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Marine Internal Combustion Engine 3 Marks Previous Years Questions

1. Which components of a marine diesel engine are subject to hot


corrosion and why?
HOT CORROSION
Hot corrosion is basically vanadium corrosion. Vanadium is the undesirable
impurity in the fuel. When both Vanadium and sodium are present in Na:Va of
1:3 ratio vanadium pentoxide is forms a hard component whose melting point
is 630deg.c. This component eats into metal surface, leaving the surface
exposes to corrosion.
Hot corrosion is detrimental to Piston Crown, Exhaust valve and combustion
chamber having high temperatures.
The mechanism is as follows:
High temperature causes to form vanadium pentaoxide (V2O5) and Sodium
Oxide which can form low melting compounds at high temperatures. When
these oxides solidify they release oxygen and this oxygen attacks the metal
surface and causes corrosion as a result of oxidation.
2. Give reason for fuel pump seizing.
Pump seizure may amount to following events:
1. Fuel Quality Bad
2. Water in fuel
3. No fuel present
4. And the most important cause, the frequent temperature changes when
changing between fuel grades. MAN-B&W recommends that fuel
temperature change be not more than 2C/minute. To ensure this a
temperature sensor and monitoring unit must be present apart from
viscosity control.
3. Explain principle of operation of m/e vibration damper.
Damping is simply draining out the energy which would otherwise cause
excessive vibrations. This is achieved in a number of ways in a marine diesel
engine:
1. Balance Weights (Tuned Mass Damper on crank throw)
2. Axial Damper (on crankshaft)
3. Torsional Damper (on crankshaft)
Axial dampers are fitted to lessen the fore and aft vibration of crankshaft,
parallel ti the horizontal line. It consists of a damping flange integrated to the
crankshaft and placed near the last main bearing girder, inside a cylindrical
casing. The casing is filled with system oil on both side of flanges supplied via
small orifice. This oil provides the damping effect.
The most famous type of torsional damper used on marine engine of a ship is
Viscous type dampers, which consist of an inertia ring added to the crankshaft
enclosed in a thin layer of highly viscous fluid like silicon. The inertia ring is
free to rotate and applies a lagging torque on the crankshaft due to its lagging
torsional motion.
4. Why blow through is required before starting an engine?

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Marine Internal Combustion Engine 3 Marks Previous Years Questions

Blow through in a marine engine is required to ensure that cylinders are clear
and there is no fuel left after the engine last operated or fuel might be present
due to any leakages. Blowing through also ensures free rotation of engine.
Blow through is carried out similar to air starting. Putting air into cylinders and
letting the units turn.
5. What is fail safe governor?
A governor in reference to the mechanical hydraulic type is said to be fail safe
governor if it has a system to ensure that fuel is cutoff when there is no oil
supply (hyd. Oil). When oil supply is not there, piston of servo power amplifier
comes down against the spring pressure (in SPA itself), fuel rack moves such
that it seizes the fuel supply to engine.
6. What is cetane number?
Cetane number is a measure of ignition quality of marine diesel fuel. It
determines the ignition delay that is the time lag between start of injection and
start of combustion. Higher the cetane number shorter the ignition delay.
7. Explain crash reversing.
Crash maneuvering is turning the engine in opposite direction to reduce the
heading speed of the ship. After certain time, the ship stops and starts
streaming in astern direction. This is done by supplying starting air at about 30
bars from the air receiver to the engine. The stopping air is known as the brake
air.
When there is an emergency like collision, grounding etc. the controls are
transferred immediately in to the Engine room controls.
The bridge will give astern direction in the telegraph, acknowledge the same.
When the telegraph is acknowledged only the starting air cam will reverse its
direction but the fuel cam will remain in its running position due to running
direction interlock since engine is still running in the ahead direction.
The fuel lever in the engine control room is brought to 0.
As soon as the RPM of the engine drops below 40 % of the Maximum
Continuous Rating or MCR rpm of the engine, give break air few times in short
time frame.
The break air will inject with astern timing setting inside the ahead moving
piston which will resist the piston motion.
Since fuel will not inject until running direction interlock opens, as soon as the
rpm drops near to Zero, give fuel and air kick by bringing fuel lever to
minimum start setting.
When carrying out Crash Maneuvering, some safeties need to be bypassed to
avoid tripping of engine in mid of emergency.
When the ship stops and situation is under control, a detailed Main engine
inspection is to be carried out when there is a chance.
8. What are the functions of tie bolts? Why do they break?
To hold the bedplate (crankcase), A frames and cylinder block or entablature
firmly together in compression, and to transmit the firing forces back to the
bedplate, long tie bolts are fitted through these three components and then
tightened hydraulically. To prevent excessive bending moments in the
transverse girders, the tie bolts are positioned as close to the center of the

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Marine Internal Combustion Engine 3 Marks Previous Years Questions

crankshaft as possible. Gas pressure during compression may rise as high as


140 bar this pushes down the crankshaft, piston rod and con-rod together. At
the same time pressure acts upwards and pushes the cylinder cover upwards,
cylinder head studs screwed to the entablature prevent this happening.
Breaking of tie-rods can be attributed to the following:
a. Loose tightening of tie-rods caused by scavenge fire or while at fitting.
b. Worn out threads of tie-bolts.
c. Engine is overloaded or peak pressure is too high.
d. Aging of tie-rods resulting in fatigue failure.
9. What do you mean by slow down and shut down of main engine? Give
one parameter of main engine which causes these functions.
In case of deviation of engine parameters from a set value, an audible and
visual alarm will sound which will give an early warning of the problem. This
shall help protect the engine from major damage or breakdown. In addition to
alarm Slow Down and Shut Down protective devices are also present to
safeguard the engine.
Slow down: It is the next stage of protection when actions taken are not
sufficient to control the ongoing problem; hence engine slowdown is done to
counter the disturbed parameter.
Shut down: When there is a higher fluctuation in the engine parameters which
can harm other systems of the engine, the shutdown protective devices cut off
the fuel supply and the engine stops.

Protecti Parameter
on
Slow JCW temperature high, lube oil flow low, control air pressure
Down low.
Shut Overspeed of engine (107% of MCR)
Down
10. Explain significance of specific fuel oil combustion.
Specific fuel oil consumption is the measure of mass of fuel consumed per unit
time to produce per KWh. The marine engine efficiency is usually determined
using the SFOC.
SFOC (g/kwh) = Mass of fuel consumed per hour / Power developed in KW
11. Write different type of vibration and their respective excitation forces
for a long two stroke cross head type diesel engine.
Following type of vibrations occur in two stroke crosshead type diesel engines;
1. Torsional Vibration (Shaft System including Crankshaft)
2. Axial Vibration (In the Shaft System)
3. Longitudinal Vibration (H Type and X Type Forces)
4. Transverse Vibration (L type forces)
12. What is idle stroke for Bosch Type Fuel Pump?
The amount of fuel injected through an injector connected to Bosch Type Fuel
Pump in MAN-B&W engines is dependent on relative position of helix and spill
port. As the plunger moves up, injection will commence when plunger has
closed off the spill port. As soon as the helix passes through the spill port the

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Marine Internal Combustion Engine 3 Marks Previous Years Questions

pressure above the plunger will immediately drop even though the plunger is
still moving upward, this is called Idle Stroke. In the other when the injector is
being supplied with the fuel while plunger moves up and pressurizes the fuel
the stroke is called Effective Stroke.
13. Why Bursting disc is fitted in spite of relief valve in Start Air Line?
Bursting disc bursts up in case high pressure due to impending starting airline
explosion. One reason it is provided in spite of having relief valve is that it not
only protects from explosion by letting the air out but also has a tell-tale piece
which bents indicating excessive pressure o overheating.
14. Why medium speed four stroke engine bottom end bearing bolts are
subjected to renewal after a certain period of running hours?
Bottom end and bearing is responsible for transmitting load from con rod to the
crankshaft through crank pin. This is under continuous change of loading and
unloading with changing direction of forces viz. tangential and radial forces.
Thus fatigue occurs furthering chances of failure in long run called fatigue
failure.
15. Draw and explain Gas Turbine operating cycle and how to improve its
efficiency theoretically?
Gas turbine cycle is nothing but Brayton Cycle. Fuel Injection takes place at
constant pressure.

Efficiency is a function of pressure ratio and is directly proportional to it.


To increase the efficiency:
1. Increase pressure ratio P2/P1.
2. Combine it with Rankin Cycle (Co-Cycle Plant)
3. Cogeneration (making use of exhaust from Turbine outlet)
16. Effects of running engine with decreased piston ring radial width?
Will lead to scavenge fire because the blow past will have easy passage down to
the scavenge valves. Moreover, the decreased width will cause what is known
as fluttering of piston rings in the grooves due to difference in pressure.
17. Highlight the reasons for improved efficiency of an intelligent engine.
Mention at least six features.
An intelligent engine is optimized for better specific fuel oil consumption, super
VIT, FQS, VEO, VGT/VTA, and electronic controls. Thus, increasing the efficiency
of engine along with reliability.

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Marine Internal Combustion Engine 3 Marks Previous Years Questions

Electronic components are used extensively omitting Fuel Injection Pump,


Exhaust Valve actuator, starting air Distributor, Governor, regulating Shaft,
Mechanical Cylinder Lubrication, Roller Guides for fuel pump, camshaft, chain
drive etc. Thus, decreasing the weight of engine as well.
1. Mechanical Maintenance of engines is reduced.
2. Emission control has enhanced flexibility.
3. Reduced lube oil and fuel oil consumption.
4. Enhanced Engine Reliability.
5. Operating parameters monitored and controlled live (during operation).
6. Increased Efficiency.
18. How FQSL mechanism improve engine efficiency?
FQS or fuel quality setting is advancing or retarding the injection so as to limit
the effect of bad quality fuel. Thus, improving the efficiency of engine.
19. Reasons of microbial degradation of lubricating oil onboard? What are
the symptoms of microbial degradation? How to avoid the
degradation?
The lube oil is contaminated with the bacterium Pseudomonas. Under ideal
growth conditions, this bacterium will divide and multiply every twenty minutes.
The bacterium prefers warm conditions, 85-105 degrees Fahrenheit and a
relatively neutral, or slightly alkaline medium (pH 8-9). Infection of the lube oil
is generally through water contamination from the diesel engine cooling
system, or via condensation.
Following are the symptoms of Lube oil degradation by microbes:
a. Constant water presence even after purification
b. Increased acidity of oil.
c. Rotten egg (foul) smell.
d. Plugging of valves and filters.
e. Corrosion, discoloration of painted areas and black staining of white metal
bearing & copper alloys.
Following are the preventive measures that must be taken to avoid microbe-
degradation:
a. Avoid water accumulation.
b. Avoid ingress of contaminated water.
c. Testing should be done by taking samples from various points like filter, tank
bottoms, valves.
d. Correct operation of purifier and use of renovating tanks.
e. The oil should be mobile as much as possible and avoid temperatures that
are favorable for multiplication of bacteria, yeast etc.
20. Draw a units power card when fuel remain cut off due to some
reasons and explain the diagram.
Compression diagram is taken in similar manner to the power card but the fuel
shut off in the cylinder. The height of this curve shows maximum compression
pressure. If the compression and expansion line coincide, it indicates that

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Marine Internal Combustion Engine 3 Marks Previous Years Questions

indicator is correctly synchronized with the engi

21. What is the use of lubricating oil analysis report?


The lube oil analysis gives an insight on the condition of lube oil based on
contamination, fluid properties and wear debris. Not only the condition of
lube oil is estimated but condition of machinery can also be predicted. Oxidation
lave, Base No., Acid No., flash point, demulsibility, dispersency, detergency etc.
is available in a lube oil analysis report. The lab data can be matched with
trended data. Remaining Useful Life (RUL), Contamination by knowing the
amount of elemental debris and determining water, glycol and soot from FTIR
(Fourier Transform Infrared) Spectroscopy tests are found out. Depending on the
report, the root causes of exceeding limits of each parameter must be mapped
and eliminated. The oil analysis report also contains recommendations from the
lab on the basis of information provided by customer and data collected by lab
personnel.
22. Write short notes on variable injection timing.
Variable injection timing is the load dependent adjustment of the combustion
pressure. VIT system alters the start of fuel injection by advancing or retarding it.
Action of VIT starts at approximately 40% load, the start of fuel injection is
advanced to increase the Pmax gradually. As the load increases to 85%, the P max
will attain a value corresponding to 100% load. From 85% load the start of
injection retards to keep the Pmax constant.

23. List all the safety provisions in an engine starting air system.
Following safety provisions are incorporated in an engine starting system:
a. Starting air pipe for main engine and starting air pipe for auxiliary engine
should be entirely separated from each other.

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Marine Internal Combustion Engine 3 Marks Previous Years Questions

b. Stop Valve on starting air bottle should open slowly to avoid sudden
pressure rise in piping system.
c. Drain should be provided at the bottom of bottle to drain out moisture.
d. Relief Valve with a suitable Fusible Plug should be provided to discharge
the content of bottle in case of fire. The fusible plug is made of bronze, brass
and gunmetal having melting point of around 160C. Discharge of fusible
plug and relief valve should be outside the engine room.
e. Bursting Disc should be fitted on coolers to give ample release of pressure
when cooler tubes burst.
f. Apart from above provisions Starting Air Interlocks, Running Direction
Interlocks are also provided.
24. List the properties of cylinder lube oil used in large two stroke
engines. What does 70 in BN-70 mean?
Following properties of lube oil are worth mentioning:
a. Viscosity
b. Total Base Number
c. Detergency
d. Dispersency
e. Flash Point
f. Oxidation Resistance
g. Pour Point
h. Cloud Point
i. Oiliness
BN-70 indicates Base Number of the cylinder oil which in turn indicates the
neutralization potential of oil against the acids formed after combustion. 70
denotes 70mg of alkali (KOH) per gram of oil.
25. List the different type of indicator diagrams and how is the area of the
indicator diagram calculated?
Following indicator diagram are taken:
a. Power Card or In-Phase Diagram. (gives mean indicated pressure, P m and
power can be obtained by multiplying Pm to Area o piston ring and length of
stroke)
b. Compression Card (taken similar to power card but with fuel shut off, gives
maximum compression pressure).
c. Draw Card or out-of-phase Diagram (taken with fuel pump engaged but 90
out of phase with piston stroke, shows pressure changes during combustion).
d. Light Spring Diagram (similar to power card, in-phase but taken with the light
compression spring, shows pressure changes during exhaust and scavenge to
an enlarged scale.)
The area of indicator diagram can be calculated with:
a. Planimeter.
b. Simpsons Rule.
26. What are basic difference between in-line engine and V type engines?

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Marine Internal Combustion Engine 3 Marks Previous Years Questions

The V engine is a compact engine per cylinder. The length required to house an
inline 6-cylinder engine will house a V 12-cylinder engine.
The V engine produces more torque at lower RPM ranges probably because of
the power stroke coming from 2 sides of the crankshaft.
Starting air valve in a V engine can be required on one bank only.
27. Explain the causes of cylinder liner wear.
Corrosion in the cylinder liner is caused by the burning of fuel oil and thus
production of acids due presence of Sulphur in the fuel (acid corrosion).
Sulphuric acid corrosion is more dominant in the lower part of the liner where it
gives a clover leaf pattern and phenomena is called clover leafing.
Abrasion is the process of rubbing of two surfaces. In the liner, catalytic fines
and the ash formed during combustion gives rise to abrasion.
Adhesion or scuffing is a form of local welding between particles of piston ring
and liner rubbing surfaces resulting in very rapid wear. Occurs due to lack of, or
lubricant failure causing high temperature. Surfaces to result in instantaneous
welding and tearing off.
Friction is there between piston rings and liner. The friction wear depends on
the speed of sliding, temperature, material involved etc.
28. What is hydrodynamic lubrication? Give two examples.
A type of lubrication in which the lubrication takes place by the formation of oil
wedge so that shaft is not in contact with the bearing surface.
Unlike the hydrostatic pressure, in hydrodynamic lubrication the oil pressure is
less. And is not required to be supplied via
pump. The efficiency of lubrication
depends on the viscosity of oil. This
is also called fluid film or thick
film lubrication.
Example: Crosshead lubrication in
MAN-B&W engines is hydrodynamic type (oil supplied through
telescopic pipe)
Large plain bearings (main bearings) of diesel engine are hydrodynamic
lubricated.
29. What is critical speed of an engine and state consequences of
prolonged running at this speed.
This is the speed at which the torsional forces created by the firing impulses and
the reaction from the propeller synchronizes with the natural frequency of the
shaft system. This is the condition at which resonance between forces
responsible for vibrations and the shaft system takes place. Prolonged running at
critical speed may cause breakdown of engine since stress on crankshaft will
increase and may even cause crankshaft failure.
30. What is ignition delay in fuels?
Ignition delay is defined as the time delay between fuel injection and fuel
ignition. During this time, the fuel mixes and vaporizes and after the time is over
it ignites spontaneously. It is measured for different fuel by CETANE number and
CCAI value. Higher the CETANE number in distillate fuel, more easily it will ignite.

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Marine Internal Combustion Engine 3 Marks Previous Years Questions

Similarly, for residual fuels higher the CCAI value, longer it will take to ignite the
fuel.
31. What is surging in turbocharger? What are several causes?
Surging of t/c is the condition when it gives loud hauling sound accompanied
with vibrations. This occurs when engine demand for air is suddenly reduced
causing a build-up of pressure in the scavenge manifold. That is, more air is
there than required.
Some of the causes
a. Sudden drop in engine RPM.
b. Racing of engine during bad weather.
c. Irregularity in gas exchange process.
d. Chocking of charged air cooler.
32. Define Flash Point, Ignition Point, Fire Point, pour Point, cloud point.
Flash point is the minimum temperature at which the oil gives off its vapors and
on application of flame it will burn and extinguish. (Pensky-Martens Closed
Crucible/Open Crucible)
Fire Point is the minimum temperature at which an oil gives off vapour which
when on application of flame will combust and continue burning.
Ignition Point is the minimum temperature at which an oil will combust without
application of flame.
Pour Point is the minimum temperature at which an oil is able to flow.
Cloud Point is the maximum temperature at which the wax will tend to separate
out in the form of crystals giving cloudy appearance.
33. What are the causes of scavenge fire in propulsion engine?
Scavenge fire may occur in scavenge spaces, under-piston spaces and
sometimes in vortex filters.
Combustible medium is generally accumulated cylinder oil and sludge mixture in
the UP spaces. Some carbonized oil which finds its way through scavenge space
also forms basis of scavenge fire. When blow past occurs the heated oil readily
catches fire.
The blow past may occur due to poor condition of sealing by piston-rings.
34. What is flexible coupling? What advantages does it have over a rigid
coupling?

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