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School of Geography + Archaeology

Scoil na Treolaochta agus na Seandlaochta

Geography Compulsory Cover Sheet

It is compulsory that you attach this cover sheet to your work. If
you hand in a group assignment please use the table below on the
right to list the other students in your group. All deadlines are

Please: Group Assignments

1. Use 12 font Times Name I.D. No
New Roman
2. Use 1.5 spacing
3. Ensure text is
4. Ensure all pages are
securely stapled.
Thank you.

Student Name: Manuela Antonia Gomes da Rocha

Student email address:

Student I.D. Number: 15100056 Year: 1st 2nd 3rd/4th

Course Code: TI_223__ Module Title: __Introduction to


Course Tutor: ____Dr. C. Zhang________________________________

Assignment Title/Number: GIS data analyses and their

applications/ 3

Number of pages: __4______ Word count: _1036___

Bibliography attached? Yes No

I hereby certify that I understand what plagiarism is and that this essay is
entirely my own work. Neither the paper in its entirety nor parts thereof
have been published elsewhere in either paper or electronic form unless
indicated through referencing.

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______________________________ ___________________________
Student Signature Date

GIS data analyses and their applications

The collection of information related to the geographic area, such as the territorial
distribution of properties, or population, or vegetation, has always been an important part to be
examined, since these data are of paramount importance for the various activities performed in a
society. In this case, the use of systems, which facilitate such analysis, such as the GIS, is
extremely necessary.
Spatial analysis may be defined as a tool that allows manipulating spatial data in different
ways, and extract knowledge as an additional response. Including basic functions such as spatial
information query within defined areas of interest, manipulation of maps and producing some
statistical reports, also incorporating functions such as research patterns and relationships of data
in the area of interest, thus seeking a better understanding of the data and the possibility to make
The spatial analysis procedure comprises a set of chained procedures whose purpose is to
choose a model that incorporates all the features and spatial relationships present in the area of
interest. Initial analysis procedures include all methods of exploratory analysis and visualization
of data, usually through maps. These techniques allow describe the distribution of the study
variables, identify atypical observations and seek the existence of patterns in the spatial
distribution. From these procedures, it is possible to establish hypotheses on the observations in
order to select the best model supported by the data.
Spatial analysis processes treat geographic data that have a geographic location (expressed
as coordinates on a map) and descriptive attributes (which can be represented in a conventional
database). Geographical data are not alone in space: as important as locate them is to discover
and represent the relationships between the various data. Spatial analysis processes typical in GIS
could be represented by some examples, such as a condition (what is the population of this city?),
a localization (which areas have a population above 20000?), a tendency (what changed in this
land? It was productive 10 years ago?), a routing (what is the better way to go to this place?), a
pattern (what is the distribution of population above 20000 in this area?), and models (what could
happen if we eliminate this area?)
GIS applications are immense and quite useful and can reduce the total budget of a
project, not to mention the facilities that the program allows, considerably reducing the work and

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the effort applied to the realization of the project, thus increasing the overall yield. It has great
importance in areas such as geographic, social and economic studies, science and business.
The various GIS application areas can be divided in some examples as described below:
the first is human occupation, which can cover topics as infrastructure organization, planning and
supervision of urban cleaning, urban land registration, electoral map, hospital system distribution,
school system, epidemiological control, vehicle routing, urban planning, tourist system
information, air traffic control, nautical mapping systems and emergency care services. The
second example could be land use, which can cover topics as agricultural planning, storage and
disposal of agricultural production, soil classification, watershed management, dams planning,
registration of rural properties, topographic and planimetric survey and for last, the mapping of
land use. The third example could be the use of natural resources, which can cover topics as
control of the vegetable and mineral extraction, rating oil wells, planning of gas and oil pipelines,
electrical energy distribution, identification of natural sources and coastal and marine
management. The environment also can be classified as one example of the main applications
areas of the geographic information system, and it can cover topics as control of fires, studies of
climate changes, pollutant action and emission monitoring, forest management about
deforestation and reforestation. Economic activities also can be expressed as one of the main
examples of areas helped by GIS applications. In this sector, the topics that are covered are
marketing planning, social and economic research, transport feedstock and distribution of goods
and services.
As previously mentioned, the spatial analysis in GIS is based on the idea of integration of
spatial data and non-spatial attributes, translating into a number of functions related to the
selection, research and data modeling. Geographic information systems were initially designed as
tool storage, organization and geographic information display, and today has become an
extremely useful and important system for the various analysis required in carrying out projects
and studies, done in a society.
After all this that was said, it is clear that have the knowledge about how to use the tools
offered in GIS is extremely important, for a lot of areas. Due to the fact that it can be used for
several functions and it could bring a lot of benefits for your company, study or project, reducing
the time needed to perform the project, reducing the costs, and increasing the profit and income.
There is no doubt that the introduction of GIS is considered a major breakthrough in the mapping
area and analysis of geographical and statistical data, and it is because of this that today the GIS
covers many areas and has become an indispensable tool in most services.

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- BUCKEY, DAVID J. Introduction to GIS. Accessed by the website:
- A Comprehensive guide Geospatial Analysis. Accessed by the website:
- Dr. ZHANG, CHAOSHENG, National University of Ireland Introduction to GIS
(Lecture notes and slides), 2016.

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