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A6 The structures of

r than that of diamond.

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(c) Compare the electrical
A3 Diamond and graphite are allotropes of carbon. They are both composed of
macromolecules.

Diamond Graphite

(a) Explain the meaning of the following terms.

(i) allotropes

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(ii) macromolecule

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(b) Graphite is used to make lubricants for engines.


Explain, in terms of its structure, why graphite can act as a lubricant.

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(c) Give one use of diamond which depends on its hardness.

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1 The structures of some substances are shown below.


diamond and graphite are drawn below.

= carbon atom

Strong bonds

Weak bonds
Diamond graphite
(a) Name the type of strong bond shown on the diagram.

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(b) Diamond has a melting point of about 3700 C and graphite has a melting point of about
3300 C.

(i) Explain why both diamond and graphite have very high melting points.

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(ii) Suggest why the melting point of graphite is lowe

Na+ I Na+ I Na+

I
Na+ I Na+ I H H H
H

Na+ I Na+ I Na+ H C C C H
C
H H I Na+
Na+ H
I I
H
A B C
B
C
C C
C C C
C C C
C C C C
C C C
C C C

C C
C C C C
C C C C
C C C CC C CC
H Br C C C C
D E

(a) Answer these questions using the letters A, B, C, D or E.

(i) Which structure is methane? [1]

(ii) Which two structures are giant structures? and [1]

(iii) Which two structures are hydrocarbons? and [1]

(iv) Which structure contains ions? [1]

(v) Which two structures have very high melting points?

and
conductivity of diamond and graphite.
Explain your answer.

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5 A mixture of two calcium compounds C and D was tested.

C is partially soluble in water and D is soluble in

water. Complete the observations in the table.

tests observations

The mixture of C and D was added to


distilled water in a boiling tube. The
tube was shaken. The mixture was
filtered.

(a) The filtrate was divided into five


equal portions.

(i) To the first portion was


added drops of aqueous
sodium hydroxide, a little at
a time, with shaking.
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Excess aqueous sodium
hydroxide was added.
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(ii) To the second portion was
added excess aqueous
ammonia, a little at a time.
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(iii) To the third portion was
added dilute sodium
hydroxide and aluminium
powder. The mixture was
boiled and the gas tested
with damp litmus paper.
red litmus went blue
(iv) The pH of the fourth portion
was tested with Indicator
paper.
pH about 10
(v) Carbon dioxide was bubbled
through the fifth portion.
solution turned milky/cloudy

(b) Name the gas given off in (a)(iii).


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(c) Suggest an explanation for the observation in (a)(v).

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(d) What conclusions can you draw about the identity of the anions in solid C and D?


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