogen.
Calculate the empirical formula of this compound.

[3]
Total /
12

IGCSE QUESTIONS SET X (Manufacturing chemicals & calculations)

A4 This question is about calcium compounds.

(a) Write the equation for the thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate. One of the
products of this reaction is calcium oxide.

..................................................................................................................................... [1]
(b) When water is added to calcium oxide, calcium hydroxide is formed.

(i) Write the equation for the reaction between water and calcium oxide.

.............................................................................................................................. [1] Stage 4 nickel


tetracarbonyl is decomposed to give pure nickel.

(a) (i) Construct the balanced equation for the reaction in stage 1.

(ii) Calculate the mass of sulphur dioxide that is formed when 182 kg of nickel sulphide is
heated in air. [3]

(b) Nickel tetracarbonyl is a liquid with a boiling point of 43 C.


Suggest, with a reason, the type of bonding in nickel tetracarbonyl. [2]

(c) Suggest one possible environmental consequence of the manufacture of nickel.[1]

(d) Give an example

(ii) Solid calcium hydroxide reacts slowly with carbon dioxide. Name the calcium
containing product of this reaction.

.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(c) State one large scale use of calcium hydroxide.

..................................................................................................................................... [1]

(d) Cement is made by heating calcium carbonate and clay together at a very high
temperature.

One of the compounds produced is a form of calcium silicate, Ca3SiO5.

In the presence of water a chemical reaction takes place that helps in the setting of
cement.

2Ca3SiO5 + 6H2O Ca3Si2O7.3H2O + 3Ca(OH)2

Calculate the mass of calcium hydroxide formed from 912 g of Ca3SiO5.

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................... [3]
Total / 7
IGCSE QUESTIONS SET X (Metal)

B10 Brass is an alloy containing zinc and copper.

(a) Explain why the physical properties of brass are different from those of zinc and copper. [1]

..........................................................................................................................................

(b) A sample of powdered brass is added to excess dilute nitric acid.

The mixture is heated gently until all the brass reacts.

The resulting solution, A, contains aqueous copper(II) ions and aqueous zinc ions.

(i) Suggest the colour of solution A. [1]

..........................................................................................................................................

(ii) Describe and explain, with the aid of equations, what happens when aqueous sodium
hydroxide is slowly added to solution A. [5]

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

(c) Another sample of powdered brass is added to excess dilute hydrochloric acid.

The mixture is heated and an aqueous solution of a compound B together with a solid C are
formed.

(i) Name both B and C. [2]

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................
(ii) Write an ionic equation for this reaction. [1]

..........................................................................................................................................
Total / 10

B9 Dilute ethanoic acid and dilute hydrochloric acid both react with magnesium ribbon to form
hydrogen.

(a) Give the formula of one ion found in both of these dilute acids. [1]

..........................................................................................................................................

(b) Magnesium ribbon reacts with hydrochloric acid as shown in the equation.
Mg + 2HCl MgCl 2 + H2

A 0.24 g sample of magnesium ribbon is added to 5.0 cm3 of 2.0 mol/dm3 hydrochloric acid.

(i) Which reactant, magnesium or hydrochloric acid, is in excess? Use calculations to explain
your answer. [2]

(ii) Calculate the maximum mass of magnesium chloride that can be formed in this
reaction. [2]

(iii) A 0.24 g sample of magnesium ribbon is added to 5.0 cm3 of 2.0 mol/dm3 ethanoic acid.
Explain why this reaction forms the same volume of hydrogen but takes place much more
slowly than the reaction of the same mass of magnesium with 5.0 cm3 of
2.0 mol/dm3 hydrochloric acid. [3]

(c) (i) Write an equation for the reaction between dilute ethanoic acid and sodium
carbonate. [1]

(ii) What observations would be made during this reaction? [1] [Total:

10]
IGCSE QUESTIONS SET X (Metal)

B10 Brass is an alloy of zinc and copper.

(a) Describe, with the aid of a labelled diagram, the structure of a metal such as copper. [2]

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

(b) Explain, in terms of their structures, why both zinc and copper are good conductors of electricity.
[1]

..........................................................................................................................................

(c) A 1.2 g sample of powdered brass was


1]

(b) Suggest two other physical properties of tungsten.

..........................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................[2]

(c) In a light bulb, the tungsten wire may get so hot that it melts and breaks.
This graph shows the heating curve for tungsten.

7000

6000

temperature
/C 5000

4000

3000

time
(i) Use the graph to give the boiling point of tungsten.

...................................................................................................................................

(ii) Predict the temperature when the tungsten wire breaks.

...............................................................................................................................[2]

Total / 5

IGCSE QUESTIONS SET X (Metal)

B9 This diagram shows an electrolysis tank used industrially to produce aluminium from
aluminium oxide
.
Graphite anode

Steel tank molten aluminum oxide and cryolite at 950oC

Graphite anode

molten aluminium out

One reason that this process is expensive is that the graphite anodes need replacing
regularly.

(a) Explain, with the help of an equation, why the graphite anodes need replacing regularly.
[2]

(b) Adding molten cryolite reduces the cost of the process by lowering energy demand.
Explain how adding molten cryolite reduces the energy demand of the process. [2]

(c) State two uses of aluminium. State the property of aluminium which makes it suitable
for each use. [2]

(d) Aluminium is above hydrogen in the reactivity series.


The following experiments were set up.

aluminium aluminium
strip strip rubbed
with sandpaper

dilute dilute
hydrochloric hydrochloric
acid acid

Experiment 1 Experiment 2
A reaction occurred in Experiment 2, but not in Experiment 1.
(i) Explain what observations you would see in each experiment. Explain why the two
strips behave differently.
(ii) State the change in oxidation state of aluminium during the reaction in
Experiment 2. [4]

Total / 10
IGCSE QUESTIONS SET X (Metal)

B10 Iron is extracted by reducing iron ore in a blast furnace. The raw materials used are iron ore, coke, air
and limestone.

(a) Name an ore of iron.

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(b) Explain, by reference to the chemical reactions involved, why limestone is used in the blast
furnace.

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [3]

(c) Coke burns in oxygen to form carbon dioxide.


Explain, in terms of bond breaking and bond making, why this reaction is exothermic.

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [3]

(d) In the centre of the blast furnace iron(III) oxide, Fe2O3, is reduced by carbon monoxide to form
iron and carbon dioxide. Near the bottom of the blast furnace the remaining iron(III) oxide is
reduced by carbon to form iron and carbon monoxide.
Write equations for both of these reactions.

..........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]
(e) When cold, the iron obtained from the blast furnace is brittle.
How can this iron from the blast furnace be converted to mild steel?

..........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

[Total: 10]

6 Iron is extracted from its ore in a bIast furnace using carbon (coke) as a reducing agent and as a
source of heat.

(a) The coke burns in hot air. The equation for this reaction is
analysed by reaction with excess dilute sulphuric acid.
The zinc reacts as shown in the equation to form 0.072 dm3 of hydrogen measured at room temperature
and pressure.

Zn + 2H+ Zn2+ + H2

(i) Suggest why brass was used in a powdered rather than lump form. [1]

..........................................................................................................................................

(ii) Calculate the mass of zinc in the sample of brass. [2]

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

(iii) Calculate the percentage of zinc in the sample of brass. [1]

(d) Describe how aqueous ammonia can be used to show that only the zinc in the sample reacted with
the acid. [3]

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

[Total: 10]
IGCSE QUESTIONS SET X (Metal)
A4 The metal tungsten, symbol W, is used to make wire filaments in light bulbs. The wire glows when
electricity passes through it.

This is the structure of a typical metal.

+ + + +


electron + + +

positive ion + + + +

(a) Use this structure to explain how tungsten conducts electricity.

..........................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................[
2C(s) + 02(g) 2C0(g)

State the name of the gas produced in this reaction.

[1]

(b) Near the top of the bIast furnace, the iron(III) oxide in the iron ore gets reduced to iron.

Fe203(s) + 3C0(g) 2Fe(I) + 3C02(g)

Use the equation to expIain why the change of iron(III) oxide to iron is a reduction reaction.

[1]

(c) In the hottest regions of the furnace, iron(III) oxide is reduced by carbon.
CompIete the equation for this reaction.

Fe203(s) + .C(s) ..Fe(I) + 3C0(g) [2]


(d) The iron from the bIast furnace contains up to 10% by mass of impurities. The main impurities are
carbon, siIicon and phosphorus. The diagram beIow shows one method of making steeI from iron.

oxygen and powdered


basic oxides

slag forming

molten iron from


blast furnace

A mixture of oxygen and basic oxides is bIown onto the surface of the moIten iron.

(i) What is the purpose of bIowing oxygen onto the moIten iron?

(ii) A Iarge amount of energy is reIeased in the process of steeImaking.


What name is given to chemicaI reactions which reIease energy?

(e) SpeciaI steeIs contain added eIements such as vanadium, chromium, cobaIt or nickeI.
These are aII transition metaIs.

State three properties of transition metaIs which are not shown by non-transition metaIs.
1.

2.

3. [3]

(f) What is the name given to metaIs which are mixtures of more than one metaI?

[1]
[1]
[1]

(iii) The basic oxides react with the impurities in the iron and form a sIag. What
information in the diagram suggests that the sIag is Iess dense than the moIten
iron?

[1]

(iv) Which one of the foIIowing is a basic oxide?


Put a ring around the correct answer.

calcium oxide carbon dioxide sulphur dioxide water [1]

(v) Why is steeI rather than iron used for constructing buiIdings and bridges?

[1]

6 Iron is extracted from iron ore by heating the iron ore with coke and limestone.

(a) State the name of the ore from which iron is extracted.

[1]

(b) The coke burns in a blast of hot air to form carbon monoxide.

(i) Complete the equation for this reaction.

......C + O2 ......CO
[1]

(ii) State an adverse effect of carbon monoxide on human health if it were to escape
from the blast furnace.

[1]

(c) Near the top of the blast furnace, carbon monoxide reacts with iron ore.

Fe2O3 + 3CO 2Fe + 3CO2

(i) Write a word equation for this reaction.

[1]

(ii) What type of chemical reaction is the conversion of Fe2O3 to 2Fe?

[1]

(d) The limestone is converted to calcium oxide and carbon dioxide by the intense heat in the furnace.

CaCO3 CaO + CO2

(i) What type of chemical reaction is this?

[1]

(ii) Name a use of limestone other than in the blast furnace.

[1]

(iii) The calcium oxide reacts with silica and alumina in the iron ore.
The product of this reaction collects on top of the molten iron at the bottom of the
furnace. What is the name of this product?
Put a ring around the correct answer.

bauxite sand slag slaked lime

[1]

(e) The iron obtained from the blast furnace contains the following impurities.

carbon manganese phosphorus silicon

(i) Which one of these elements is a transition element?

[1]

(ii) What type of oxide is phosphorus oxide?


Put a ring around the correct answer.

acidic amphoteric basic neutral


[1]
(iii) 50 tonnes of impure cast iron from the blast furnace contains 47 tonnes of
iron.
Calculate the percentage of the impurities in the cast iron.

[1]

5 Some sunglasses are made from glass which darkens in bright sunlight. The glass contains tiny crystals
of silver chloride and copper(I) chloride.
(a) In bright sunlight, in the presence of copper(I) chloride, the silver chloride breaks down
to solid silver which darkens the glass.
+ -
Ag (s) + e Ag(s)
-
State the name of the particle with the symbol e .

[1]

(b) Silver is a metal. State two physical properties which are characteristic of all metals.

[1]

(c) An isotope of lead has the mass number 208.


Complete the table to show the number of subatomic particles in an atom of this isotope
of lead.
Use the Periodic Table to help you.

type of particle number of particles

electrons
protons
neutrons
[3]

(d) When lead is heated in oxygen, lead(II) oxide is formed.


Write a word equation for this reation.

..................................................................................................................................... [1]

(e) When lead(II) oxide is heated with carbon, lead and carbon monoxide are formed.

PbO + C Pb + CO

(i) Which substance becomes oxidised during this reaction?

.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(ii) Carbon monoxide is a covalent compound.


Which one of these statements about carbon monoxide is correct?
Tick one box.

It is a solid with a high melting point.


It conducts electricity when it is a liquid.

It is a gas at room temperature.

It forms about 1 % of the atmosphere.


[1]

[Total: 9]
1 Some jewellery is made from an alloy of gold and nickel.

Nickel is a transition element.

(a) State two properties of transition metals that are not shown by other metals.

1. ......................................................................................................................................

2. ..................................................................................................................................[2]

(b) Sweat from the skin is slightly acidic and reacts with jewellery containing nickel.

(i) Suggest how you could find out the pH of the sweat on the surface of your skin.

...................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................[2]

(ii) Which one of the values represents a pH which is slightly acidic.


Put a ring around the correct answer.

pH 2 pH 6 pH 7 pH 8 pH 13 [1]

(iii) Nickel ions are formed when nickel reacts with sweat.
These ions cause the skin to become very sensitive. State
what is meant by the term ion.

...............................................................................................................................[1]

(iv) Complete the equation to show the formation of nickel ions from nickel.

Ni Ni2+ + ... e- [1]


(c) The table shows the volumes of gas produced in one minute when different metals reacted
with hydrochloric acid. All other conditions remained the same in the experiment.

metal volume of gas


/ cm3
iron 8

magnesium 56

nickel 3

zinc 14

Put these metals in the correct order of reactivity.

most reactive

least reactive
[1]
(d) Alloys of zinc are used for making zip-fasteners.

Describe a test for zinc ions

test ..........................................................................................................................

......... result

................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................[3]
6 In the thermit reaction, aluminium powder reacts violently with iron(III) oxide.

A magnesium ribbon is lit to start the reaction.

The reaction gives out a great deal of heat.

magnesium
ribbon

mixture of aluminium
powder and iron(III)
oxide

bucket of sand

The equation for the reaction is:

2Al(s) + Fe2O3(s) Al2O3(s) + 2Fe(s)

(a) Complete the following sentence about the thermit reaction using words from the list.

added
electrol
ysed
neutrali
sed
oxidise
d
reduce
d

In the thermit reaction, the aluminium is ................................... to aluminium oxide

and the iron(III) oxide is ................................... to iron.

[2]

(b) Aluminium oxide which has been heated to a high temperature is called fused aluminium
oxide.

Fused aluminium oxide does not react with hydrochloric acid. I


ron reacts with hydrochloric acid. [2]

(i) What would you observe when hydrochloric acid is added to a mixture of fused
aluminium oxide and iron?

...............................................................................................................................[1]

(ii) After reaction with hydrochloric acid, the mixture contains fused aluminium oxide
solid and a solution of iron(II) chloride.
Describe with the help of a labelled diagram, how you would separate the
aluminium oxide from the iron(II) chloride solution.

(c) In bright sunlight, the copper(I) chloride in the sunglasses is converted to copper(II)
chloride.
What do the roman numerals (I) and (II) show in these copper compounds?
Tick one box.

the number of atoms of copper in the copper compounds

the number of neutrons in the copper compounds

whether the copper is in the solid, liquid or gaseous state

the oxidation state of the copper in the copper compounds

[1]

(d) Describe a test for aqueous copper(II) ions.

test

result

[3]

(e) Give a common use of copper.

[1]

[Total: 8]
6 Lead is a grey metal.
(a) State two physical properties which are characteristic of metals.

...................................................................................................................................
........

...................................................................................................................................
.. [2]

(b) To which Group in the Periodic Table does lead belong?

.....................................................................................................................................

[4]

(c) The magnesium ribbon used to start the thermit reaction burns in oxygen and gives
out heat.

What term describes a reaction that gives out heat?

......................................................................................................................................[1]

(d) In an oxyacetylene torch, oxygen is used with acetylene to produce a flame with a
temperature of about 3000 C.

State one use of this flame.

......................................................................................................................................[1]
3 One way of making lime from limestone (calcium carbonate) is shown in the diagram.

gases out

firebrick
limestone
wall
and
coke

lime and ash out

The limestone is mixed with coke and dropped into the limekiln. The coke is burnt
and releases heat.

(a) State one use of limestone, other than in making lime.

......................................................................................................................................[1]

(b) Coke is mainly carbon.


Write a symbol equation for the burning of carbon.

[2]

(c) State the name of the type of reaction which releases heat energy.

......................................................................................................................................[1]

(d) The heat produced by the burning coke causes thermal decomposition of the limestone.
Complete the word equation for the thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate.

calcium carbonate ................................................. ................................................


+
................................................................................................. [2]

(e) (i) Complete the following equation for the reaction of calcium carbonate with
hydrochloric acid.
(
CaCO3 + HCl CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O f
)
(ii) Describe how you would test for the gas given off in this reaction.
Q
test ............................................................................................................................ u
i
result ......................................................................................................................... c
k
[3] l
i
me, CaO, is a product of the thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate.

When quicklime is heated strongly with coke, calcium carbide is formed.

CaO + 3C CaC2 + CO

(i) What type of reaction is the conversion of C to CO?


Explain your answer.

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

(ii) When water is added to calcium carbide, CaC2, acetylene is formed.


State a use of acetylene.

...................................................................................................................................
[3]

2 Copper can be extracted by heating copper carbonate with carbon.

(a) The copper carbonate breaks down into copper oxide and releases a gas.
Complete the equation for this reaction.

CuCO3 CuO + ............ [1]

(b) The copper oxide then reacts with the carbon.

heat
2CuO + C 2Cu + CO2

(i) Complete the following sentences using words from the list.

endothermic exothermic halogen metal

neutralised oxidised reduced

In this reaction copper oxide is to copper.

The copper obtained is a pinkish-brown

The reaction is because heat is absorbed. [3]

(ii) State the name of the substance which is oxidised during this reaction.

[1]
(iii) How would you test for the carbon dioxide given off in this reaction?

test

result [2]

(c) Describe a test for aqueous copper ions and state the result.

.................................................................................................................................................................. [3]

(d) Carbon is in Group IV of the Periodic Table.

(i) Draw a diagram to show how the electrons are arranged in an atom of carbon.

[1]
(ii) To which Period in the Periodic Table does carbon belong?

[1]

(e) Organic compounds contain carbon and hydrogen.

(i) To which homologous series does the organic compound A belong?

H H
H C C H
H H

compound A

[1]

(ii) State the name of compound A.

[1]

7 The table gives some information about the properties of some metals.
metal melting point /C colour of chloride

A 1890 pink

B 98 white

C 63 white

D 1535 brownish-black

(a) Which two of the metals A to D are transition metals?


Give a reason for your answer.

metals

reason [2]

(b) When iron powder reacts with warm sulphuric acid, hydrogen is given off.

Fe + H2SO4 FeSO4 + H2

State the name of the salt made in this reaction.

[1]

(c) A student used the apparatus shown below for investigating the speed of the reaction between
iron and sulphuric acid.

sulphuric water
acid

iron powder

Describe how this apparatus can be used to investigate the speed of this reaction.

[3]

(d) The student repeated the experiment with different concentrations of sulphuric acid.
In each experiment the mass of iron powder was the same and the temperature was
kept at 30C.
The results are shown in the table.

3
concentration of sulphuric speed of reaction /cm
3
acid / moles per dm hydrogen per second

0.4 4.2

0.8 8.5

1.6 17.0

(i) Use the information in the table to help you work out how the speed of the reaction
is affected by the concentration of sulphuric acid.

[2]

(ii) What will happen to the speed of the reaction if lumps of iron are used instead of
iron powder?

[1]

(iii) What will happen to the speed of the reaction if it is carried out at 20C rather than
at 30C?

[1]

4 Iron is extracted from its ore in a blast furnace.

(a) State the name of the ore from which iron is extracted.

[1]

(b) The diagram shows a blast furnace.

A
coke + limestone
+ iron ore

firebrick lining

air in
C
D
(i) Which one of the raw materials is added to the blast furnace to help remove the
impurities from the iron ore?

[1]

(ii) The impurities are removed as a slag. Which letter on the diagram shows the

slag? [1]

(c) Carbon monoxide is formed in the blast furnace by reaction of coke with oxygen.

(i) Complete the equation for this reaction.

C + CO [2]

(ii) State the adverse affect of carbon monoxide on human health.

[1]

(d) In the hottest regions of the blast furnace the following reaction takes place.

Fe2O3 + 3C 2Fe + 3CO

Which two of these sentences correctly describe this reaction?


Tick two boxes.

The iron oxide gets reduced.

The reaction is a thermal decomposition.

The carbon gets oxidised.

The carbon gets reduced.

Carbon neutralises the iron oxide.


[1]

(e) Aluminium cannot be extracted from aluminium oxide in a blast furnace.

Explain why aluminium cannot be extracted in this way.

(f) (i)
State the
name of
the
method used to extract aluminium from its oxide ore.

[2]

[1]

(ii) State one use of aluminium.


[1]

[Total: 11]

2 The four tubes show an investigation of rusting. Each one of these four tubes contains a
nail and the reagents indicated.

cork cork

dry distilled air oxygen


oxygen water
(boiled to
remove
dissolved
oxygen) Water
1 2 3 4

(a) Predict the order in which rust would appear.

first

second [1]

(b) Explain your prediction.

[2]

6 Copper oxide was reacted with hydrogen using the apparatus shown below.

excess hydrogen
burning in air

dry hydrogen

heat
ice

Colorless liquid
ermic reaction between aluminium and hydrochloric acid varies with time.

rate of
reaction

0
0 time
(i) Suggest a reason why the reaction goes slowly at first.

..................................................................................................................................[1]

(ii) Suggest two reasons for the increase in rate.

......................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................[2]
1 No one knows where iron was first isolated. It appeared in China, the Middle
East and in Africa. It was obtained by reducing iron ore with charcoal.

(a) Complete the following equation.

Fe2O3 + C ................... + ........................


iron ore charcoal
[2]

(b) In 1705 Abraham Darby showed that iron ore could be reduced using coke in a
blast furnace.

waste gases

raw materials

firebrick lining

air slag
molten iron

(i) The temperature in the furnace rises to 2000 C. Write an equation for
the exothermic reaction that causes this high temperature.

...................................................................................................................................

(ii) In the furnace, the ore is reduced by carbon monoxide. Explain how this is formed.

...................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................[3]

(c) The formation of slag removes an impurity in the ore. Write a word equation for
the formation of the slag.

......................................................................................................................................[2]
(d) Stainless steel is an alloy of iron. It contains iron, other metals and about 0.5% of carbon.

(i) State a use of stainless steel.

...................................................................................................................................

(ii) Name a metal, other than iron, in stainless steel.

...................................................................................................................................

(iii) The iron from the blast furnace is impure. It contains about 5% of carbon and other
impurities, such as silicon and phosphorus. Describe how the percentage of
carbon is reduced and the other impurities are removed.

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................[6]

(e) One of the methods used to prevent iron or steel from rusting is to electroplate it with
another metal, such as tin. Complete the following.

The anode is made of ............................................... .

The cathode is made of ............................................. .

The electrolyte is a solution of ................................... .


[3]
2 Some reactions of metals W, X, Y and Z are given below.

reaction with dilute


metal reaction with water
hydrochloric acid

A few bubbles form slowly in cold


W Vigorous reaction. Gas given off.
water.

Vigorous reaction. Metal melts. Explosive reaction. Should not


X
Gas given off. be attempted.

Y No reaction. No reaction.

Does not react with cold water.


Z Steady fizzing.
Hot metal reacts with steam.

(a) Arrange these metals in order of reactivity.

most reactive

least reactive [2]

(b) Which of these metals could be


(i) magnesium,

[1]

(ii) copper?

[1]

(c) The equation for the reaction of X with cold water is given below.

2X(s) + 2H2O(l) 2XOH(aq) + H2(g)

(i) Describe the test you would use to show that the gas evolved is hydrogen.

[1]

(ii) How could you show that the water contained a compound of the type XOH?

[2]

(iii) In which group of the Periodic Table does metal X belong?

[1]

(iv) The ore of X is its chloride. Suggest how metal X could be extracted from its
chloride.

[2]

7 Aluminium was first isolated in 1827 using sodium.

Al Cl 3
+ 3Na Al + 3NaCl Aluminium,

obtained by this method, was more expensive than gold. (a) Suggest an

explanation why aluminium was so expensive.

...........................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................... [1]

(b) The modern method for extracting aluminium is the electrolysis of a molten electrolyte,
aluminium oxide dissolved in cryolite. The aluminium oxide decomposes.

2Al 2O3 4Al + 3O2

Both electrodes are made of carbon.

(i) Give two reasons why the oxide is dissolved in cryolite.

....................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [2]

(a) Indicate on the diagram with an arrow where the copper oxide is placed. [1]

(b) The colour of the copper oxide would change from to [2]

(c) What is the purpose of the ice?

[2]
1 In 1886, the modern electrolytic process for the extraction of aluminium was discovered in the USA
by C. Hall.

(a) Before this discovery, the only method of extracting the metal was by displacement.

(i) Name a metal that can displace aluminium from aluminium chloride.

..................................................................................................................................[1]

(ii) Write a word equation for this displacement reaction.

..................................................................................................................................[1]

(iii) Complete the equation for the reaction.

AlCl + .......................
...................................... + ........................................[2]
3

(b) Aluminium is produced by the electrolysis of an electrolyte that contains


aluminium oxide.

(i) Write an ionic equation for the reduction of the aluminium ion at the cathode.

...........................................................................................................................[2]

(ii) Name the main ore of aluminium.

...........................................................................................................................[1]

(iii) Complete the following description of the electrolyte by filling the spaces.

The electrolyte is a ................................................ mixture of aluminium

oxide and .................................................. which is maintained at 900 C.

[2]

(iv) Explain why the gas given off at the anode is a mixture of oxygen and
carbon dioxide.

............................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................[2]

(c) One property of aluminium is that it resists corrosion because it is covered with a
layer of its oxide.

(i) Give one use of the metal that depends on this property.

..........................................................................................................................[1]

(ii) Give another use of the metal that depends on a different property.

use .............................................................................................................................

property..................................................................................................................[2]
(d) The graph shows how the rate of the exoth

(ii) Complete the ionic equation for the reaction at the anode.

.......... O2 O2 + ......... e
[2]

(iii) Why do the carbon anodes need to be replaced frequently?

....................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(c) The electrolysis of a molten electrolyte is one method of extracting a metal from its ore.
Other methods are the electrolysis of an aqueous solution and the reduction of the
oxide by carbon. Explain why these last two methods cannot be used to extract
aluminium.

electrolysis of an aqueous solution ...................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................................

.. using

carbon .....................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................... [2]

[Total: 8]

4 (a) Zinc is made by reducing zinc oxide. In 1695 Homberg obtained zinc from calamine, zinc
carbonate. At present zinc is extracted from the ore, zinc blende.
(
(i) Suggest a way of changing calamine into zinc oxide. c
)
...............................................................................................................................[1] Z
in
(ii) Describe how zinc is extracted from zinc blende. c
is
................................................................................................................................... u
s
................................................................................................................................... e
d
...............................................................................................................................[3] t
o
(b) Zinc oxide is used to make aqueous zinc chloride. This can be used to preserve wood. m
Describe how this solution could be made. a
k
e
..........................................................................................................................................
al
lo
..........................................................................................................................................
y
s.
......................................................................................................................................[3]
(i)
Name an alloy that contains zinc.

...............................................................................................................................[1]

(ii) What is the other metal in this alloy?

...............................................................................................................................[1]

(d) Another use of zinc is galvanising. When the zinc layer is broken, the steel is exposed.

exposed steel does thin layer of


not rust zinc

Steel

Explain why the exposed steel does not rust.

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................[3]

(e) The diagram below represents a simple cell.

zinc electrode iron electrode

bubbles of gas

dilute sulphuric acid

(i) Write an ionic equation for the reaction that occurs at the zinc electrode.

...............................................................................................................................[1]

(ii) How could the voltage of the cell be increased?

...............................................................................................................................[1]
(f) A different type of cell is drawn below.

water
oxygen bubbled
on to electrode iron electrodes

iron oxide rust

(i) The pH of the solution increases. Give the name of the ion formed.

...............................................................................................................................[1]

(ii) Complete the equation that represents the formation of this ion.

O2 + .......... H2O + .......... ................ [2]

4 For over 5000 years copper has been obtained by the reduction of its ores. More recently the metal
has been purified by electrolysis.

(a) Copper is used to make alloys.

(i) Give two other uses of copper.

...............................................................................................................................[2]

(ii) Alloys have similar structures to pure metals. Give a labelled diagram that shows
the structure of a typical alloy, such as brass.

[3]

(b) Copper is refined by the electrolysis of aqueous copper(II) sulphate using copper
electrodes. Describe the change that occurs at the electrodes.

(i) cathode (pure copper) ............................................................................................... Th


e
...............................................................................................................................[1] col
ou
(ii) anode (impure copper) .............................................................................................. rle
ss
...............................................................................................................................[1] ga
s
(iii) Write an ionic equation for the reaction at the cathode. is .
.....
...............................................................................................................................[1] .....
.....
(iv) If carbon electrodes are used, a colourless gas is given off at the anode and the .....
electrolyte changes from a blue to a colourless solution. .....
.....
.................. .

The solution changes into .......................................... . [2]

(c) Electrolysis and cells both involve chemical reactions and electricity.

What is the essential difference between them?

..........................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................[2]

(d) Copper is an unreactive metal. Its compounds are easily reduced to the metal or
decomposed to simpler compounds. Complete the following equations.

(i) ...CuO + ............................ ...Cu + ............................

(ii) Copper(II) hydroxide ............................


(heat)
+ ............................
............
............
....
Wh
ich
(iii) Cu(NO3)2 ............................ + ............................ + ch
............................ (heat)
[4] an
ge
3 Zinc blende is the common ore of zinc. It is usually found mixed with an is
ore of lead and traces of silver. red
uct
(a) (i) Describe how zinc blende is changed into zinc oxide. ion
?
........................................................................................................................... Ex
........ pla
in
........................................................................................................................... yo
....[2] ur
an
(ii) Write an equation for the reduction of zinc oxide by carbon. sw
er.
...........................................................................................................................
....[2] .....
.....
(iii) The boiling point .....
change 1 .....
.....
.....
Zn(s) + Pb2+(aq) Zn2+(aq) + Pb(s) .....
.....
.....
change 2 .....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.

.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
..............................................................[2]

(ii) Write an ionic equation for the reaction between zinc atoms and silver(I) ions.

...............................................................................................................................[2]
6 An ore of copper is the mineral, chalcopyrite. This is a mixed sulphide of iron and copper.

(a) Analysis of a sample of this ore shows that 13.80 g of the ore contained 4.80 g of
copper, 4.20 g of iron and the rest sulphur.
Complete the table and calculate the empirical formula of chalcopyrite.

copper iron sulphur

composition by mass / g 4.80 4.20

number of moles of atoms

simplest mole ratio of atoms

[3]
The empirical formula is

[1]

(b) Impure copper is extracted from the ore. This copper is refined by electrolysis.

(i) Name;
the material used for the positive electrode (anode),

the material used for the negative electrode (cathode),

a suitable electrolyte.

[3]

(ii) Write an ionic equation for the reaction at the negative electrode.
[1]

(iii) One use of this pure copper is electrical conductors, another is to make alloys.
Name the metal that is alloyed with copper to make brass.

[1]
(c) Two of the elements in chalcopyrite are the metal, copper, and the non-metal, sulphur.
These have different properties. Copper is an excellent conductor of electricity and is malleable.
Sulphur is a poor conductor and is not malleable, it is brittle. Explain, in terms of their structures,
why this is so.

difference in electrical conductivity

[2]

difference in malleability

[2]

4 Zinc is extracted from zinc blende, ZnS.

(a) Zinc blende is heated in air to give zinc oxide and sulphur dioxide. Most of the sulphur
dioxide is used to make sulphur trioxide. This is used to manufacture sulphuric acid.
Some of the acid is used in the plant, but most of it is used to make fertilisers.

(i) Give another use of sulphur dioxide.

[1]

(ii) Describe how sulphur dioxide is converted into sulphur trioxide.

[3]

(iii) Name a fertiliser made from sulphuric acid.

[1]

(b) Some of the zinc oxide was mixed with an excess of carbon and heated to 1000 C.
Zinc distils out of the furnace.

2ZnO + C 2Zn +
CO2
C + CO2
2CO

(i) Name the two changes of state involved in the process of distillation.

[2]

(ii) Why is it necessary to use an excess of carbon?


[2]

(c) The remaining zinc oxide reacts with sulphuric acid to give aqueous zinc sulphate. This is
electrolysed with inert electrodes (the electrolysis is the same as that of
copper(II) sulphate with inert electrodes).
2+ 2- + -
ions present: Zn (aq) SO4 (aq) H (aq) OH (aq)

(i) Zinc forms at the negative electrode (cathode). Write the equation for this reaction.

[1]

(ii) Write the equation for the reaction at the positive electrode (anode).

[2]

(iii) The electrolyte changes from aqueous zinc sulphate to

[1]

(d) Give two uses of zinc.

1.

2. [2]

[Total: 15]
3 (a) An important ore of zinc is zinc blende, ZnS.

(i) How is zinc blende changed into zinc oxide?

[1]

(ii) Write a balanced equation for the reduction of zinc oxide to zinc by carbon.

[2]

(b) A major use of zinc is galvanizing; steel objects are coated with a thin layer of zinc.
This protects the steel from rusting even when the layer of zinc is broken.

thin layer steel exposed to


of zinc oxygen and water

steel

Explain, by mentioning ions and electrons, why the exposed steel does not rust.
(c) Zinc electrodes have been used in cells for many years, one of the first was the Daniel cell in 1831.

voltmeter
V

copper electrode zinc electrode

zinc sulfate(aq)

copper(II) sulfate(aq)
porous pot - stops
solutions from mixing

(i) Give an explanation for the following in terms of atoms and ions.

observation at zinc electrode the electrode becomes smaller

explanation

[1]

observation at copper electrode the electrode becomes bigger

explanation

[1]

(ii) When a current flows, charged particles move around the circuit.

What type of particle moves through the electrolytes?

[1]

Which particle moves through the wires and the voltmeter?


[1]

[Total: 10]

of lead is 1740 C and that of zinc is 907 C. Explain why, when both oxides are
reduced by heating with carbon at 1400 C, only lead remains in the
furnace.

...................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................[2]
(b) A major use of zinc is to make diecasting alloys. These contain about 4% of aluminium and they
are stronger and less malleable than pure zinc.
(i) Give one other large scale use of zinc.

...............................................................................................................................[1]

(ii) Describe the structure of a typical metal, such as zinc, and explain why it is malleable.

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................[3]

(iii) Suggest why the introduction of a different metallic atom into the structure makes the alloy
stronger than the pure metal.

...................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................[2]

(c) A solution of an impure zinc ore contained zinc, lead and silver(I) ions. The addition of zinc dust will
displace both lead and silver.

(i) The ionic equation for the displacement of lead is as follows.


5. Cars bodies made from iron and steel will rust.

(a) Two substances are needed for the iron parts in a car to rust.

One of these is oxygen.

What is the name of the other substance?

........................................................................................................................................[1]

(b) Nowadays some car bodies are made from aluminium.

Write down one advantage of using aluminium instead of iron.

............................................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................................[1]
(c) Sam is a research scientist.

He has just discovered a new alloy.

This alloy is suitable for making car bodies.

Sam decides to tell other scientists around the world about his discovery.

Describe how, and explain why Sam should tell other scientists.

............................................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................................[2] [Total:

4]
8 Claire has a car. The car body is made of iron and aluminium.

(a) Claires car is made of many materials.

Write down the name of a non-metal material used to make car parts.

...............................................................................................................................................[1]

(b) Cars built using iron go rusty.

Two substances are needed to make iron go rusty.

Which two substances?

.................................................................... and ...................................................................[2]

(c) Most cars are made of steel.

Steel is an alloy of iron.

What is meant by the word alloy?

...............................................................................................................................................[1]

(d) Aluminium does not corrode easily.

Explain why aluminium does not corrode.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[2]

[Total: 6]

7 Metals are a very useful type of material.

Steel is an alloy. It is a mixture of iron and carbon.

(a) Look at this list of metals.

brass

copper

lead

mercury

solder
Two of the metals are alloys. Which two?

.................................................................. and .................................................................. [2]

(b) Look at the table.

It shows some information about four metals.

metal melting point density relative strength relative hardness


in C in g / (1 is very weak) (1 is very soft)
cm3
aluminium 660 2.7 11 2.8

copper 1085 8.9 33 3.0

iron 1538 7.9 20 4.5

titanium 1668 4.5 40 6.0

(i) Which metal is the hardest?

..................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) Which metal has the lowest density?

..................................................................................................................................... [1]
(iii)
Iron corrodes quickly in moist air.

This is called rusting.

Aluminium does not corrode in moist air.

Explain why.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................... [2]

(iv) Steel is an alloy that contains mostly iron.

Look at the diagram. It shows a car body.

Aluminium or steel can be used to make a car body.

One advantage of aluminium is that it will not corrode in moist air.

Describe another advantage and a disadvantage of using aluminium instead of steel to


make a car body.

Information in the table may help you answer this question.

advantage of using aluminium ..........................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

disadvantage of using aluminium ....................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................... [2]

(c) Aluminium and steel are both recycled.

One reason is to save money.

Suggest one other reason for recycling.

...................................................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................................. [1]
[Total: 9]

13 This question is about metals.

(a) Look at the list.

copper
iron
lead
sodium
zinc

(i) Which metal is most suitable for making car bodies?

Choose from the list.

answer ...........................................................................................................................[1]

(ii) Which metal is used for making electrical wiring?

Choose from the list.

answer ...........................................................................................................................[1]

(b) The bottom of a saucepan is often made from copper.

Suggest why.

...............................................................................................................................................[1]

(c) All metals conduct electricity.

At very low temperatures, some metals become very good conductors.

What are these metals called?

...............................................................................................................................................[1]
(d) Look at the table.

It shows some information about the densities of metals.

density
metal
in g /
cm3
aluminium 2.7

copper 8.9

iron 7.9

lead 11.3

tin 7.3

A new aeroplane is being made out of a metal with a low density.

Which metal is most suitable?

Choose from the table.

answer..................................................................................................................................[1]

[Total: 5]
7 This question is about copper and alloys.

(a) Impure copper can be purified using electrolysis.

Look at the diagram.

It shows the apparatus used to purify impure copper.

power pack
+

Anode cathode

electrolyte

(i) Write down the name of the electrolyte.

.................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) What are the electrodes made of?

anode ................................................................................................................................

cathode ...................................................................................................................... [1]

(iii) Describe what happens at each electrode.

...........................................................................................................................................

.................................................................................................................................... [1]

(b) Copper can be recycled and used in alloys and copper pipes.

Describe one of the problems of recycling copper.

............................................................................................................................................ [1]

(c) Solder is an alloy.

Write down the names of the two main metals in solder.

.................................................................. and ................................................................. [2]

[Total: 6]
13 Metals have useful properties.

Look at the table. It shows some of the properties of five metals.

density melting point relative relative electrical relative thermal


metal
in g / in C hardness conductivity conductivity
cm3
chromium 7.2 1857 8.5 0.8 0.9

cobalt 8.9 1495 5.0 1.7 1.0

copper 9.0 1085 3.0 6.0 4.1

nickel 8.9 1453 4.0 1.4 0.9

zinc 7.1 420 2.5 1.7 1.2

(a) Look at the diagram. It shows an electrical wire.

Copper is the most suitable metal from the table to make electrical wires.

Explain why.

Use information from the table.

...................................................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................................ [1]

(b) Look at the diagram.

This drill bit is used to make holes in metal.

Which metal would be most suitable to make a drill bit? Choose

from the table. Explain your answer.

...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................................ [2] (c)

Metals are good electrical conductors.

This is because a charged particle can move. What is

the name of this charged particle? Choose from:

anion atom

cation electron

molecule

answer ............................................................................................................................... [1]

[Total: 4]

9 Steel is an alloy that contains iron and carbon.

Iron rusts much more easily than steel.

(a) Two substances are needed for iron to rust.

Which two?
.................................................................. and ................................................................. [2] (b)

Which one of the following is an alloy?

Choose from:
lead solder tin

zin
answer ............................................................................................................................... [1] (c) Fizzy

drinks cans are made from metal.

Look at the diagram. It shows a can of fizzy drink.

The metal used to make the can must be malleable. This

is a property of the metal.

Write down two other properties that the metal used to make this fizzy drinks can must have.

1 ................................................................................................................................................

2 ......................................................................................................................................... [2] [Total: 5]


6 The position of aluminium in the reactivity series of metals is shown below.

magnesium
aluminium
zinc
copper

(a) Aluminium is extracted by the electrolysis of its molten oxide.

waste gases

carbon anode (+)

carbon mixture of aluminium


900 oC oxide and cryolite
cathode ()
aluminium

(i) Name the main ore of aluminium.

[1]

(ii) Why does the molten electrolyte contain cryolite?

[1]

(iii) Oxygen is produced at the positive electrode (anode). Name another gas which is
given off at this electrode.

[1]

(b) Aluminium reacts very slowly with aqueous copper(II) sulphate.

2Al(s) + 3CuSO4(aq) Al2(SO4)3(aq) + 3Cu(s)

(i) Which of the two metals has the greater tendency to form ions?

[1]

(ii) Describe what you would see when this reaction occurs.

[1]

(iii) Explain why aluminium reacts so slowly.

[1]
(c) Complete the following table by writing reaction or no reaction in the spaces provided.
oxide type of oxide reaction with acid reaction with alkali

magnesium basic

aluminium amphoteric

[2]

(d) Predict the equations for the decomposition of the following aluminium compounds.

(i) Al(OH)3 + [2]

(ii) aluminium nitrate + +

[2]

1 Iron is a transition element.

(a) Which of the following statements about transition elements are correct?

Tick three boxes.

The metals are highly coloured e.g. yellow, green, blue.

The metals have low melting points.

Their compounds are highly coloured.

Their compounds are colourless.

The elements and their compounds are often used as catalysts.

They have more than one oxidation state.

[3]

(b) (i) In which Period in the Periodic Table is iron to be found?

[1]

(ii) Use the Periodic Table to work out the number of protons and the number of
neutrons in one atom of iron.

number of protons = number of neutrons = [1]


(c) Iron is extracted in a blast furnace. The list below gives some of the substances used
or formed in the extraction.

carbon monoxide coke iron ore limestone slag

(i) Which substance is a mineral containing largely calcium carbonate?

[1]

(ii) Which substance is formed when impurities in the ore react with calcium oxide?

[1]

(iii) Which substance is also called hematite?

[1]

(d) State two functions of the coke used in the blast furnace.

[2]

(e) Most of the iron is converted into mild steel or stainless steel. Give one use for each.

mild steel

stainless steel [2]

2 Some reactions of metals W, X, Y and Z are given below.

reaction with dilute


metal reaction with water
hydrochloric acid

A few bubbles form slowly in cold


W Vigorous reaction. Gas given off.
water.

Vigorous reaction. Metal melts. Explosive reaction. Should not


X
Gas given off. be attempted.

Y No reaction. No reaction.

Does not react with cold water.


Z Steady fizzing.
Hot metal reacts with steam.

(a) Arrange these metals in order of reactivity.

most reactive
least reactive [2]

(b) Which of these metals could be

(i) magnesium,

[1]

(ii) copper?

[1]

(c) The equation for the reaction of X with cold water is given below.

2X(s) + 2H2O(l) 2XOH(aq) + H2(g)

(i) Describe the test you would use to show that the gas evolved is hydrogen.

[1]

(ii) How could you show that the water contained a compound of the type XOH?

[2]

(iii) In which group of the Periodic Table does metal X belong?

[1]

(iv) The ore of X is its chloride. Suggest how metal X could be extracted from its
chloride.

[2]

5 Some sunglasses are made from glass which darkens in bright sunlight. The glass contains tiny crystals
of silver chloride and copper(I) chloride.
(b)
(a) In bright sunlight, in the presence of copper(I) chloride, the silver chloride breaks down
Silv
to solid silver which darkens the glass.
er
+ - is a
Ag (s) + e Ag(s) met
- al.
State the name of the particle with the symbol e . Sta
te
[1] two
phy
sical properties which are characteristic of all metals.

(c) In bright sunlight, the copper(I) chloride in the sunglasses is converted to copper(II)
chloride.
What do the roman numerals (I) and (II) show in these copper compounds?
Tick one box.
[2]

the number of atoms of copper in the copper compounds

the number of neutrons in the copper compounds

whether the copper is in the solid, liquid or gaseous state

the oxidation state of the copper in the copper compounds

[1]

(d) Describe a test for aqueous copper(II) ions.

test

result

[3]

(e) Give a common use of copper.

[1]

[Total: 8]
5 (a) Titanium is produced by the reduction of its chloride. This is heated with magnesium in an inert
atmosphere of argon.

TiCl4 + 2Mg Ti + 2MgCl2

(i) Explain why it is necessary to use argon rather than air.

[1]

(ii) Name another metal that would reduce titanium chloride to titanium.

[1]

(iii) Suggest how you could separate the metal, titanium, from the soluble salt magnesium
chloride.

[2]

(b) Titanium is very resistant to corrosion. One of its uses is as an electrode in the cathodic
protection of large steel structures from rusting.
(i) Define oxidation in terms of electron transfer.

[1]

(ii) The steel oil rig is the cathode. Name the gas formed at this electrode.

[1]

(iii) Name the two gases formed at the titanium anode.

and [2]

(iv) Explain why the oil rig does not rust.

[2]

v) Another way of protecting steel from corrosion is sacrificial protection.


Give two differences between sacrificial protection and cathodic protection.

[2]

[Total: 12]
6 Aluminium is extracted by the electrolysis of a molten mixture that contains alumina, which is aluminium
oxide, Al2O3.

(a) The ore of aluminium is bauxite. This contains alumina, which is amphoteric, and
iron(III) oxide, which is basic. The ore is heated with aqueous sodium hydroxide.
Complete the following sentences.

The dissolves to give a solution of

The does not dissolve and can be removed by [4]

(b) Complete the labelling of the diagram.

waste gases

carbon anode (+)


.......................

....................... () mixture of aluminium


oxide and .........................

................................
temperature is .........................

[4]
3+ 2-
(c) The ions that are involved in the electrolysis are Al and O .

(i) Write an equation for the reaction at the cathode.

[2]

(ii) Explain how carbon dioxide is formed at the anode.

[2]

(d) Give an explanation for each of the following.

(i) Aluminium is used extensively in the manufacture of aircraft.

[1]

(ii) Aluminium is used to make food containers.


[2]
(iii) Aluminium electricity cables have a steel core.

[1]

[Total: 16]
3. (a) State the two conditions required for iron to rust.
(2)
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.......................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) State two methods which are used to prevent the rusting of iron.

.......................................................................................................................................

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(c) The diagram below shows an iron nail in contact with a strip of magnesium ribbon.
Explain whether the rate of rusting would be increased, decreased or unchanged by the
presence of the magnesium.

The rate of rusting is ............................... because .......................................................

.......................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................
(3) Q3

(Total 6 marks)
Questions:
(1) Sodium is the sixth most abundant element in the earths crust, occurring in large
quantities as common salt, NaCl, and yet sodium metal wasnt first produced until the
early nineteenth century.

a) From your knowledge of the position of sodium in the reactivity series, suggest a
method for manufacturing sodium form sodium chloride. You arent expected to give
details fo the manufacturing process, but should describe and explain (including
equation/s where relevant) how sodium is formed in your process.

b) Explain why sodium wasnt produced until the early nineteenth century.

c) Suggest three other metals which might have been first isolated from their compounds
at the same sort of time.

d) What is bornze? Why has bronze been known for thoudsands of years?

(2)
a) Name the ore from which sluminium is extracted.
b) Aluminum is manufactured using electrolysis. Carbon electrodes are used. Describe the
nature of the electrolyte.
c) At which electrode is the aluminum produced?
d) Write the electrode equation for the formation of the aluminum. Is this an example of
oxidation or reduction?

e) Oxygen gas is formed at the other electrode. Explain why that causes a problem.
f) Aluminum alloys are used in aircraft construction.
i. What property of aluminum makes it particularly suitable for this purpose?
ii. Why are aluminum alloys used in preference to pure aluminum?
(3) The following reaction takes place in blast furnace:
A: C + O2 CO2 H = -394 kjmol-1
B: CO2 + C 2CO H = +172 kjmol-1
C: Fe2O3 + 3CO 2Fe + 3CO2 H = -4 kjmol-1
D: CaCO3 Coo + CO2 H = +178kjmol-1
a) Which one of these reactions provides the heat to maintain the temperature of the
furnace?
b) What materialsare put into the furnace to provide sources of (i) carbon, (ii) oxygen, (III)
iron(III) oxide, (iv) calcium carbonate?
c) The calcium cium oxide produced in reaction D takes part in the formation of slag. Write
an equation for the formation of the slag.
d) Some iron is also produced by reaction between iron(III) oxide and carbon. Balance the
following equation:
Fe2O3 + C Fe + CO
(4)
a) Cast iron or pig iron from the bottom of the blast furnace contains an important
impurity which limits its usefulness.
i. What is the impurity, and approximately what percentage of the cast irion does it
make up?
ii. What effect does this impurity have on the properties of cast iron that limits its
usefulness?
b) Describe the composition of stainless steel, and explain why it resists corrosion. State
one use for stainless steel.
c) Car bodies used to be made from milk steel, which was then painted. In more recent
cars, the mild steel is galvanized before it is painted.
i. What is meant by galvanized steel?
ii. Describe and explain the effect that galvanized steel has on the life of the car.
You may need to refer to the Periodic Table.
1. Iron is produced in a blast furnace by the reduction of its ore, haematite(Fe2O3).
a) What do you understand by the term reduction?
....................................................................................................................................... 1

b) Give the proper chemical name for haematite.


....................................................................................................................................... 1

c) The main heat source in the furnace is provided by burning coke in air.
C + O2 CO2
What name is given to a reaction which produces heat?
....................................................................................................................................... 1

d) The main reducing agent in the furnace is carbon monoxide. Write an equation to show
its formation.
....................................................................................................................................... 1

e) Balance the equation: Fe2O3 + CO Fe + CO2


....................................................................................................................................... 1

f) Limestone is added to the furnace to help in the removal of impurities in the ore, such
as silicon dioxide (SiO2). Explain the ores of this.
.......................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................... 3

g) The impure iron from the blast furnace can be used to make cast iron, but most is
converted into various steels
i. Give one use in each case for cast iron, milk steel, high-carbon steel and stainless
steel.
.......................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................... 4

ii. Give two effects of increasing the proportion of carbon mixed with iron.
.......................................................................................................................................

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Total /14
(2)
a) Aluminum is manufactured by the electrolysis of aluminum oxide dissolved in molten
cryolite.
i. Name the ore from which aluminum oxide is obtained. 1
ii. At which electrode is the aluminum produced? 1
iii. Oxygen is released at the other electrode. Explain why that creates a problem. 2
iv. Aluminum is the commonest metal in the earths crust, and yet it is relatively
expensive because its extraction is expensive. Why is the extraction expensive? 1
b) High-voltage overhead electricity cables are made of lauminium with a steel core,
supported on galvanized steel pylons.
i. Aluminum is not such a good conductor of electricity as copper. Why is aluminum
used for overhead power cables, instead of copper? 1
ii. Iron is less good conductor of electricity than aluminum. Why are the cables
constructed with steel core? 1
iii. Suggest two reason why the pylons are made of steel, rather than aluminum. 2
iv. What is galvanizing iron? 1
v. Explain how galvanizing iron helps to prevent it from rusting. 2

Total 12 marks
(3) Zinc occurs naturally as sphalerite(zinc blend), ZnS. In the extraction of zinc, the zinc
sulfide is first heated strongly in air to produce zinc oxide.
2ZnS + 3O2 2ZnO + 2SO2
The zinc oxide can be reduced to zinc in two ways. In the first method, it is heated with
carbon in a blast furnace at a temperature in excess of 1000oC. Zinc boils at 907oC, and
so is produced as a vapour that can be condensed. In the second method, the zinc oxide is
converted into zinc sulfate solution, which is then electrolysed.
a) Suggest a use for sulfur dioxide produced during the formation of zinc oxide. 1
b) Carbon reduction of the zinc oxide produces zinc and carbon monoxide. Write the
equation for the reaction. 1
c) What would you add to zinc oxide to produce a solution of zinc sulfate? Write an
equation for the reaction. 2
d) At which electrode would the zinc be formed during the electrolyte extraction? Write
the equation for the reaction occurring at the electrode. 2

Total 6 marks
(4) Underground salt deposits are an essential raw material in the chemical industry. The salt
is extracted by solution mining, and the salt solution is electrolysed to produce three
important chemicals.
a) Name the three chemicals produced by the electrolysis of salt solution, and give a use
for each of them. 6
b) Which of the three is produced at the anode during the electrolysis? Write the equation
for the reaction occurring at the anode. 2

Total 8 marks
(5) Ammonia is manufactured from hydrogen and nigrogen in the Haber process. The nitrogen
and hydrogen are passed through a reaction vessel containing a catalyst. About 15% of
the mixture is converted into ammonia gas. The ammonia is then separated from the
unused nitrogen and hydrogen.
Which are recycled through the process.
N2 + 3H2 2NH3 H = -92 kjmol-1
a) State the source of: (i) the nitrogen, (ii) the hydrogen. 2
b) Explain the meaning of the symbol in the equation. 1
c) State what a negative value for H shows. 1
d) Name the catalyst for the reaction. 1
e) State: (i) the temperature, (ii) the pressure used in the process 2
f) How is the ammonia separated from the unreacted nitrogen and hydrogen? 1
g) Give two uses for ammonia. 2

Total 10 marks
(6) Sulfuric acid can be manufactured from sulfur using the sequence:
Sulfur sulfur dioxide sulfur trioxide sulfuric acid
a) How is the sulfur converted into sulfur dioxide? 1
b) The key reaction in the overall process is the conversion of sulfur dioxide into sulfur
trioxide. The equation of the reaction is:
2SO2 + O2 2SO3 H = -196 kjmol-1
i. Name the catalyst for the reaction. 1
ii. Use Le Chateliers principle to explain whether the percentage yield sulfur trioxide
would be greater at a high or low temperature. 2
iii. The temperature used for the reaction is 450oC. Explain the choice of this reaction
temperature. 2
iv. According to Le Chatelier, the yield of sulfur trioxide would be increased if you used a
high pressure. In fact, the process is carried out at low pressure of about 1-2
atmospheres. Explain the reason for that choice. 2
c) Write two equation to show how the sulfur trioxide is converted into concentrated
sulfuric acid. 2
d) State two large-scale uses for sulfuric acid. 2

Total 12 marks

Structured Questions

13.Answer the following questions, on the extraction of iron in a blast furnace.


a) What is the main ore of iron called?

b) What is the purpose of the limestone?

c) What is the main impurity in the iron ore?

d) Write an equation to show the reduction of the ore.

e) What floats on top of the molten iron?

f) In the middle of the furnace, what is the main reducing gas?

g) Name two other elements usually present in pig rion.

h) List four alloys of iron and a use of each.


14.The seventh most abundant element on the earth is titanium. It is extracted from its ore,
rutile, TiO2. This is first converted into titanium chloride, TiCl 4, with concentrated
hydrochloric acid. It is then reduced by heating with sodium metal in an inert atmosphere
of argon.
a) What is the chemical name for TiO2?

b) Complete these equations:

TiO2 + 4HCl .+

TiCl4 + 4Na +

c) Why is it necessary to have an inert atmosphere of argon, during the extraction using
sodium?

d) TiCl4 is a liquid chloride. Do you think it is ionic or covalent?

e) Titanium is used in spaceship construction. What property makes it suitable for such a
use?

15.
a) Explain the observations summarized below:

b) There is an iron column in Delhi that was built in approximately 200A.D. However,
nearly two thousand years later, it still has no rust on it. Can you explain why?

c) Why does an iron pipe buried deep in clay rust more quickly than one buried in a
shallow trench of sand?

d) Why does a tin can when scratched rust much quicker than an iron can coat with zinc
(galvanized), when it becomes scratched?
16.
a) The 20-cent of a Singapore coin has a mass of 4.5 g. It is a cupronickel alloy (75% Cu,
25% Ni). How much copper would be needed to produce 1000 000 of these coins?
b) If copper is extracted from the ore cuprite, Cu 2O, then how much of this ore is needed
to produce 1000 000 coins?[Ar(Cu) = 64, Ar(O) = 16]
17.Answer the questions below on the extraction of aluminium by the electrolysis of bauxite.
a) Why is cryolite added to the bauxite?
b) What materials are the electrodes of the cell made of?
c) Write the equation for the reaction at the cathode.
d) What is the main product at the anode?
e) Write an equation for the reaction at the anode.
f) Why do the anodes have to be replaced?
g) Why is aluminium parts often built in mountainous areas?

h) List four uses of aluminium.