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Biology

Osmosis Lab

Jennarongsak Pathanin (Ta)


Ninparnich Fariya (Fa)
Opornsawat Raweroad (Poom)
Sakulrattanacharoen Papone (Boss)
Sarawutvinai Wuttipong (Ont)

Section 1005
10th March 2017
Introduction:
The cell membrane is like a gatekeeper because it needs to allow material to go in
and out of the cell. This is the way that the cell uses to maintain itself. Which mean the
cell membrane is not only protecting the cell but it also responsible for homeostasis too.
Each material use different way to pass through the cell membrane. So there are two
types of membrane transportation.
First is passive transport, this is the easy way to transport the material because it
does not need to use energy. The material move from high concentration to a low
concentration gradient. All the material that using this type of transportation has kinetic
energy so they can move randomly by themselves. And when both the side have that
same amount of molecule, they will stop moving to other side and start to spread out. In
this movement, they separate the way of movement into three type like simple diffusion,
facilitate dilution, and osmosis. Simple diffusion is the small, hydrophobic, non-polar
molecule will move in or out directly through the phospholipid bilayer. The dense of the
concentration gradient, surface area, temperature, and also the different type of molecule
will affect the speed to movement. If the molecule has a big different between the both
sides then the molecule will move faster. If the temperature is high then it will cause the
molecules to transport faster. The surface area greater will cause the diffusion to have
more space to take place. And last is the type of molecule, if the molecule is non-polar, it
will easier to pass through the phospholipids bilayer. The second type of this
transportation is facilitated diffusion. This process is the movement of a large molecule
which needs protein to help them. They cannot pass directly through the phospholipids
bilayer so they need to pass through the protein like the protein channels because the
molecules are too large to pass through by its own. This process needs specific protein
for the specific molecule. And the last type of this movement is osmosis. This is the
movement of water from the side of high to low concentration of water or high to low
water potential through the permeable membrane. In this process, the molecule to too
big so that they cannot pass through the cell membrane so the water needs to move to
make the two side has have the same amount of water.
The second one is active transport, this is the opposite of passive because they
need to use energy to help the molecule pass through the cell membrane from low to
high concentration gradient and it does not directly pass through the phospholipid bilayer
directly but they pass through the protein.
In this experiment, we will focus on how the osmosis work. We test on two things
with the different environment which means put the things in the different beaker with the
different solute. The solute in the experiment are normal water which is the hypotonic
solution and salt water is the hypertonic solution. Then we will wait for the molecule to
move around then we will observe how it is going to change.

Purpose:
In this experiment, it makes us comprehend and understand well about osmosis.
To understand, we needed to know to a concept of hypotonic, hypertonic and isotonic
because aforementioned is part of whereby osmosis is working.

1
Hypothesis:
1. If jelly is soaked in distilled water(hypotonic solution), then jelly will swell and get
larger.
2. If jelly is soak in salt water(hypertonic solution), then jelly will shrink in size.
3. If potato is soak in distilled water(hypotonic solution), then potato will swell and get
larger.
4. If potato is soak in salt water(hypertonic solution), then potato will shrink in size.

Material List:
- 6 beakers - 3 pieces of potato
- electronic balance - calculator
- distilled water - knife
- concentrated salt water - weighing paper
- 3 Jellies - markers
- graduated cylinder - lab coat
- forceps

2
Procedure/Method:
Collect the 3 Jelly and half a Potato then cut the potato into 3 equal piece.
Measure the mass and volume of each of jelly and potato to record the data. Then
observe the jelly and potato before the experiment. Prepare two beaker that fill a half of it
with distilled water and two beaker with salt water then put one jelly into one beaker of
distilled water and put another one of jelly to another one of beaker with salt water, also
label the type of solute of each beaker. Put the potato and jelly into differnt emty beaker.
After one hour, come back and observe how it change by describing the
characteristic and measure volume and mass. After that calculate the percent change of
mass and volume.

Data Tables:

Data Tables A:
volume and mass of the 2 jelly before and after soaking in distilled water
volume and mass of the 2 jelly before and after soaking in salt water

Jelly 1 Jelly 2 Jelly 3

Dimensions Initial: Final: After Initial: Final: After


Before Soaking in Before soaking in
Soaking Distilled Soaking Salt Water
Water

Volume 4ml 6ml 4ml 3ml

Mass 5.15g 6.80g 5.13g 4.81g 5.12g

Data Tables B:
volume and mass of the 2 potato before and after soaking in distilled water
volume and mass of the 2 potato before and after soaking in salt water
Potato 1 Potato 2 Potato 3

Dimensions Initial: Final: After Initial: Final: After


Before Soaking in Before soaking in
Soaking Distilled Soaking Salt Water
Water

Volume 6ml 7.5ml 6.5ml 5ml

Mass 6.55g 7.52g 6.25g 5.08g 5.39g

Data Table C:
descriptive observations of the jelly before and after soaking in distilled water
descriptive observations of the jelly before and after soaking in salt water

Jelly 1 Jelly 2

Descriptive Observations Before Soaking Descriptive Observations Before Soaking


in in Salt Water:
Distilled Water: semicircle shape
semicircle shape red color
red color look clear and smooth
look clear and smooth

Descriptive Observations After Soaking in Descriptive Observations After Soaking in


Distilled Water: Salt Water:
it look a little bit bigger it look a little bit smaller
it harder than before it soft than before
the look clearer than others there is like a white thing cover around it.
it look light

Data Table D:
descriptive observations of the potato before and after soaking in distilled water
descriptive observations of the potato before and after soaking in salt water

Potato 1 Potato 2
Descriptive Observations Before Soaking Descriptive Observations Before Soaking
in in Salt Water:
Distilled Water: light yellow color
light yellow color a square shape
a square shape it not hard and not soft
it not hard and not soft

Descriptive Observations After Soaking in Descriptive Observations After Soaking in


Distilled Water: Salt Water:
the mass of potato is heavier the mass of potato is lighter
it harder it softer
it floating a bit

Data Table E:
percent changes in volume for the jelly
percent changes in mass for the jelly

Jelly 1: Soaked in Distilled Jelly 2: Soaked in Salt


Water Water

Percent Change in Volume 50% -25%

Percent Change in Mass 32.04% -6.28%

Data Table F:
percent changes in volume for the potato
percent changes in mass for the potato

Jelly 1: Soaked in Distilled Jelly 2: Soaked in Salt


Water Water

Percent Change in Volume 50% -25%

Percent Change in Mass 32.04% -6.28%


Bar Graph of Results:

Analyzing Result:
1. What happened to the jellies after being soaked in distilled water and salt water for an
hour? Why? Be descriptive and detailed in your answer. Use your knowledge of
membrane transport.
Answer: After jelly being soaked in distilled water for an hour, it swelled. Because distilled
water has less solute than the jelly. According to the osmosis rule, the water will move to
the side that has more solute, and in this case the jelly has more solute than the distilled
water, thats why the jelly swelled. After jelly being soaked in salt water for an hour, the
jelly shrinked. Because salt water has more solute than the jelly, so the water move out
from the jelly to outside and made it shrinked.

2. What happened to the potato after being soaked in distilled water and salt water for an
hour? Be descriptive and detailed in your answer. Use your knowledge of membrane
transport.
Answer: After potato was being soaked in distilled water for about an hour it swelled
because the water is hypotonic and the potato is hypertonic so the potato absorb the
water which make the potato look a bit larger and heavier than the one that put in salt
water. because the salt water is hypertonic then the water was always move to
hypertonic solution which made the potato look lighter and a little bit float or shrink.

Conclusion: Overall, the experiment is success in showing the different of the jelly and
potato before and after being put in the two solution which is hypotonic solution and
hypertonic solution by measuring the mass and volum. And the object swell in hypotonic
solution and shrink in hypertonic solution.

Worklog:

Name Job

Ta write the purpose

Fa create table, write down material list, and


create bar graph

Poom Analyzing result

Ont Created hypothesis

Boss write down the methods