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TESTING RECTIFIER-TRANSFORMERS

Long Pong, Doble Engineering


Pierre Leblanc, Alcoa
Hugo Simard, Rio Tinto Alcan

ABSTRACT

Maintenance and Diagnostic in aluminum smelter plant are challenging because the finance losses can be very high
when the smelting process is unexpectedly interrupted. We can work on one unit at a time and the unit must be
returned back in service when another unit has a problem. Therefore it is not practical to disconnect the transformer
from the rectifier for routine maintenance test. Rectifier Transformers come typically in various configurations, as
shown in Table 1, and have more complex secondary connections than a power transformer, see Figure 1c. In the
field it is impractical to disconnect the transformer from the rectifier for routine maintenance testing. This leads the
testers to use different test procedure in the field, in the factory or among themselves. As a result the test data can
not be compared easily or at worst, can become meaningless. This paper will cover Doble test procedures (Overall,
Excitation and Doble Turn Ratio) and data analysis of the rectifier-transformers in Table 1 with consideration of
both the technical needs and the field difficulties. Four case studies and the typical test results will be included. It is
the hope of the authors that the proposed test procedures can be used as a standard test in the factory and in the field.

Table 1
Typical Configurations of Rectifier Transformers
# HV LV Figure Case Study Overall Excitation Ratio

1 2b I. Alcoa-Mt Holly
2 Y 2d

3 Y Y 3 II. RTA-Alma
4 YY Y 4
5 Y 5 III. RTA-Laterriere
6 YY 6b IV. RTA-Arvida
YY
7 Y YY 6c
YY

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a) Overall View

b) LV Terminals as they go through c) LV Terminals other side of the Building Wall


the building Wall

Fuji Rectifier-Transformer
Figure 1

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TEST PROCEDURE

As shown in Table 1, most rectifier-Transformers are 3-winding units and thus a three-winding transformer test plan
should be used. In order to simplify the test procedure, the windings are identified as following: High Voltage
winding is HV, First LV winding is LV1, Second LV winding is LV2 and Third LV or Tertiary winding is LVT.
The LV1 should be the one shown on the left on the nameplate vector diagram. If the two LV windings are
connected together, the overall insulation of these two windings will be identified as LV.

LV Interconnection
Figure 2

For a routine test, the same standard tests recommended for a power transformer are also recommended for
rectifier-transformer. These tests are Overall Insulation, Bushing, Surge Arrester and Excitation tests. The test
procedure and data interpretation are also the same with the following exceptions:
1. At the LV winding side, the rectifier can stay connected but isolated from pot line by DC disconnect
switches; because a tremendous effort required to disconnect the secondary windings.
2. If the two LV windings have an interconnection bus between the rectifiers as shown in red of Figure 2, then
these two windings should be tested as one winding in a routine test.
3. In order to obtain a representative measurement of the LV winding insulation, the surge capacitors on the
bus bars between LV winding and rectifier must be disconnected during testing, see Figure 2.
4. The neutral bushing H0 can be left open and floating if it is far away from the phase bushings and it causes
more trouble to be shorted to the phase bushings, see Figure 4.

The details of test procedures and connections are in the Appendix I and II, and the nameplates are in Appendix III.

In the Factory, the rectifier-transformer should be tested as 3-winding transformer if it has three windings
electrically separate.
During commissioning, the rectifier-transformer should be tested with and without the rectifier connected. At
delivery site, the rectifier transformer should be tested as it was in the factory condition, i.e. as three winding
transformer without the rectifier connected. This will check the transformer condition as received and the test results
should be kept for diagnostic test baseline. After connecting the rectifier, the rectifier transformer should be retested
and the test results should be kept for routine test baseline. The test with rectifier connected should be done as a
three winding transformer if there is no rectifier interconnection, otherwise it should be tested as a two winding
transformer.

FOUR CASE STUDIES

Field Test Results Alcoa in Mt Holly, SC

The tests were performed on the rectifier transformer (S/N# AN69051T11) made by Fuji in 1979 and located at
Alcoa aluminum plant in Mt Holly, SC with system configuration as shown in Figure 3 and 26b with rectifier
interconnection. The Table 2 is the test results from the factory without the rectifier connected and from the routine
tests as a two-winding transformer with the rectifier connected on June 9 th, 2011. Table 3 is test results from the
experimental tests as a three-winding transformer with the rectifier connected on January 24 th, 2012.
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System Configuration
Figure 3

Table 2
Overall Test as 2-Winding Transformer Alcoa in Mt Holly, SC on 06/09/2011
Without rectifier With Rectifier & With Rectifier & Rectifier
Insulation (Factory) in 1980 With Surge Cap Without Surge Cap Contribution
%PF Cap(pF) %PF Cap(pF) %PF Cap(pF) Cap(pF)
CH+CHL 0.25 17,200 0.35 17,155 0.33 17,159
CH 8,450 0.53 8,376 0.53 8,371
CHL 8,750 0.28 8,779 0.13 8,786
CL+CHL 0.23 15,000 0.35 5,971,794 1.94 23,385 8,385
CL 6,250 0.35 5,962,622 2.93 14,609 8,359
CHL 0.18 8,774 0.13 8,784
CH+CL 0.36 15300

Observations (Table 2):


1. In the factory, there were only three tests done (CH+CHL, CL+CHL and CH+CL) without the rectifier
connected and the two LV windings were tied together and tested as one winding. Calculations were
performed to obtain the individual components (CH, CHL and CL).
2. In the field, there was no opportunity to test the transformer without the rectifier connected. The insulation
capacitance compared well between the factory and field tests on the HV side, but not on the LV side due
to the presence of the rectifier insulation.
3. Based on the factory CL, the contribution of the rectifier insulation was calculated to be 8 359pF, which is
about 1.3 times the LV winding insulation.
4. Since the rectifier insulation is bigger than LV winding insulation, the dry type insulation will contribute
more watt losses. This will make the power factor higher as shown in [1]. There was no baseline or
reference data with rectifier presence, so it was difficult to rate this data. However according to [1], the
%PF of the dry type insulation can be up to 3%. In the future when more data is collected, this will improve
the acceptance criteria.
5. If the surge capacitors were not disconnected, their values (6uF) overwhelm the LV test results and LV
winding insulation (0.0014uF) would be masked. Basically see only the capacitor condition as shown in
Table 2. The power factor with the surge capacitor is much lower than the power factor without surge
capacitor.

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Table 3
Overall Test Results as 3-winding Transformer Alcoa in Mt Holy, SC on 01/24/2012
Test
Insulation kV %PF Cap(pF) Note
CH + CHL1 10 0.90 12,797 =CH+CHL-CHL2
CH 10 0.72 8,380 = CH in 2-winding
CHL1 10 0.53 4,417 CHL/2 = (8,786 / 2)
CL1 + CL12 0.049 2.78 12,274,610 Rectifier conducting
CL1 0.049 4.86 7,405 CL/2 = (14,609 / 2)
CL12 0.049 2.06 12,268,740 Rectifier conducting
0.049 =CL+CHL-CL1-
CL2 + CHL2 3.51 11,597 CHL1
CL2 0.049 4.81 7,207 CL/2 = (14,609 / 2)
CHL2 0.049 1.02 4,378 CHL/2 = (8,786 / 2)

Observations (Table 3):


1. The test results are consistent between the two-winding tests and three-winding tests, i.e. the insulation
components, either individual or combined system, are tested with the similar value.
2. CHL1 is similar to CHL2 and CL1 is similar to CL2 suggest the two LV windings are constructed
identically and mounted one on top another.
3. The CHL1 and CHL2 capacitances are significant values; this suggests no shielding between the HV and
LV windings.
4. The rectifier interconnection causes the rectifier to conduct at as low as 50V during the inter-LV windings
CL12 test were performed. The test set would trip if test performed at higher voltage. The large CL12
capacitance indicates that the rectifier starts to conduct.
5. Because of the rectifier interconnection, this transformer should be routine tested as 2-winding transformer.

Excitation Tests

The tests were performed as regular delta winding test, i.e. between phases with the third phase grounded and
guarded. The test results are in Table 4.

Table 4
Excitation Test Rectifier Transformer in Mt Holly, SC
H1 - H2 H2 - H3 H3 - H1
Test kV mA Watts X mA Watts X mA Watts X IRauto
6.004 162 1262 L 67 569 L 134 1082 L G

Observations (Table 4)

1. The test results are all inductive (L) and typical for a three phase core form type transformer. The expected
pattern of the current and watt is two Highs and one Lower (HLH).

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Lessons Learned

1. To avoid the masking phenomenon, the insulation systems need to be tested separately.
2. This transformer has three electrically separate windings, so should be tested as three-winding transformer
in factory and repeat those tests at the receipt in the field for condition check and retested with rectifier
connected as two-winding transformer because of the rectifier interconnection.
3. The data analysis is performed based on the oil filled transformer insulation for the HV side. For the LV
side with rectifier, the dry type insulation limit can be used as reference.

Field Test Results Rio Tinto Alcan (RTA)s Alma Plant

The tests were not done as planned, however after inspecting the installation the followings are our observations:

H1, H2, H3 Bushings

H0 Bushing

Spare Rectifier Transformer in Alma


Figure 4

Field Observations

1. The HV phase bushings are in the enclosure duct and the H0 bushing was outside on the other
corner of the transformer. This bushing arrangement does not allow the short-circuit to include
the neutral bushing.
2. The rectifiers have the interconnection, so this transformer should be routinely tested as 2-
winding transformer when the rectifiers still connected, but the surge capacitors need to be
disconnected for testing.

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Field Test Results Rio Tinto Alcan (RTA)s Laterrire Plant

The tests were performed on the rectifier transformer (S/N#289805) located at RTA aluminum plant in Laterrire,
Quebec (Canada) and made by TTI in 1988 with system configuration as shown in Figures 5 and 29 in Appendix for
detail nameplate. This unit is twin transformers in the same tank; the only common electrical point is the HV
terminals internally connected together. This configuration allows the routine tests be done as three-winding
transformer.

Laterrire Rectifier Transformer


Figure 5

Overall Test

The Table 5 shows the test results in the repair shop in 2011, during the commissioning tests after repair
without rectifier connected and during the routine tests as three-winding transformer with the rectifier
connected.

Table 5
Overall Test Results as 3-Winding Transformer RTA in Laterrire, QC
Repair on site At repair shop Commissioning
without rectifier without rectifier Test with rectifier Rectifier
Insulation kV (04/18/2007) (10/20/2011) (10/31/2011) Contribution
%PF Cap(pF) %PF Cap(pF) %PF Cap(pF)
CH + CHL1 10 0.36 34,525 0.28 34,384 0.33 34,607
CH 10 0.36 34,038 0.27 33,895 0.28 34,200
CHL1 10 0.32 484 0.26 477 0.33 401
CL1 + CL12 0.5 0.32 22,832 0.24 22,736 0.36 28,591 5,855
CL1 0.5 0.32 22,680 0.23 22,587 0.32 28,438 5,851
CL12 0.5 0.09 151 0.12 150 0.08 152
CL2 +
CHL2 0.5 0.34 23,119 0.23 23,020 0.36 28,756 5,736
CL2 0.5 0.34 22,718 0.23 22,622 0.38 28,271 5,649
CHL2 0.5 0.34 401 0.3 397 0.27 484 86

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Observations (Table 5)
1. For this type of configuration (no rectifier interconnection), test should be always performed as three-
winding transformer either with or without rectifier connected.
2. The test results are consistent among the three tests in repair on site, at repair shop or during
commissioning.
3. CHL1 is similar to CHL2 and CL1 is similar to CL2 suggest the two LV windings are constructed
identically and mounted one on top another.
4. The CHL1 and CHL2 capacitances are small values; this suggests an existing shield between the HV and
LV windings.
5. The insulation of rectifier system represents 5800pF, which is about only 25% the LV winding insulation.
The influence of this dry type insulation is low.
6. With rectifier connected, testing the LV winding at 1kV would decrease the watt loss to a negative value,
but test at 0.5kV produced the test results compared with factory test. The LV winding is rated 535.5V Y
(L-N).

Excitation Tests

The tests were performed between phases with the third phase grounded and guarded. The test results are in Table 6.

Table 6
Excitation Test Results Rectifier Transformer in Laterrire, QC
H1 H3 H2 H1 H3 H2
Test kV mA Watts X mA Watts X mA Watts X
8 224 1254 L 182 1065 L 175 1032 L

Observations (Tables 6 and 7)


The test results are all inductive (L) and the pattern is one high and two lows (HLL), which is not the typical pattern
for three phase core form transformer. This pattern can be expected, because there are two HV windings with two
different configurations Delta and Wye, and internally connected together as shown in Figure 30; and the tests were
performed phase-to-phase with the third phase grounded and guarded. The test results will be the total of the two HV
windings combined as described in Table 7. The two outer phases contribute the high value (H) and the middle
phase is the lower value (L). Furthermore the two windings have zigzag segments for phase shifting; these segments
for phase shifting; these segments will contribute as two high (h) and one lower (l) values in the same way as the
main windings
Table 7
Excitation Test Pattern Rectifier Transformer in Laterrire, QC
Phase HV Delta HV Wye Total Results
A (H1-H3) H+h H+h+H+l 3H+2h+l Highest
B (H2-H1) L+h L+h+ H+h H+2L+3h Lower
C (H3-H2) H+l H+l+L+h 2H+L+h+2l Lowest

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Doble Turn Ratio

Two methods were tried out. The first method was the standard method (1) and the second method (2) was modified
to neutralize the phase shifting effect. The test results are in Table 8.

Table 8
Doble Ratio Test on Rectifier Transformer in Laterrire, QC
Winding NP Ratio Method H1-H3/ H2-H1/ H3-H2/ Notes
X1-X3 X2-X1 X3-X2 Max
%Cv
H-L1 (S) 42.96 1 85.72 104.74 80.48 Inconsistent
Y-D 2 Consistent
56.55 56.61 56.67 0.11%
H-L2 (R) 74.40 1 73.25 77.10 72.20 Inconsistent
D-D 2 Consistent
81.36 81.36 81.43 0.05%

Observations (Table 8)
1. The test results are not comparable with the nameplate ratio. This can be expected due to the zigzag
winding segments as described in [4] and requires a correction factor or three phase source for ratio test to
obtain the nameplate ratio.
2. The standard method (#1) used for standard transformer produces different ratios among phases due to the
zigzag winding in different core leg and the flux distribution unequal in other not under tested legs.
3. The modified method (#2) produces a consistent ratio among phases. This method can be used for
condition monitoring or diagnostic to detecting a problem in a winding. Any deviation of a measured ratio
should indicate a problem and prompt an investigation as described in [5] that recommends the use of
Coefficient of Variation (%Cv) for analysis.
4. We did not have opportunity to perform all the test and analysis for this configuration transformer and hope
to complete it in the second part of the study.
Lessons Learned
1. For this transformer, we can use the criteria of data analysis of the regular oil filled transformer for Overall
tests.
2. Test should be performed at the rated voltage of the system or below.

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Field Test Results Rio Tinto Alcan (RTA) in Arvida Plant

Arvida Rectifier Transformer


Figure 6
Overall Test

The Table 9 shows the test results from historical data in 2007 and the experiment tests on 10/28/2011 as two-
winding transformer with the rectifier connected. The intention of the 10/28/2011 test was to try the three-winding
configuration, but the surge capacitors could not be disconnected because of access limitation.

Table 9
Overall Tests Results - Rectifier Transformer in Arvida, QC
Historical Data Routine Test
Insulation Test kV (2007) (2011)
%PF Cap (pF) %PF Cap(pF)
CH + CHL 10 0.81 9,940 0.99 9,986
CH 10 1.14 2,030 1.64 2,038
CHL(UST) 10 0.55 7,910 0.77 7,941

Observations (Table 9)
1. Any attempt to test the LV winding with surge capacitor connected resulted in tripping the test set. So we
could perform the test only on HV winding similar as in the previous routine test.
Excitation Tests
The tests were performed in the same way as the standard delta winding excitation test, i.e. between phases with the
third phase grounded and guarded. The test results are in Table 10.

Table 10
Excitation Test Results Rectifier Transformer in Arvida, QC
H1 - H2 H2 - H3 H3 - H1
Test kV mA Watts X mA Watts X mA Watts X
3 816.23 5048.1 L 999.79 6384.5 L 1068.8 6354 L

Observations (Table 10)

1. The test results are all inductive (L) and the pattern is normal of 2 highs and lower, because the HV
winding is a regular delta winding.
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Lessons Learned:

1. The surge capacitors should be relocated for easy access to be disconnected for testing the LV winding.
2. This transformer has three electrically separate windings and no rectifier interconnection, so should be
tested as three-winding transformer if the surge capacitors can be disconnected.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

The purpose of this paper was to demonstrate the best test procedure for rectifier transformer with consideration of
the physical installation complexity. To that end, the case studies show clearly that different test procedures will
provide different test results, will limit their usefulness and allow us to conclude the following:
1. For Overall test, the rectifier transformers should be tested according to the number of electrically separate
windings. Most of them are three winding transformers, in this case they should be tested as:
a. In the factory, tested as three-winding transformer;
b. At the delivery site, tested as in factory condition;
c. After connected to the rectifiers, tested as three-winding transformer if there is no rectifier
interconnection; or as two-winding transformer if there is the rectifier interconnection.
d. The power factor or watt loss should be similar as the oil filled transformer, with the exception of
the LV side when connected to rectifier. The power factor of the combined LV winding and
rectifier is expected to be higher.
2. The excitation tests should be performed in the same way as the regular power transformer. The test results
should be:
a. The current and watt loss pattern will also be two high and one low (regular pattern) if the HV
winding has no zigzag or phase-shifting winding segment.
b. The zigzag winding segment will alter the current/watt pattern to one high and two lowers. The
two lowers may be different depending the zigzag winding.
3. The test procedures in Appendix I and II should be used to obtain a consistent test results.
4. The Doble turns ratio and the leakage reactance tests were not completed in this work, are required more
field testing and analysis for future publication.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors would like to thank Mr. Francis Thibault, RioTinto-Alcan, for assisting in the field works and provide
all test results and the information for the rectifier transformers in Rio Tinto Alcan plants.

REFERENCES

[1] Jill C. Adee and William L. Bailey, Power-Factor Testing of Ventilated and Non-Ventilated Dry-Type
Transformers (A Review), Proceedings of the Sixty-Sixth Annual International Conference of Doble Clients, 1999,
Sec. 8-18
[2] Long Pong, Review Negative Power Factor Test Results and Case Study Analysis, Minutes of the Sixty Ninth
Annual International Conference of Doble Clients, 2002 13B

[3] Doble Test Procedure Chapter 1, General Introduction To Doble Testing", Copyright 2000, Doble
Engineering Company.

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[4] Norbert Gilbert, Doble Turns Ratio for Transformers with Zigzag Winding Configurations Minutes of the 73rd
Annual International Conference of Doble Clients, 2006 T-4

[5] Long Pong, Kate Brady and Martin Gamache Ratio and Saturation Curve Testing On Current Transformer
Installed on Power Apparatus, Minutes of the 77th Annual International Conference of Doble Clients, 2010 BIIT-

BIOGRAPHY

Long Pong has been employed at Doble Engineering since 2000, and currently works as a Senior Principal Engineer
in the Client Service Department. He has amassed 24 years of experiences in condition assessment, electrical
testing/repair and project management of Generation, Transmission and Distribution apparatuses. In the last eight
years, Mr. Pong has published twenty-six technical papers pertaining to condition assessment, troubleshooting and
new test techniques of power electrical apparatus. Before joining Doble, he was employed at Alcan-nergie
lectrique and Hydro-Quebec. He is IEEE member, and has been a CEA (Canadian Electrical Association) member
and a registered professional engineer in North Carolina. He obtained his Bachelor of

Pierre LeBlanc has been employed at Alcoa since 1998 and currently works as a Power Engineer and
Substation Supervisor. He has been involved in industrial equipment maintenance for the last 21 years. He
specialized on the last 4 years working essentially on medium voltage equipment including regulating and rectifier
transformers systems. For the 14 years with Alcoa, he has worked as Reliability Engineer assigned to many
department including the substation. Prior to working on the aluminum industry, he was employed for 7 years at
Quebec Cartier Mining as a maintenance, project engineer and Lineman supervisor. He also worked 3 years at the
engineering firm BBA, and 3 years in the Combat System Engineer program for the Canadian Navy. He is IEEE
member, was in the OIQ for 15 years. He obtained his Bachelor of Electrical Engineering from Laval University in
Quebec, Canada, in 1985.

Hugo Simard, P.E., obtained his Bachelor of Electrical Engineering from University of Qubec in Chicoutimi,
Canada, in 1997. He has been working for Rio Tinto Alcan for the last fifteen years and is responsible for providing
the technical support to transformer and DC substation of aluminum plant.

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APPENDIX I
Specific Test Procedures

3-Winding Transformer at Alcoa Plant in Mt. Holly, SC

Overall Tests

Table 11
Overall Tests of Rectifier-Transformer as Three-Winding
ChoiceofLV #Line Voltage HV Red Blue Fig. Test Mode Measure
Cables (kV) Cable LVLead LVLead
1 10 Guard-B CH+CHL1
2 10 HV LV1 LV2 8 Guard-RB CH
3 10 UST-R CHL1
5 0.5 Guard-B CL1+CL12
6 0.5 LV1 HV LV2 9 Guard-RB CL1
7 0.5 UST-R CL12
9 0.5 Guard-B CL2+CHL2
10 0.5 LV2 HV LV1 10 Guard-RB CL2
11 0.5 UST-R CHL2

CHL2

CHL1 CL12
HV LV1 LV2

CH CL1 CL2

Tank & Core

Three-Winding Insulation System Overall Test Connection on HV


Figure 7 Figure 8

Overall Test Connection on LV1 Overall Test Connection on LV2


Figure 9 Figure 10

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2-Winding Transformer at Alcoa Plant in Mt. Holly, SC

Overall Tests

Table12
Overall Tests of Rectifier-Transformer as 2-Winding
#Line Voltage HV LV Lead Fig. Test Mode Measure
(kV) Cable
1 10 GND CH+CHL
2 10 HV LV 12 Guard-RB CH
3 10 UST-RB CHL
5 0.5 GND CL+CHL
6 0.5 LV HV 13 Guard-RB CL
7 0.5 UST-RB CHL

CHL2

CHL1 CL12
HV LV1 LV2

CH CL1 CL2

Tank & Core

Three-Winding Insulation System Overall Test Connection on HV


Figure 11 Figure 12

\
Overall Test Connection on LV
Figure 13

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3-Winding Transformer at Rio Tinto Alcan Plant in Laterriere, QC

Overall Test

A. Overall Tests on HV winding (Lines 1, 2, 3) B. Overall Tests on S Winding, LV1 (Lines 5,


6, 7

C. Overall Tests on R Winding, LV2, (Lines 9, 10, 11)

Overall Test Connections


Figure 14

Table 13
Overall Tests
Test Test Mode Measured HV Red Blue Fig.
Line Cable LV LV
Lead Lead
1 Guard-B CH+CHLS
2 Guard-RB CH HV S R 14A
3 UST-R CHLS
5 Guard-R CLS+CLSLR
6 Guard-RB CLS S HV R 14B
7 UST-B CLSLR
9 Guard-B CLR+CHLR
10 Guard-RB CLR R HV S 14C
11 UST-R CHLR

Test Results: The power factor of HV winding should be 0.5% or below, however the power factor of LV windings can
be higher due to the rectifier insulation.

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Excitation Test

A. Excitation Test on H1-H2 B. Excitation Test on H2-H3

C. Excitation Test on H3-H1

Excitation Test Connections


Figure 15

Table 14
Excitation Tests
Test # Test Mode HV cable Red LV lead Ground
1 UST-R H1 H3 None
2 UST-R H2 H1 None
3 UST-R H3 H2 None

Test Results: The pattern of test results is expected to be three different values: High, Medium and Low in the
currents and watt losses due to the zigzag windings

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Doble Turns Ratio Test

TTR

A) True Capacitance Test, CTrue B) Ratio Test on H1-H3/S1-S3

C) Ratio Test on H1-H3/R1-R3

Doble Ratio Test Connections


Figure 16

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Table 15
Doble Ratio Tests
Test Ratio HV TTR-Cap + Ground Figure
Line Cable LV Lead
1 H1-H3/
H1 S1 H3, S3 16b
S1-S3
2 H2-H1/
H2 S2 H1, S1
S2-S1
3 H3-H2/
H3 S3 H2, S2
S3-S2
4 H1-H3/
H1 R1 H3, R3 16c
R1-R3
5 H2-H1/
H2 R2 H1, R1
R2-R1
6 H3-H2/
H3 R3 H2, R2
R3-R2

Test Results

The measured turn ratio may not compare to the nameplate ratio due to the zigzag winding

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Doble Turns Ratio Test Method 2

TTR Capacitor

S3 S2 S1
H1

H2

H3
R1 R2 R3

Ground Lead

A) True Capacitance Test, CTrue B) Ratio Test on H1-H3/S1-S3

S3 S2 S1
H1

H2

H3
R1 R2 R3

C) Ratio Test on H1-H3/R1-R3


Doble Ratio Test Connections
Figure 17

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Table 16
Doble Ratio Tests
Test Ratio HV TTR-Cap + Ground Figure
Line Cable LV Lead
1 H1-H2/ H2, S1,
H1 S3 17b
S3-S12 S2
2 H2-H3/ H3, S2,
H2 S1
S1-S23 S3
3 H3-H1/ H1, S1,
H3 S2
S2-S13 S3
4 H1-H3/ H3,
H1 R1 17c
R1-R3 R2, R3
5 H2-H1/ H1,
H2 R2
R2-R1 R1, R3
6 H3-H2/ H2,
H3 R3
R3-R2 R1, R2

Test Results
The measured turn ration may not compare to the nameplate ratio due to the zigzag winding. But they should
compare well among the phases.

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APPENDIX II

General Test Procedures

Overall Test For Rectifier Transformer without Interconnection

Table 17
Overall Tests of Rectifier-Transformer as Three-Winding
Choice of LV #Line Voltage HV Red Blue Fig. Test Mode Measure
Cables (kV) Cable LVLead LVLead
1 10 Guard-B CH+CHL1
2 10 HV LV1 LV2 18 Guard-RB CH
3 10 UST-R CHL1
5 0.5 Guard-B CL1+CL12
6 0.5 LV1 HV LV2 19 Guard-RB CL1
7 0.5 UST-R CL12
9 0.5 Guard-B CL2+CHL2
10 0.5 LV2 HV LV1 20 Guard-RB CL2
11 0.5 UST-R CHL2

Three-Winding Insulation System Overall Test Connection on HV


Figure 18 Figure 19

Overall Test Connection on LV1 Overall Test Connection on LV2


Figure 20 Figure 21

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Bushing Tests

Table 18
Tests of Bushings
Test C1 C2
# kV HV Cable LV Lead Test Mode kV HV Cable LV Lead Test Mode
1 10 H1 H1-Tap UST-R 0.5 H1-Tap H1 Guard-R
2 10 H2 H2-Tap UST-R 0.5 H2-Tap H2 Guard-R
3 10 H3 H3-Tap UST-R 0.5 H3-Tap H3 Guard-R

A) C1 Test Connection b) C2 Test Connection

Typical Test Connection of a Bushing


Figure 22

Surge Arrester Test Connection

Table 19
Testing of Arrestor
Test# kV HV Cable Test Mode
1 10 H1 GST-GND
2 10 H2 GST-GND
3 10 H3 GST-GND

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Excitation Test: All other windings are open-circuited.

Table 20
Excitation Tests
HV Test# kV HV Cable LV Lead Ground Test Mode Connection
Y 1 10 H1 H2 - UST Fig.22
without 2 10 H2 H3 - UST
H0 3 10 H3 H1 - UST
Y 1 10 H1 H0 - UST Fig.23
withH0 2 10 H2 H0 - UST
3 10 H3 H0 - UST
Delta 1 10 H1 H2 H3 UST Fig.24
2 10 H2 H3 H1 UST
3 10 H3 H1 H2 UST

HV Y without H0 HV Y with H0 HV Delta


Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25

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APPENDIX III

Rectifier Transformer Nameplate

H2 V1 Z2 X2

H1 H2 H3
H1 H3
U1P X2P V1P Y2P W1P Z2P U1 W1 Y2

X2N U1N Y2N V1N Z2N W1N b) Rectifier-Transformer #1

a) Physical Layout

Manufacturer Fuji
Year 1979
Capacity (MVA) 34.28 MVA
Voltage (kV) 35.2/0.638; 0.638
HV/LV1; LV2
Configuration D/ D D
Class FA

c) Rectifier-Transformer #2

Fuji Rectifier-Transformer at Alcoa in Mt Holly, SC


Figure 26

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H0 H1
H2 H1 R2
H3 R1

R2N R4N R6N R2P R4P R6P H0 R3


H3 R6 R5
H R4
R1N R3N R5N R1P R3P R5P
a) Physical Layout b) Electrical Diagram

Manufacturer ABB
Year 2010
Capacity (MVA) 137
Voltage (kV) HV/LV1; LV2 42.39/1.127; 1.138
Configuration Y/Y D
Class OFAF

ABB Rectifier-Transformer #3 at RTA in Alma, QC


Figure 27
H1 H1

H0 H0

H3 H2 H3 H
2U
3V LV2 3W
LV1
2V Y
X
2W
3U
a) Physical Layout b) Electrical Diagram

Manufacturer ABB
Year 2003
Capacity (MVA) 70.9
Voltage (kV) HV1, HV2 / LV1, LV2 42.41 / 1.127, 1.138
Configuration YY/DY
Class OFAF
ABB Rectifier-Transformer #4
Figure 28

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H3 H2 H1
S3 S2 S1

h12 R2 S2 (LV1) H1
h22
Y H2
R3 S1
h11 h23
h13 R1 h21 S3 (LV2) H3

R1 R2 R3
a) Electrical Diagram a) Physical Layout

Manufacturer TTI
Year 1988
Capacity (MVA) 91.73
Voltage (kV) HV1, HV2 / LV1, LV2 69/0.924; 0.924
Configuration DY/DD
Class ONAN/ODAF
TTI Rectifier-Transformer #5 at RTA in Laterriere, QC
Figure 29
A3 A2
H1 H2 H3 N1
H2 A4
N1 N2 A1
A5 A6
A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6
H1 H3 B3 B2
N2
B1 B4

B5 B6

a) Physical Layout b) Electrical Diagram Rectifier-Transformer #6

H2 A3 B3
N1 A2 A4 N2 B2 B4

H1 A1 A5 B1
H3 B5
A6
B6
c) Electrical Diagram Rectifier-Transformer #7

Manufacturer CWC
Year 1941
Capacity (MVA) 7.5
Voltage (kV) HV / LV1, LV2 13.2/0.624; 0.624
Configuration D / Y-Y Y-Y
Class ONAN/ONAF
Westinghouse Rectifier-Transformers at RTA in Arvida
Figure 30
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