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# A4 Antacid tablets neutralise acids.

## A student investigated the time taken for an antacid tablet to react

completely with excess hydrochloric acid (the reaction time) under different conditions.

## The table shows the results.

1
experiment volume of concentration of temperature reaction time 2
number acid / cm3 acid in mol / of acid / C / seconds 3
dm3
4

(a) Which two experiments show that the volume of acid used does not affect the rate of
reaction?

and [1]

(b) Describe and explain the effect of increasing the temperature on the rate of reaction, in
terms of collisions between reacting particles.

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................... [2]

## (c) The antacid tablet contains calcium carbonate.

(i) Write down the equation for the reaction between calcium carbonate and
hydrochloric acid.

..................................................................................................................................

## (ii) Calculate the number of moles of hydrochloric acid used in experiment 2.

(iii) Calculate the mass of calcium carbonate that will react with this number of moles of
hydrochloric acid.

## A5 Marble statues are being damaged by acid rain

(c) (i) Calculate the number of moles of nitric acid in 50 cm3 of 2.0 mol / dm3 solution.
(ii) Calculate the number of moles of calcium carbonate in 2.0 g.

## (iii) Which reagent, calcium carbonate or nitric acid, is in excess?

[5]

(d) The student repeats the experiment using the same quantities of calcium carbonate and
nitric acid. This time the acid is at a higher temperature. Describe and explain, in terms
of collisions between reacting particles, the effect of increasing the temperature on the
rate of reaction.

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................[2]

B7 An excess of zinc was added to 10 cm3 of 0.5 mol/dm3 hydrochloric acid, using the
apparatus below.

20 40 60 80 100

gas syringe

10 cm3 0.5
mol/dm3
hydrochloric acid excess
zinc

## Zn(s) + 2HCl (aq) ZnCl 2(aq) + H2(g)

(a) Calculate the maximum volume of hydrogen which could be produced in the reaction at r.t.p.
[3]
This graph shows how the volume of hydrogen changed during the reaction.

volume of
hydrogen

0
time
0

(b) (i) Describe how the rate of reaction changes as the reaction progresses.

## (ii) Suggest a reason for this change.

[2]

(c) The experiment was repeated using dilute sulphuric acid of the same
concentration.
Write a balanced equation for the reaction between zinc and sulphuric acid.
Suggest how both the rate of reaction and the total volume of hydrogen
obtained would differ from the reaction between zinc and hydrochloric acid.

## [5] [10 marks]

B8 Sandstone contains sand (mainly silicon dioxide) and calcium carbonate.

## CaCO3 + 2HCl CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O

The rate of reaction was followed by measuring the mass lost during the reaction.

Cotto
n
wool

## dilute hydrochloric acid

sandstone

balance
This is a table of the results.

## time t / minutes total mass lost / g

0 0.00

4 0.18

8 0.30

12 0.38

16 0.44

20 0.48

24 0.51

(a) Use information from the table to show that the rate of reaction decreased. [2]

(b) Explain, using ideas about particles colliding, why the rate of the reaction decreased.[2]

(c) Draw a labelled diagram to show a different method of following the rate of reaction
between sandstone and hydrochloric acid. [2]

## (d) In a second experiment, 10 g of sandstone was added to excess hydrochloric

acid. The total mass lost was 0.88 g.
Calculate the percentage by mass of calcium carbonate in the sandstone. [4]

## . The chemical name for marble is calcium carbonate.

A student investigated the reaction between marble chips and nitric acid.

## diagram shows the apparatus the student used.

50 cm3 of 2.0
2.0 g marble chips
mol/dm3
nitric acid

93.30 g

## every minute. The table shows the results.

time / minutes balance reading / g

0 93.30
1 93.28
2 93.26
3 93.24
4 93.22
5 93.21
6 93.20
7 93.19
8 93.18
9 93.17
10 93.16
11 93.15
12 93.15
13 93.14
14 93.14

(a) Explain why the balance reading decreases during the experiment. (ii)
Ca
......................................................................................................................................... lcu
. lat
e
...................................................................................................................................... th
[1] e
tot
(b) How can the student tell when the reaction has finished? al
vol
......................................................................................................................................... u
. m
e
...................................................................................................................................... of
[1] ca
rb
on
di
oxi
de
5 An experiment was carried out to measure the rate of reaction between excess powdered th
calcium carbonate and dilute acids. at
is
(a) In Experiment 1, 25 cm3 of 1.5 mol/dm3 hydrochloric acid was used. m
Complete the equation for the reaction by filling in the missing state symbols. e
fro
(i) 2HCl(..) + CaCO3(..) CaCl2(aq) + H2O (..) + CO2(..) m
thi
s reaction at r.t.p.

[4]
(b) A further experiment using hydrochloric acid, Experiment 2, was carried out.

## The results of Experiments 1 and 2 are shown on the graph.

volume of
3
carbon dioxide / cm

time / s

## Suggest the concentration and volume of acid used for

Experiment 2. concentration

mol/dm3

volume cm3

[2]

(c) Experiment 3 was carried out using 25 cm3 of 1.5 mol/dm3 sulphuric acid.
The initial rate of reaction for Experiment 3 was faster than for the other
experiments but the reaction stopped suddenly after only a small amount of gas had
been given off.

## (i) Name the salt formed in Experiment 3.

...................................................................................................................................

## (ii) Explain why the reaction stops suddenly.

...................................................................................................................................

(iii) Explain why the initial rate of reaction was faster than for the other experiments.

...................................................................................................................................
[4]

[Total: 10 marks]

3 When Iumps of caIcium carbonate react with hydrochIoric acid, carbon dioxide gas is
reIeased.

## CaC03(s) + 2HC1(aq) CaC12(aq) + C02(g) + H20(I)

(a) Describe a practicaI method for investigating this reaction, which wouId enabIe you to
caIcuIate the rate of reaction.
(b) What effect wiII the foIIowing have on the rate of the reaction?

[4]

test
[3]

## (d) CaIcium can be obtained by the eIectroIysis of moIten caIcium chIoride.

(i) Suggest why caIcium must be extracted by eIectroIysis rather than by reduction with carbon.

[1]

## (ii) Draw the eIectronic structure of an atom of caIcium.

[2]
5 A student used the apparatus shown below to investigate the rate of reaction of calcium carbonate
with dilute hydrochloric acid.

## CaCO3 + 2HCl CaCl2 + CO2 + H 2O

cotton wool

dilute
hydrochloric acid
calcium carbonate
100.4
balance

(a) Use the information in the equation to suggest why the mass of the flask and contents
decreases with time.

[1]

(b) The graph shows how the mass of the flask and its contents changes with time.
100.4
mass of flask and contents /

100.3

100.2
grams

100.1

100.0

## 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

time / seconds
(i) At what time was the reaction just complete?

[1]

(ii) On the graph, mark with an X the point where the speed (rate) of reaction was
fastest.

[1]
mass of flask and contents /

(iii) The student repeated the experiment but altered the concentration of the
hydrochloric acid so that it was half the original value. In both experiments calcium
carbonate was in excess and all other conditions were kept the same.

On the graph on page 10, draw a curve to show how the mass of the flask and
contents changes with time when hydrochloric acid of half the concentration was
used.
grams

[2]
(c) How does the speed (rate) of this reaction change when

## (ii) smaller pieces of calcium carbonate are used? [1]

(d) Complete the following sentence using words from the list.

## combustion expansion large rapid slow small

In flour mills there is often the risk of an explosion due to the rapid

## surface area to react. [3]

(e) Cells in plants and animals break down glucose to carbon dioxide and water.

[1]

## (ii) In this process enzymes act as catalysts.

What do you understand by the term catalyst?

[1]

[Total: 12]
8 The diagram shows a rotary kiln used to make lime from limestone.
Limestone is fed in at the top of the kiln and lime comes out at the bottom.

round
limestone

hot air

lime

## (a) What is the chemical name for lime?

..................................................................................................................................... [1]

(b) State the name of the type of chemical reaction that takes place in the rotary lime kiln.

..................................................................................................................................... [1]

(c) Suggest why the air coming out of the rotary kiln has a greater percentage of carbon dioxide than the air
entering the kiln.
..................................................................................................................................... [1]

## (d) State one use for lime.

..................................................................................................................................... [1]

## (e) A student compared the speed of reaction of three metal carbonates.

She measured the volume of gas released using the apparatus shown.

gas syringe

metal carbonate

heat
State one thing that must be kept constant if the speeds of these reactions are to be compared in a fair
way.

..................................................................................................................................... [1]

(f) The graph shows the volume of carbon dioxide released when the three metal carbonates are
heated.
50

calcium
40 carbonate

30 strontium
volume of carbonate
carbon dioxide
/ cm3
20

barium
carbonate
10

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
time / minutes

## (i) Which carbonate produced carbon dioxide the fastest?

..........................................................................................................................
.... [1]

(ii)
[1]

[1]

## (iii) State one large scale use of lime.

[1]

(b) A student investigated the speed of reaction of calcium carbonate with hydrochloric acid
using the apparatus shown below.

(i) Complete the labelling of the apparatus by filling in the three boxes. [3]

water bath
at 40 C

reaction mixture

## Write the word equation for this reaction.

[2]

(iii) The student carried out the reaction at 40C using large pieces of calcium
carbonate. The results of the experiment are shown below.

100
80
cm3 gas released

60

40

20

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
160
time /
seconds

## At what time did the reaction stop?

[1]

(iv) The student repeated the experiment using the same mass of powdered
calcium carbonate. All other conditions were kept the same. On the grid above,
sketch the graph for the reaction with calcium carbonate powder.

[2]

## the temperature is increased? [2]

[Total: 13]
A3 A student investigated the reaction of calcium carbonate with hydrochloric acid.

## CaCO3 + 2HCl CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O

The student used large pieces of calcium carbonate and carried out the reaction at 20 C. The
concentration of hydrochloric acid was 1.0 mol/dm3.

The results of the experiment were plotted as a graph which is shown below.
100

80

volume
60
of
carbon
dioxide
/cm3
40

20

0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
time / s
(a) After how many seconds did the reaction stop?

......................................................................................................................................[1]

## (b) Calculate the number of moles of carbon dioxide released during

the reaction. [The volume of one mole of any gas at r.t.p. is 24 dm3] [
1
]

(c) The student repeated the experiment using the same mass of calcium carbonate and the same
concentration of acid at 20 C.
.
This time the student used small pieces of calcium carbonate. On the grid opposite,
sketch the graph for the reaction of small pieces of calcium carbonate with hydrochloric
acid.
[2]

(d) When the student repeated the experiment using hydrochloric acid of
concentration
3
2.0 mol/dm , the speed of reaction increased.

Use the kinetic particle theory to explain why the speed of this reaction increased.

.........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................[2]

A2 In the presence of yeast, aqueous glucose, C6H12O6, is changed into carbon dioxide and ethanol.

## (a) Write the equation for this reaction.

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

## (b) Name this reaction.

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(c) Suggest how the speed of this reaction varies as the temperature changes from 20 to
60 C.

..........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

(d) Carbon dioxide is also formed when calcium carbonate reacts with hydrochloric acid.

## CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

The graph shows how the volume of carbon dioxide changes when calcium carbonate powder
reacts with excess 0.5 mol/dm3 hydrochloric acid.
On the same axes, sketch the curve you would expect when the experiment is repeated using the
same amount of calcium carbonate and excess 1.0 mol/dm3 hydrochloric acid. [2]

## What volume of carbon dioxide was produced by strontium carbonate in ten

minutes?

.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(iii) How does the speed of the reaction of these three metal carbonates relate to the
position of calcium, strontium and barium in the Periodic Table?

....................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................. [2]

(g) Describe how hydrochloric acid and limewater can be used to show that carbonate ions
are present in calcium carbonate.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................... [3]

[Total: 12]

3 Calcium carbonate, CaCO3, is the raw material used in the manufacture of lime, CaO.

140

120

100

volume of 80
carbon dioxide
/ cm3 60

40

20

0
0 25 50 75
time / s
Fig. 1

[Total: 6]

## 2 A student investigates the reaction between zinc and hydrochloric acid.

The hydrochloric acid is in excess.
The student uses the apparatus shown in the diagram.

Gas syringe
Hydrogen gas

small test
tube held
by a piece of
cotton

zinc power
hydrochloric acid

## (a) What should the student do to start the reaction?

......................................................................................................................................[1]

(b)
.

[3]
(e) Zinc is an element.
State the meaning of the term element.

......................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................[1]

[1]

## (ii) Which type of metals often act as catalysts?

[1]

(b) A student measured the volume of hydrogen gas produced when a few large pieces
3
of zinc reacted with hydrochloric acid of concentration 2.0 mol / dm . The hydrochloric
acid was in excess.
The results are given in the table.

time / minutes 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

3
volume of hydrogen / cm 0 27 54 81 100 110 110

(i) Plot a graph of volume of hydrogen against time on the axes below. Label
the axes.
[4]
(ii) Copper ions catalyse the reaction between zinc and hydrochloric acid.
On the axes above, sketch the line you would expect for the catalysed
reaction. Label this line C.

[2]

[1]

## (i) small pieces of zinc were used instead of large pieces,

[1]
3
(ii) the concentration of hydrochloric acid was 1.0 mol / dm ?

[1]

## (d) The equation for this reaction is

Zn + 2HCl ZnCl2 +
H2

[1]

## (ii) Describe a test for hydrogen.

test

result

[2]

[Total:

14]

2 A student carried out an experiment to investigate the speed of the reaction between sodium
thiosulphate and dilute hydrochloric acid.

## Na2S2O3 + 2HCl 2NaCl + S + H2O + SO2

Experiment 1
By using a measuring cylinder, 50 cm3 of sodium thiosulphate solution was poured into a
100 cm3 beaker. The beaker was placed on a cross drawn on a piece of paper. 10 cm3 of
hydrochloric acid was added to the beaker and the timer started.

eye

## 10 cm3 of hydrochloric acid

aqueous sodium
beaker thiosulphate

## paper with cross

marked on it

The time was taken until the cross could not be seen. The time was recorded in the table.

Experiments 2, 3, 4 and 5

Experiment 1 was repeated using different volumes of sodium thiosulphate as shown in the
table. All experiments were carried out at 25 C.

Table of results

## volume of sodium volume of time for cross to

Experiment
thiosulphate/cm3 water/cm3 disappear/s

1 50 0 45

2 40 10 60

3 30 20 80

4 20 30 130

5 10 40 255

## (a) Why does the cross on the paper disappear?

The student reads the volume of gas in the syringe every minute.
The results are shown in the table.

time in minutes 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
volume of gas in cm3 0 23 35 45 50 53 55 55

60

50

40
volume of gas /

30
cm3

20

10

0
1 2 3 4 5 6
7 time / min

## (ii) Draw the best curve through the points.

(iii) Explain why the volume of gas stays the same after six minutes.

...................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................[5]

## (c) The student does the experiment again.

The only difference is that the student uses warm, rather than cold, hydrochloric acid.
On the grid, draw the shape of the graph you would expect for the experiment with the warm
hydrochloric acid. [2]

(d) (i) Balance the equation for the reaction between zinc and hydrochloric acid.

Zn + HCl ZnCl2 + H2

## (ii) Name the compound which has the formula ZnCl2.

...................................................................................................................................

## (iii) Calculate the relative formula mass of ZnCl2

..........................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................[2]

## (b) Why was the total volume of solution kept constant?

..........................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................[1]

(c) In which order should the water, hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate solution be

first ...................................................................................................................................

## second .............................................................................................................................. last

................................................................................................................................[1]
(d) (i) Plot the results on the grid below. Draw a smooth line graph and label it 25 C. [5]

50

40

30

volume of sodium
thiosulphate / cm3

20

10

## 0 50 100 150 200 250 300

time / s

(ii) Sketch on the grid the graph you would expect if the experiments were repeated at
50 C. Label this graph. [2]

(e) The experiments were repeated using a 250 cm3 beaker instead of a 100 cm3 beaker.
..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................[2]

## 5 An experiment was carried out using the apparatus below.

20 40 60 80 100 cm3

rubber connector

reaction
mixture

By using a measuring cylinder, 20 cm3 of hydrogen peroxide was placed in the flask and
0.8 g of the catalyst, manganese(IV) oxide was added. The bung was replaced and the gas
collected was measured at 1 minute intervals. The results were plotted on the grid
(opposite).

## (a) (i) Draw a smooth line graph on the grid. [1]

(ii) Which result appears to be inaccurate? Why have you chosen this result?

...................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................[2]

(b) What mass of manganese(IV) oxide would remain at the end of the experiment?

......................................................................................................................................[1]

(c) What would be the effect of using a rubber connector with a hole in it?

..........................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................[2]
160

140

120

100

Volume of
Gas/cm3

80

60

40

20

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
8
time / minutes
4 A student investigated the temperature changes that occur when two compounds A and B, react with
hydrochloric acid. The apparatus below was used.

thermometer
clamp

plastic cup

hydrochloric acid

move cup

stand

Experiment 1
3
By using a measuring cylinder, 30 cm of hydrochloric acid was added to the plastic cup.

Use the thermometer diagram to record the initial temperature of the acid in the table. The
timer was started, and some of the solid A was added to the cup. Immediate effervescence
occurred. The mixture was stirred by moving the cup until the fizzing stopped.

More of A was then added and the student continued adding A in this way until all of solid A

Use the thermometer diagrams to record the temperature of the mixture every half minute.

Experiment 2

Experiment 1 was repeated using solid B. Use the thermometer diagrams to record the
temperatures in the table.
Table of results

Experiment 1

## time/min 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

25 30 30 30 35 35
thermometer 20 25 25 25 30 30
diagram
15 20 20 20 25 25

temperature / oC
3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0

35 35 30 30 30

30 30 25 25 25

25 25 20 20 20

[2]

Experiment 2

## time/min 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

25 25 20 20 20 15
thermometer 20 20 15 15 15 10
diagram
15 15 10 10 10 5

temperature / oC
3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0

15 20 20 20 20

10 15 15 15 15

5 10 10 10 10

[2]
(a) Plot the results from both experiments on the grid below. For each set of results draw a smooth
line graph. Indicate clearly which line represents Experiment 1 and which line Experiment 2
[6]

40

30

temperature / 20
o
C

10

0
0 1 2 3 4 5
time / minutes

(i) Find the temperature of the reaction mixture after the hydrochloric acid had
reacted for 2 minutes 15 seconds with

solid A,

solid B. [2]
(ii) What type of chemical reaction occurs when

solid A,

solid B

## reacts with hydrochloric acid? [2]

(c) Suggest what type of compound solids A and B are. Explain your answer

[2]

(d) If the plastic cup and final reaction mixture are left for one hour, predict the temperature
at this time for

[3]

## A catalyst is a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction and remains unchanged.

Hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 breaks down to form oxygen. This reaction is very slow without a
catalyst. Describe an experiment to show that manganese(IV) oxide is a catalyst for this
reaction.

## Hydrogen peroxide solution Manganese(IV) oxide Measuring cylinder

Balance

Beaker

Filtration apparatus

Splints/Bunsen burner
Distilled water

[6]

3 In a set of experiments zinc was reacted with sulphuric acid to form hydrogen. The apparatus
below was used.

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

gas syringe

sulphuric acid
excess zinc

The same mass of zinc was used each time. The volume of acid used was different each
time. Use the syringe diagrams to record the volume of hydrogen produced each time in
the table.

Table of
results

## volume of sulphuric volume of

3 syringe diagram 3
acid/cm hydrogen/cm

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

15 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
20 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

25 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

30 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

35 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

40 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

[4]

(a) Plot the results on the grid below. Draw a smooth line graph.

80

70

60

50
volume of
hydrogen / cm3
40

30

20

10

0
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
volume of acid / cm3
[4]
3
(b) Use the graph to find the volume of sulphuric acid that will produce 33 cm of gas.
[1]
3
(c) What volume of gas is produced if 10 cm of sulphuric acid is used?

[1]
8 An aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide decomposes very slowly to form oxygen. The speed of
decomposition can be increased by using a catalyst. Two possible catalysts are the solids copper(II)
oxide and chromium(III) oxide.

Plan an investigation to find out which of these two oxides is the better catalyst for this
decomposition.
The space below can be used for a diagram.

..

..

.. [6]
6 Hydrogen peroxide breaks down to form oxygen.

The volume of oxygen given off can be measured using the apparatus below.

0 10 20 30 40 50

gas syringe

Solids W and X both catalyse the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide. The syringe diagrams
show the volume of oxygen formed every 20 seconds using these catalysts at 25 C.

## time / s using catalyst W using catalyst X

0 10 20 30 40 0 10 20 30 40
0

0 10 20 30 40 0 10 20 30 40
20

0 10 20 30 40 0 10 20 30 40
40

0 10 20 30 40 0 10 20 30 40
60

0 10 20 30 40 0 10 20 30 40
80

0 10 20 30 40 0 10 20 30 40
100
(a) Use the gas syringe diagrams to complete the table.

3
volume of oxygen / cm
time / s
catalyst W catalyst X

20

40

60

80

100

[3]
(b) Plot a graph to show each set of results. Clearly label the curves.

0 20 40 60 80 100
time / s

[6]

(c) Which solid is the better catalyst in this reaction? Give a reason for your choice.

solid

reason

[2]
3 Dilute nitric acid was added to a large amount of magnesium carbonate in a conical flask as shown.

cotton
wool

nitric
acid

magnesium carbonate

260. 0

bala
nce

The flask was placed on a balance and the mass of the flask and contents recorded
every minute. The results are shown in the table.

time / min 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

260.0 257.9 256.8 256.6 255.8 255.6 255.6
contents / g

(a) Plot the results on the grid and draw a smooth line graph. [3]
260

259

258

mass of
contents /
g

256

255

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 time /
mins

(b) Which result appears to be inaccurate? Why have you selected this result?

..........................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................[2]

(c) Why does the mass of the flask and contents decrease?

......................................................................................................................................[1]

## (d) Suggest the purpose of the cotton wool.

......................................................................................................................................[1]

## (e) At what time did the reaction finish?

......................................................................................................................................[1]

(f) On the grid, sketch the graph you would expect if the experiment were repeated using nitric
acid at a higher temperature. [2]
2 The following apparatus was used to measure the rate of the reaction between zinc and iodine.

to balance

## 100 cm3 of aqueous iodine,

thin plate of zinc 0.1 mol / dm3 at 25 oC

mixture
stirred by
magnetic
stirrer

The mass of the zinc plate was measured every minute until the reaction was complete.

(a) Write an ionic equation for the redox reaction that occurred between zinc atoms
and iodine molecules.

[2]

(b) Describe how you could show by adding aqueous sodium hydroxide and
aqueous ammonia that a solution contained zinc ions.

aqueous ammonia

## excess aqueous ammonia [3]

(c) From the results of this experiment two graphs were plotted.

graph 1 graph 2

mass of loss of
plate mass

time time

(i) Which reagent iodine or zinc was in excess? Give a reason for your choice.
[1]
3 3
(ii) Describe how the shape of graph 1 would change if 100cm of 0.05 mol/dm iodine had
been used.

[2]
3
(iii) On graph 2, sketch the shape if the reaction had been carried out using 100 cm of
3
0.1 mol/dm iodine at 35 C instead of at 25 C. [2]

6 Three of the factors that can influence the rate of a chemical reaction are:

## physical state of the reactants

light
the presence of a catalyst

(a) The first recorded dust explosion was in a flour mill in Italy in 1785. Flour contains
carbohydrates. Explosions are very fast exothermic reactions.

(i) Use the collision theory to explain why the reaction between the particles of flour
and the oxygen in the air is very fast.

[2]

## (ii) Write a word equation for this exothermic reaction.

[1]

The decomposition of silver(I) bromide is the basis of film photography. The equation for
this decomposition is:

white black

## This reaction is photochemical.

A piece of white paper was coated with silver(I) bromide and the following experiment was
carried out.
some time later with the
initially card and paper removed

## covered with grey

thin paper exposure
to light

## covered with white

thick card
paper coated with
silver(I) bromide

## (b) Explain the results.

[3]
(c) The fermentation of glucose is catalysed by enzymes from yeast. Yeast is added to aqueous
glucose, the solution starts to bubble and becomes cloudy as more yeast cells are formed.
[Total:
C6H12O6(aq) 2C2H5OH(aq) + 2CO2(g) 14]

## The reaction is exothermic.

Eventually the fermentation stops when the concentration of ethanol is about 12%.

## (i) What is an enzyme?

[1]

(ii) Pasteur said that fermentation was respiration in the absence of air. Suggest a
definition of respiration.

[2]

(iii) On a large scale, the reaction mixture is cooled. Suggest a reason why this is
necessary.

[1]

## (iv) Why does the fermentation stop? Suggest two reasons.

[2]

(v) When the fermentation stops, there is a mixture of dilute aqueous ethanol and
yeast. Suggest a technique which could be used to remove the cloudiness due to
the yeast.

[1]

Name a technique which will separate the ethanol from the ethanol / water mixture.

[1]
2 Some of the factors that can determine the rate of a reaction are concentration, temperature and light
intensity.

(a) A small piece of calcium carbonate was added to an excess of hydrochloric acid. The
time taken for the carbonate to react completely was measured.

## CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

The experiment was repeated at the same temperature, using pieces of calcium
carbonate of the same size but with acid of a different concentration. In all the
experiments an excess of acid was used.

concentration of
acid / mol dm3 4 2 2 .

number of pieces
of carbonate 1 1 2 1

time / s . 80 . 160

(i) Complete the table (assume the rate is proportional to both the acid concentration
and the number of pieces of calcium carbonate). [3]

(ii) Explain why the reaction rate would increase if the temperature was increased.

...................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................[2]

(iii) Explain why the rate of this reaction increases if the piece of carbonate is crushed
to a powder.

...............................................................................................................................[1]

(iv) Fine powders mixed with air can explode violently. Name an industrial process
where there is a risk of this type of explosion.

...................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................[1]

(b) Sodium chlorate(I) decomposes to form oxygen and sodium chloride. This is an
example of a photochemical reaction. The rate of reaction depends on the intensity of
the light.

## (i) Describe how the rate of this reaction could be measured.

...................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................[2]
(ii) How could you show that this reaction is photochemical?

...................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................[1]

## (c) Photosynthesis is another example of a photochemical reaction. Glucose and more

complex carbohydrates are made from carbon dioxide and water.

## (ii) Glucose can be represented as

HO OH

Draw the structure of a more complex carbohydrate that can be formed from
glucose by condensation polymerisation.

[2]
7 The rate of a reaction depends on concentration of reactants, temperature and possibly a catalyst or
light.
3 3
(a) A piece of magnesium ribbon was added to 100 cm of 1.0 mol/dm hydrochloric acid.
The hydrogen evolved was collected in a gas syringe and its volume measured every
30 seconds.

20 40 60 80
100

hydrochloric
acid

magnesium
ribbon
In all the experiments mentioned in this question, the acid was in
excess. The results were plotted to give a graph.

volu
me of
hydro
gen

0
time
(i) The experiment was repeated. Two pieces of magnesium ribbon were added to
3 3
100 cm of 1.0 mol/dm hydrochloric acid. Sketch this graph on the same grid and label it X.
[2]
3 3
(ii) The experiment was repeated using one piece of magnesium ribbon and 100 cm of 1.0 mol/dm
ethanoic acid. number of how the shape of this graph would differ from the one given on the grid.
Describe concentration of acid
experiment pieces of temperature / C time / min
in mol / dm
marble

1 1 1.00 25 3
[2]
2 1 0.50 25 7

1 piece
(b) Reaction3rate increases when concentration or temperature is increased.
1.00 25 1
crushed
Using the idea of reacting particles, explain why;

increasing 1.00
rate, 35 2

[2]

## increasing temperature increases reaction rate.

[2]

(c) The rate of a photochemical reaction is affected by light. A reaction, in plants, between carbon dioxide
and water is photochemical.

## (i) Name the two products of this reaction.

[2]

(ii) This reaction will only occur in the presence of light and another chemical. Name this chemical.

[1]

3
7 (a) A small piece of marble, calcium carbonate, was added to 5 cm of hydrochloric acid at

## CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

3
Similar experiments were performed always using 5 cm of hydrochloric acid.

3
Explain each of the following in terms of collisions between reacting particles.

[2]

[2]

## (iii) Why is the rate in experiment 4 faster than in experiment 1?

[2]
(b) An alternative method of measuring the rate of this reaction would be to measure the volume of
carbon dioxide produced at regular intervals.

## (i) Sketch this graph

volume

time

[2]
3
(ii) One piece of marble, 0.3 g, was added to 5 cm of hydrochloric acid,
concentration
3
1.00 mol / dm . Which reagent is in excess? Give a reason for your choice.
mass of one mole of

## moles of CaCO3 = number

of moles of HCl =

reagent in excess is

reason [4]

(iii) Use your answer to (ii) to calculate the maximum volume of carbon
dioxide produced measured at r.t.p.

l:

laboratory.

## (a) Write the word equation for this decomposition reaction.

....................................................................................................................................
....[1]

## (b) Laura investigates the decomposition of dilute hydrogen peroxide at room

temperature.
Look at the apparatus she uses.

3
50cm of
dilute
hydrogen
peroxide

0.5g of
catalyst

## labelled X? Choose from

gas syringe

measuring

cylinder metre

rule

pi
p
et
te

....................................................................................................................................
....[1]
3
(c) Laura uses 50 cm of dilute hydrogen peroxide and 0.5 g of a catalyst.

Laura records the volume of oxygen collected in the gas syringe every 10 seconds.

## This is a graph of Lauras results.

70

60

50

40
volume of oxygen
collected in cm3
30

20

10

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
time in seconds

## (i) What is the volume of oxygen collected after 20 seconds?

3
....................................................................................................................... cm [1]

(ii) The reaction stops when all the hydrogen peroxide has been used up.

How long does it take for all the hydrogen peroxide to react?

## ................................................................................................................ seconds [1]

(iii) Laura uses 0.5 g of a catalyst.

Choose from

0.5 g

## less than 0.5 g

...............................................................................................................................[1]

(d) Laura wants to make the decomposition reaction of hydrogen peroxide faster.

## 50 cm3 of hydrogen peroxide solution.

Write about some of the ways that she can make the reaction faster

............................................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................................[3] [Total:

8]
6 Monty investigates the properties of two acids

## dilute hydrochloric acid, HCl .

(a) How many different elements are chemically bonded in ethanoic acid?

............................................................................................................................................. [1]
(b) Describe how Monty can measure the pH value of dilute ethanoic acid.

...................................................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(c) Monty adds a small piece of magnesium ribbon to a sample of dilute ethanoic acid.

## What is the name of this gas?

............................................................................................................................................. [1]

(d) Ethanoic acid and hydrochloric acid both react with calcium carbonate.

## What is the name of this gas?

............................................................................................................................................. [1]

(e) Monty investigates the reaction of both acids with a lump of calcium carbonate.

## Look at the apparatus he uses.

gas syringe
20 40 60 80 100 cm3

50 cm3
of acid

lump of calcium
carbonate
7 Paul investigates the reaction between an antacid tablet and 50 cm3 dilute hydrochloric acid.

gas
gas syringe

hydrochloric
acid

tablet

## Look at the graph. It shows his results.

120

100

80

volume of gas

40

20

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
time in minutes

OCR 2007
(a) Write down the volume of gas made during the first 3 minutes.

................................cm3 [1]

## (b) Paul does the experiment again.

He still uses one antacid tablet and 50 cm3 of dilute hydrochloric acid.

## The reaction goes faster.

On the graph, sketch a line to show the results Paul should get. [2]

## He still wants to use one tablet and 50 cm3 of acid.

Write down two other things that Paul might change to make the reaction go faster.

1 ................................................................................................................................................

2 ............................................................................................................................................[2]

[Total: 5]
8 Blessy and Anu investigate the reaction between magnesium and dilute sulfuric acid.

## Look at the apparatus they use.

apparatus A
20 40 60 80 100 cm3

## (a) What is the name of apparatus A?

............................................................................................................................................. [1]

## 50 cm3 of dilute sulfuric acid

0.11 g of magnesium.

## temperature of acid time to collect 100 cm3 of

in C hydrogen in seconds
20 36

30 18

40 9

50 5

(i) At what temperature was the time taken to collect 100 cm3 of hydrogen the longest?

................................................................. C [1]

## (ii) What happens to the rate of reaction as the temperature increases?

..................................................................................................................................... [1]

[Total: 3]
6 Monty investigates the properties of two acids

## dilute hydrochloric acid, HCl .

(a) How many different elements are chemically bonded in ethanoic acid?

............................................................................................................................................. [1]

(b) Describe how Monty can measure the pH value of dilute ethanoic acid.

...................................................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(c) Monty adds a small piece of magnesium ribbon to a sample of dilute ethanoic acid.

## What is the name of this gas?

............................................................................................................................................. [1]

(d) Ethanoic acid and hydrochloric acid both react with calcium carbonate.
A gas is made when these acids react with calcium carbonate.

## What is the name of this gas?

............................................................................................................................................. [1]

(e) Monty investigates the reaction of both acids with a lump of calcium carbonate.

## Look at the apparatus he uses.

gas syringe
20 40 60 80 100 cm3

50 cm3 of
acid

lump of calcium
carbonate

He does two experiments, one with dilute ethanoic acid and one with dilute hydrochloric acid.

## Look at the graph of his results.

60

50

hydrochloric acid
40

total
volume
of gas 30
in cm3

20

10
ethanoic acid

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
time in seconds
(i) Which acid reacts faster?

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) How long does it take for the reaction with hydrochloric acid to stop?

## .................................................. seconds [1]

(iii) The reaction between calcium carbonate and ethanoic acid is still happening after 80
seconds.

What will be the total volume of gas collected at the end of this reaction?

## zinc + sulfuric acid zinc sulfate + hydrogen

Mike and Ellis investigate the reaction between zinc and dilute sulfuric acid.

beaker

200 cm3 of
dilute sulfuric
acid

275.0 g balance

## Each time they use

200 cm3 of sulfuric acid

## 5.0 g of zinc lumps

a temperature of 20 C.

## (a) The reading on the balance decreases as the reaction happens.

Suggest why.

...............................................................................................................................................[1]
(b) Mike and Ellis measure the time it takes for the mass on the balance to decrease by 0.1 g.

## concentration of acid time to make 0.1 g of gas

in mol / dm3 in seconds
0.5 900
1.0 450
1.5 250
2.0 140

## (i) What happens to the rate of reaction as the concentration increases?

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

They use

## 200 cm3 of sulfuric acid of concentration 2.0 mol / dm3

a temperature of 20 C
5.0 g of zinc powder instead of zinc lumps.

## ............................................... seconds [1]

[Total: 3]
Structured Questions:

13. The graphs show the energy changes during two chemical reactions. One of these is
exothermic, the other is endothermic.

## a) Which letters P, Q, R or S indicate an energy level of a reactant molecule?

b) Which graph, I or II

## ii. Has het higher activation energy?

c) Choose only one letter from P, Q, R or S which indicates the most stable reactant or

d) Choose only one letter from P, Q, R or S which indicates the least stable reactant or
product.

14.
a) Name four different factors which can affect the speed of a chemical reaction.

## b) Explain each of these factors in terms of collisions of reactant particles.

c) Suggest how you would follow the speed of the reaction fox inc with sulphuric acid e.g.

## Zn(s) + H2SO4 (aq) ZnSO4 (aq) + H2 (g)

15.
a) A single particle is, let us say, a cube of size 10 cm length. What is its surface area?

b) This cube is then broken down into a thousand smaller particles which are each 1 cm
cubes. What is the surface area of each 1 cm cube?

## c) What is the total surface area of 1 000 of these 1 cm cubes?ns

d) How many times greater is the surface area of the smaller cubes?

## e) What has this to do with rate of reaction?

Questions:

1. Sodium is the sixth most abundant element in the earths crust, occurring in large
quantities as common salt, NaCl and yet sodium metal wasnt first produced until the early
nineteenth century.

a) From your knowledge of the position of sodium in the reactivity series, suggest a
method for manufacturing sodium form sodium chloride. You arent expected to give
details of the manufacturing process, but should describe and explain (including
equation/s where relevant) how sodium is formed in your process.
b) Explain why sodium wasnt produced until the early nineteenth century.

c) Suggest three other metals which might have been first isolated from their compounds
at the same sort of time.

(2)

## b) Alumininum is manufactured using electrolysis. Carbon electrodes are used. Describe

the nature of the electrolyte.

## c) At which electrode si the aluminum produced?

d) Write the electrode equation fr the formation of the aluminum. Is this an example of
oxidation or reduction?

e) Oxygen gas is formed at the other electrode. Explain why that causes a problem.

(3)

## D. : CaCO3 CaO + CO2; H = +178 KJmol-1

a) Which one of these reactions provides the heat to maintain the temperature of the
furnace?

b) What material are put into furnace to provide source of (i) carbon, (ii) oxygen, (iii)
iron(iii) oxide, (iv) calcium carbonate?

c) The calcium oxide produced in reaction D takes part in the formation of slag. Write an
equation for the formation of the slag.

d) Some iron is also produced by reaction between iron(iii) oxide and carbon. Balance the
following equaiton:

Fe2O3 + C Fe + CO

(4)
a) Cast Iron or pig iron from the bottom of the blast furnace contains am important
impurity which limits its usefulness contains an important impurity which its usefulness.

i. What is the impurity, and approximately what percentage of the cast iron does it
make up?

## ii. What effect does this impurity have on the properties

b) Describe the composition of stainless steel, and explain why it resists corrosion. State
one use for stainless steel.
c) Car bodies used to be made from mild steel, which was then painted. In more recent
cars, the mild steel is galvanized before it is painted.

## i. What is meant by galvanized steel?

ii. Describe and explain the effect that galvanized steel has on the life of the car.

1. Iron is produced in a blast furnace by the reduction of its ore, haematite (Fe2O3).
a) What do you understand by the term reduction? (1 mark)
b) Give the proper chemical name for heamatite. (1 mark)
c) The main heat source in the furnace is provided by burning coke in ari.
C + O2 CO2
What name is given to a reaction which produces heat? (1 mark)
d) The main reducing agent in the furnace is carbon monoxide. Write an equation to show
its formation. (1 mark)
e) Balance the equation: Fe2O3 + CO Fe + CO (1 mark)
f) Limestone is added to the furnace to help in the removal of impurities in the ore, such as
silicon dioxide (SiO2). Explain the chemistry of this. (3 marks)
g) The impure iron from the blast furnace can be used to make cast iron, but most is
converted into various steels.
i. Give one use in each case for cast iron, mild steel, high carbon steel and stainless
steel. (4 marks)
ii. Give two effects of increasing the properties of carbon mixed with the iron. (2 marks)
Total 14 marks
2. a) Aluminum is manufactured by the electrolysis of aluminum oxide dissolved in molten
cryolite.
i. Name the ore from which aluminum oxide is obtained.(1 mark)
ii. At which electrode is the aluminum produced? (1 mark)
iii. Oxygen is released at the other electrode. Explain why that creates a problem. (1
mark)
iv. Aluminum is the commonest metal in the earths crust, and yet it is relatively
expensive because its extraction is expensive. Why is the extraction expensive? (1
mark)
b) High-voltage overhead electricity cables are made of aluminium with a steel core,
supported on galvanized steel pylons.
i. Aluminum is not such a good conductor of electricity as copper. Why is aluminum
ii. Iron is a less good conductor of electricity than aluminum. Why are the cables
constructed with a steel core? (1 mark)
iii. Suggest two reason why the pylons are made of steel, rather than aluminum. (2
marks)
iv. What is galvanized iron? (1 mark)
v. Explain how galvanizing iron helps to prevent it from rusting. (1 mark)
3. Zinc occurs naturally as sphalerite (zinc blende), ZnS. In the extraction of zinc, the zinc
sulfide is first heated strongly in air to produce zinc oxide.
2ZnS + 3O2 2ZnO + 2SO2
The zinc oxide can be reduced to zinc in two ways. In the first method, it is heated with
carbon in a blast furnace at a temperature in excess of 1000oC. Zinc boils at 907oC, and
so is produced as a vapour that can be condensed. In the second method, the zinc oxide is
converted into zinc sulfate solution, which is then electrolyzed.
a) Suggest a sue for the sulfur dioxide produce during the formation of zinc oxide. (1 mark)
b) Carbon reduction of zinc oxide produces zinc and carbon monoxide. Write the equation
for the reaction. (1 mark)
c) What would you add to zinc oxide to produce a solution of zinc sulfate? Write an
equation for the reaction involved. (2 mark)
d) At which electrode would the zinc be formed during the electrolytic extraction? Writ the
equation for the reaction occurring at that electrode. (2 mark)
Total 6 marks
4. Underground salt deposits are an essential raw material in the chemical industry. The salt
is extracted by solution mining, and the salt solution is electrolysed to produce three
important chemicals.
a) Name the three chemical produced by the electrolysed of salt solution, and give a use
for each of them. (6 mark)
b) Which of the three is produced at the anode during the electrolysis? Write the equation
for the reaction occurring at the anode. (2 mark)
Total marks 8 marks
5. Ammonia is manufactured from hydrogen and nigrogen in the Haber process. The nitrogen
and hydrogen are passed through a reaction vessel containing a catalyst. About 15% of
the mixture is converted into ammonia gas. The ammonia is then separated from the
unused nitrogen and hydrogen.
Which are recycled through the process.
N2 + 3H2 2NH3; H = -92 KJmol-1

Questions :
1 A student carried out an experiment to investigate the rate of reaction between
an excess of dolomite (magnesium carbonate) and 50 cm 3 of dilute hydrochloric
acid. The dolomite was in small pieces. The reaction is

## MgCO3 + 2HCl MgCl2 + H2O + CO2

He must measured the volume of carbon dioxide given off at regular intervals,
with the results shown the table below
Time( 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360
s)
Volum O 27 45 59 70 78 85 90 94 97 99 100 100
e
(cm3)

a) Draw a diagram of the apparatus you would use for this experiment, and
explain briefly what you would do.

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

b) Plot these results on graph paper, with time on the X-axis and volume of gas
on the Y-axis.

..

..

..

c) At what time is the gas being given off most quickly? Explain why the
reaction is fastest at that time.

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

d) Use your graph to find out how long it took to produce 50 cm 3 of gas.

..

..

..

e) In each of the following questions, decide what would happen to the initial
rate of the reaction and to the total volume of gas given off if various
changes were made to the experiment.
i. The mass of dolomite and the volume and concentration of acid were kept
constant, but the dolomite was in one big lump instead of small bits.

..

..

..

ii. The mass of dolomite was unchanged and it was still in small pieces. 50
cm3 of hydrochloric acid was used, which had half the original
concentration.

..

..

..

..

iii. The dolomite was unchanged again. This time 25 cm 3 of the original acid
was used instead of 50 cm3.

..

..

..

..

iv. The acid was heated to 40oC before the dolomite was added to it.

..

..

..

..

## 2 The effect of concentration and temperature on the rate of a reaction can be

explored using the reaction between magnesium ribbon and dilute sulfuric acid:

Mg + H2SO4 MgSO4 + H2

## A student dropped a 2 cm length of magnesium ribbon into 25 cm 3 of dilute

sulfuric acid in a boiling tube (a large excess of acid). She stirred the contents of
the tube continuously and timed how long it took for the magnesium to disappear.
a) What would you expect to happen to the time taken for the reaction if she repeated the
experiment using the same length of magnesium with a mixture of 20 cm 3 of water?

..

..

..

..

..

..

b) What would you expect to happen to the time taken for the reaction if she repeated the
experiment using the original quantities of magnesium and acid, but first heated the
acid to 50oC? Explain your answer in terms of the collision theory.

..

..

..

..

## c) Why is it important to keep the reaction mixture stirred continuously?

..

..

3. Catalyst speed up reactions, but can be recovered chemically unchanged at the end of the
reaction.
a) Explain briefly how a catalyst as this effect on a reaction.

..

..

..

b) Describe how you would find out whether copper (II) oxide was a catalyst for the
decomposition of hydrogen peroxide solution. You need to show not only that it speeds
the reaction up, but that it is chemically unchanged at the end.
1. The diagrams show an atom and an ion.

## a) Which of the two structures represents an atom? Explain your choice.

..

..

..

..

b) Use the periodic table to help you write the symbol (including the charge) for the
structure representing an ion.

..

..

..

..

c) Complete the following table showing the relative masses and charges of the various
particles.
Particle Relative charge Relative mass
Proton +1
Neutron 0
Electron 1/1836
d) Find the elements strontium, Sr, and bromine, Br, in the periodic Table. How many
electrons are there in the outer level of each of these atoms?

..

..

..

e) Strontium combines with bromine to form strontium bromide. What happens to the
electrons in the outer levels when strontium atoms and bromine atoms combine t make
strontium bromide?

..

..

..

..

## f) What is the formula for strontium bromide?

..

g) Would you expect strontium bromide to have a high or a low melting point? Explain

..

..

..

..
2 a) Draw dots-and crosses diagrams to show the arrangement of the electrons in (i)
a chlorine atom, (ii) a chloride ion, (iii) a chlorine molecule

(i)

..

(ii)

..

(iii)

..

b) Dichloroethane, CH2Cl2, is a liquid with low boiling point used in point strippers.
Draw a dots-and crosses diagram to show the bonding in dichloromethane. You
need only show the electrons in the outer level of the atoms.

..

..

..

..

..

## c) Dichloromethane contains strong carbon-hydrogen and carbon-chlorine bonds.

Despite the presence of these strong bonds. Despite the presence of these strong
bonds, dichloromethane is a liquid. Explain why (2marks)

..

..

..

..

..

3
a) Which of the diagrams represents the arrangement of the particles in (i)
magnesium metal, (ii) solid sodium chloride (iii) diamond?

(i)

..

(ii)

..

(iii)

..

b) explain why:
i. Magnesium can be stretched to form magnesium ribbon.

..

..

..

..

..

..

## iv. Diamond is extremely hard.

..

..
c) i) state any one physical property of graphite which is different from
diamond.

..

..

..

..

ii) Explain how the difference arises from the arrangement of the atoms in
the two substances

..

..

..

4 In the nineteenth century, John Dalton put forward an atomic theory in which he
. suggested that atoms of a given element were all alike, but differed from the atoms
of other elements. He thought that elements combined in small whole number
ratios like 1:2 or 2:3, and that chemical reactions involves rearranging existing
atoms into different compounds.
a) Choose a compound with atoms arranged in the ratio1:2, and write its formula (1mark)

..
b) The law of conservation of mass of says that in a chemical reaction, matter is neither
created nor destroyed. Explain how that statement is consistent with Daltons theory. (2
marks)

..

..

..

..

c) In the twentieth century, a flaw was discovered in Daltons theory when it was found
that there were two different kinds of neon atoms (Ne), one with a mass number of 20
and the other a mass number of 22.
i. What name is given to these two different kinds of neon atom? (1 mark)

..

ii. Write down the numbers of protons, neutrons and electrons in each of these atoms.
(2 marks)

..

..

..

iii. Would you expect there to be any differences between the chemical properties of

..

..

..

..

## 5. In an experiment to investigate the rat of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide solution in

the presence of manganese (iv) oxide, 10 cm 3 of hydrogen peroxide solution was mixed
with 30 cm3 of water, and 0.2 g of manganese (iv) oxide was added. The volume of oxygen
evolved was measured at 60 s intervals. The results of this experiment are recorded in the
table below.
Time (s) 0 60 120 180 240 300
Volume 0 30 48 57 60 60
(cm )
3

a) Balance the equation for the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, including all the
appropriate state symbols.
H2O2 H2O + O2 (2 marks)

..

b) Copy and complete the diagram to show how the volume of oxygen might have been
measured.

..

..

c) Plot a graph of the results on a piece of graph paper, with time on the horizontal axis
and volume of oxygen on the vertical axis.

..

..

d) Use your graph to find out how long it took to produce 50 cm 3 of oxygen.

..

..

..

## e) Explain why the graph becomes horizontal after 240 s. (2 marks)

..

..

..

..
f) Suppose the experiment had been repeated using the same quantities of everything,
but with the reaction flask immersed in ice. Sketch the graph you would expect to get.
Use the same grid as in part (c). Label the new graph F.

..

..

..

g) On the same grid as in (c) and (f), sketch the graph you would expect to get if you
repeated the experiment at the original temperature using 5 cm3 of hydrogen peroxide
solution, 35 cm3 of water and 0.2 g of manganese (iv) oxide. Label this graph G.
(2 marks)
6. During the manufacture of nitric acid from ammonia, the ammonia is oxidized to nitrogen,
NO, by oxygen in the air.
NH3 + 5O2 4NO + 6H2O
The ammonia is mixed with air and passed through a stack of large circular gauzes made
of platinum-rhodium alloy at red heat (about 900oC). The platinum-rhodium gauzes act as
a catalyst for the reaction.
a) Gas particles have to colloid before they can react. Use the collision theory to help you
i. Because the gases are in contact with the catalyst for only a very short time, it is
important that the reaction happens as quickly as possible. Explain why increasing
the temperature to 900oC makes the reaction very fast.
(3 marks)

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

ii. Explain why the reaction rate can also be increased by increasing the pressure.

..

..

..

..

..

..

iii. Explain why the platinum-rhodium alloy is used as gauzes rather than as pellets.
b) Platinum and rhodium are extremely expensive metals. Explain why the manufacturer
can justify their initial cost. (2 marks)

..

..

..

..

..