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Fluid Systems Notes


4. What things cause fluid to slow down in a pipe?
1. What is the difference between and open and a. Fluid resistance is anything that causes a fluid
closed fluid systems? (aka liquid or gas) to slow down in a pipe
a. Fluids are liquids or gases b. Things that slow down the flow of fluids or
b. Open fluid systems are systems where the cause fluid resistance in a pipe are bends and
fluids pass through the system only once and smaller pipes
out into the open (e.g. irrigation, forced hot air c. The more bends or angles in a pipe the more
system, air compressors) fluid resistance there is in the pipe
c. Closed fluid systems are systems where the d. The smaller a pipe the more fluid resistance
fluids stay in the system and never escape the there is in the pipe
system (e.g., forced hot water system,
hydraulic brakes). Fluid Systems Problems
2. What is the difference between a hydraulic and 1. Which of the following statements best describes
pneumatic system? open fluid systems?
a. Hydraulic systems are systems that use liquids A Water is the only fluid used in open systems.
b. Liquids cannot be compressed .
c. Hydraulic systems can be used to multiply
distance, multiply force, and change the B Fluids are not recirculated through open systems.
.
direction of a force (e.g. car lifts, car brakes,
sprinklers, car jack) C Open systems are used only in hydraulic applications.
d. Hydraulic systems are quiet, but the oils they .
use can pollute the environment D Open systems require minimal energy for continuous
e. Pneumatic systems are systems that use gases . operation.
f. Gases can be compressed
g. Pneumatic systems are used because air is
inexpensive and pneumatic systems can move 2. Which of the following types of systems most likely
very fast (e.g. dentist drill, air compressor, jack uses fluid under high pressure to operate?
hammer) A hydraulic
.
3. How does the velocity of a liquid relate to the
cross-sectional area of a pipe? B thermal
a. The smaller a pipe the faster a liquid will move .
in the pipe
b. The bigger a pipe the slower a liquid will move C ventilation
in the pipe .
D wastewat
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. er serves as which of the following?
A area multiplier
.
B direction stabilizer
3. The diagram below shows a pipe system. .
C force multiplier
.
D force stabilizer
. 5. A person is using a 1 in. diameter garden hose
At which of the following points does water flowing in to wash his bike. The hose does not have a nozzle.
the pipe meet the most resistance? To make the water spray, the person covers part of
A point the hose opening with his thumb, as shown below.
. W
B point X
.
C point Y
.
D point Z
. After the person sprays the bike, he drops the
hose to the ground. Which of the following
4. The diagram below represents a hydraulic system. statements describes the water coming out of the
hose on the ground compared to when the person
covered part of the hose opening?
A The density of the water is now less.
.
B The density of the water is now
. greater.
C The velocity of the water is now
. faster.
When a force of 1700 lb. is applied to piston X, the 6800 D The velocity of the water is now
lb. pallet of boxes moves upward. The hydraulic system . slower.
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A.
6. A homeowners new garden hose has a larger
diameter than his old garden hose. Both hoses are
the same length. Which of the following changes
should the homeowner expect when using the new
garden hose? B.
A a decrease in the density of the water
.
B a decrease in the velocity of the water
. C.

C a decrease in the viscosity of the water


.
D a decrease in the temperature of the
. water D.

7. Which of the following fluid systems is


characterized by the release of fluids?
A closed
.
B indoor
. 9. A section of a piping system is shown below.
C open
.
D outdo
. or

8. Which of the following pipe fittings has the least resistance to


fluid flow?

Which of the following locations identifies where


the resistance to water flow is the greatest?
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A at point W
.
B at point Y
.
C between point X and point
. Y
Which of the following statements best explains
D between point W and why a hydraulic system is better than a pneumatic
. point X system for lifting the bed of a dump truck?
A Hydraulic systems are less prone to leakage
10. The diagram below shows a section of a water . than pneumatic systems.
pipe. The diameter of the pipe changes along the
length of this section. B Hydraulic systems are more energy
. efficient than pneumatic systems.
C Hydraulic systems can provide changes in
. motion faster than pneumatic systems.
At which two points in the pipe does water travel D Hydraulic systems can handle heavy,
at approximately the same speed? . sustained loads better than pneumatic
A points W and systems.
. Y
B points W and
. Z
C points X and
. Y
D points X and
. Z
11. The illustration below shows a dump truck with
its truck bed raised in order to empty the
contents.
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Open Response Questions
1. The diagram below represents an evaporative cooling
system for a house, which is suitable for use in hot, arid
climates.

When the fans are on, hot outside air is pulled over a
water reservoir. The resulting cool, moist air is then
blown into the house through the duct system.
a. Identify the two fluids used in the evaporative
cooling system.

b. Identify whether the evaporative cooling system is


an open system or a closed system. Explain your
answer.

c. Describe one change in the evaporative cooling


system that would allow more cool air to be
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produced.

d. In this system, some heat is transferred by


conduction between the air and the water.
Describe how conduction occurs between the air
and the water.

A force of 200 lb. is applied to piston X and a load is


placed on piston Y.
a. Calculate the pressure exerted by piston X on the
hydraulic fluid. Show your calculations and include
units in your answer.

2. A hydraulic system is represented below. b. What is the pressure that the hydraulic fluid
exerts on piston Y? Explain your answer.
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c. What force is exerted on piston Y to support the


load? Show your calculations and include units in
your answer.

d. If piston X moves down 3 in., what distance does


piston Y move up? Include units in your answer.