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IGCSE CHEMISTRY SET X (Periodic Table & Bonding)

B9 The Periodic Table is arranged in groups.

(a)
o show the bonding in lithium fluoride.
You should show all the electrons.

[2]
(ii) Explain why lithium fluoride conducts electricity when molten but not as a solid.

......................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

(iii) State one other physical property of lithium fluoride.

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

Total / 10
IGCSE CHEMISTRY SET X (Periodic Table)

A3 This question is about the Periodic Table.


The diagram below shows part of the original Periodic Table first published by Mendeleev in
1869.

Period 1 Period 2 Period 3 Period 4 Period 5


Group 1 H Li Na K Rb
Cu Ag
Group 2 Be Mg Ca Sr
Zn Cd
Group 3 B Al * Y
* In
Group 4 C Si Ti Zr
* Sn
Group 5 N P V Nb
As Sb
Group 6 O S Cr Mo
Se Te
Group 7 F Cl Mn *
Br I
The asterisks (*) show gaps in the table that Mendeleev deliberately left.

(a) Which group of elements in a modern Periodic Table is missing from Mendeleevs
Periodic Table?

......................................................................................................................................[1]

(b) Write two other differences between Mendeleevs original table and a modern Periodic
Table.

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................[2]

(c) Find rubidium, Rb, in the Periodic Table provided on page 16.
Predict the reaction between rubidium and cold
water. Include observations and the chemical
equation.

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................[3]
Total / 6
IGCSE CHEMISTRY SET X (Periodic Table)

A6 Lithium is in Group I of the Periodic Table.

Lithium reacts with water to form lithium hydroxide and hydrogen.

(a) Describe what you would observe when a small piece of lithium is dropped onto
the surface of cold water.

..........................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................[2]

(b) Write the equation for the reaction between lithium and water.

.....................................................................................................................................[1]

(c) When lithium reacts with water, lithium ions, Li+, are formed.

Explain why the formation of a lithium ion from a lithium atom is an example of oxidation.

..........................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................[1]

(d) Rubidium, Rb, is another element in Group I.

Predict what you would observe when a small piece of rubidium is dropped onto cold
water.

...

...

.. [3]
TOTAL / 7

Rubidium, Rb, is in Group I of the Periodic Table. It reacts with water according to the
equation below.

2Rb(s) + 2H2O(l) 2RbOH(aq) + H2(g)

Predict what you would see when a small piece of rubidium is added to cold water.

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................[3]
(b) Chlorine is in Group VII of the Periodic Table.

Chlorine, Cl2, reacts with aqueous sodium bromide.


(i) Predict what you would see in this reaction.

......................................................................................................................................[1]

(ii) Write a balanced ionic equation for this reaction.

......................................................................................................................................[1]

(c) Lithium reacts with fluorine to form lithium fluoride.

(i) Draw a dot and cross diagram t


IGCSE CHEMISTRY SET X (Periodic Table)

A6 Chlorine is in Group VII of the Periodic Table.


Chlorine reacts with aqueous potassium iodide to form potassium chloride and iodine.

(a) Describe what you would see when chlorine is added to aqueous potassium iodide.

..........................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................[1]

(b) Write the equation for the reaction between chlorine and potassium iodide.

......................................................................................................................................[1]

(c) When chlorine reacts with potassium iodide, iodine molecules are formed.

2I I2 + 2e

Explain why the formation of an iodine molecule from iodide ions is an


example of oxidation.

......................................................................................................................................
....

......................................................................................................................................
[1]

(d) Astatine is another element in Group VII. It is highly radioactive and so is


very difficult to study.

(i) Predict, with reasons, whether astatine will react with aqueous potassium
iodide.

..................................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................[1]
(ii) Write the equation for the reaction between astatine and sodium.

..................................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................

[1]

[Total: 5]
IGCSE CHEMISTRY SET X (Periodic Table, Structure)

B9 This question is about the chemistry of the elements in Period 3 of the Periodic Table.

(a) Compare the reactions of sodium and of magnesium with cold water. In each case identify
the products formed.

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................[3]
(b) Draw electronic structures, including the charges, of the ions present in sodium oxide.
Hence deduce the formula for sodium oxide.

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................[2]

(c) Write an equation for the formation of aluminium oxide from its elements.

......................................................................................................................................[1]

(d) Pure sand is silicon(IV) oxide. It has a giant molecular structure similar to that of diamond.
Suggest two physical properties of silicon(IV) oxide.

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................[2]

(e) Chlorine(VII) oxide, Cl2O7, has a simple molecular structure.


Suggest one physical and one chemical property of Cl2O7.

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................[2]

[Total: 10]

IGCSE CHEMISTRY SET X (Periodic Table & Atomic Structure)

A3 A student found a copy of a Periodic Table published in the year 1930. Several elements were
missing from this table because they had not yet been discovered. One of these elements was
technetium, Tc.
98
One isotope of technetium has the symbol 43 Tc.

(a) Complete the table below to show the number of subatomic particles in one atom of this
isotope.

number of protons

number of electrons

number of neutrons
[2]

(b) Suggest the symbol of another isotope of technetium.

...................................................................................................................................... [1]
98
(c) Explain, in terms of subatomic particles and their charge, why an atom of 43Tc is
electrically neutral.

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]
(d) From its position in the modern Periodic Table predict two properties of technetium.

1 .......................................................................................................................................

2 ...................................................................................................................................

[2]

[Total

: 7]
IGCSE CHEMISTRY SET X (Periodic Table & Bonding)

A4 Potassium, atomic number 19, is an element in Group I.

(a) Describe what you observe when a small piece of potassium is added to water.

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................[2]

(b) Potassium fluoride is an ionic solid with a high melting point.

(i) Draw a dot and cross diagram to show the bonding in potassium fluoride.
You only need to show the outer (valence) electrons.

(ii) Explain why the melting point of potassium fluoride is very high.

...................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................... [3]

(c) Caesium, atomic number 55, is

n the outer shells of five elements, A to E.


All elements are from Period 3 of the Periodic Table.

(a)
P
u
t

t
h
e

l
e
t
t
e
r
s

A
to E in the table to show which elements are metals and iodide

which are non- metals. Yo


ur
an
metals non-metals sw
er
sh
oul
elements d
incl
ud
e
[2]
det
ails
(b) Which element is most likely to be in Group VI?
of
which
.....................................................................................................................................
of the
[1]
reagent
(c) Which element will form an ion of the type X2+? s you
would
..................................................................................................................................... use in
[1] each
experim
(d) Which element has an atomic number of 15? ent,
a
..................................................................................................................................... table
[1] showing
the
(e) Which two elements will form an ionic compound with a formula of the type YZ2? observa
tions
..................................................................................................................................... you
[1] would
expect
[Total: 6 marks] to see,
the
IGCSE CHEMISTRY SET X (Periodic Table- Halogen) equatio
ns for
B9 Chlorine, bromine and iodine are elements in Group VII of the Periodic Table. any
reaction
(a) Describe how you would carry out a series of experiments to show the trend in s.
reactivity of these three elements, using the reagents shown below. [7]

aqueous chlorine aqueous potassium


chloride aqueous bromine aqueous potassium
bromide aqueous iodine aqueous potassium
......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [7]

(b) Chlorine reacts with water to make a solution that can be used as a bleach.
The equation is shown below.

Cl 2
+ H2O HCl + ClOH
Use oxidation numbers to show that chlorine is both oxidised and reduced in this reaction.

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [3]
[Total:10 marks]

IGCSE CHEMISTRY SET X (Periodic Table & Bonding, Test)

A3 Germanium, Ge, is an element in Group IV of the Periodic Table. Some of its chemistry
resembles that of carbon.

(a) How many electrons does an atom of germanium have in its outer shell?

......................................................................................................................................[1]

(b) Germanium forms a range of saturated compounds with hydrogen. These compounds
resemble the alkanes.

(i) Predict the general molecular formula for these compounds.

..............................................................................................................................[1]

(ii) Germanoethane, Ge2H6, has a similar structure to ethane.


Draw the full structural formula for germanoethane.

[1]

(iii) Hydrochloric acid reacts with magnesium germanide, Mg2Ge, to form


germanomethane, GeH4, and magnesium chloride.
Write an equation for this reaction.

[1]

(c) Germanium(IV) oxide, GeO2, is an amphoteric oxide.


What do you understand by the term amphoteric?

......................................................................................................................................[1]
(d) An aqueous solution of germanium(II) chloride reduces iron(III) ions to iron(II) ions.
Describe a test for iron(II) ions and give the result.

test ................................................................................................................................... result

............................................................................................................................[2] [Total: 7]
another element in Group I.

Use your knowledge of Group I elements to complete the table of information for
caesium.

symbol Cs

number of electrons in outer shell

formula of caesium oxide

names of products of the reaction


between caesium and water
[3]

(d) The reaction between caesium and water is more vigorous than the reaction between
potassium and water.
Explain why this is so.

..........................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................[2]
Total / 10
IGCSE CHEMISTRY SET X (Periodic Table & Bonding)

A7 Phosphorus is a non-metal.

This diagram shows the structure of one molecule of phosphorus(III) oxide. c


h
l
o
P r
i
n
e
.
O (
a
)
W
(a) (i) Give the molecular formula of phosphorus(III) oxide. ri
t
.............................................................................................................................. e
..... a
n
(ii) Give the empirical formula of phosphorus(III) oxide. e
q
.............................................................................................................................. u
.[2] a
ti
(b) Explain why phosphorus(III) oxide has the properties given below. o
n
Property 1 Phosphorus(III) oxide is acidic f
o
explanation .................................................................................................................. r
..... t
h
..................................................................................................................................... i
..... s
r
Property 2 Phosphorus(III) oxide has a low melting point. e
a
explanation .................................................................................................................. c
..... ti
o
..................................................................................................................... n
.
..................... Property 3 Phosphorus(III) oxide will not conduct
.....
electricity when molten. explanation .....
.....
...................................................................................................................... .....
.....
. .....
.....
.....
.....................................................................................................................................
.....
.[3]
.....
.....
IGCSE CHEMISTRY SET X (Periodic Table)
.....
1 These diagrams show the electron arrangement i .....
.....
IGCSE CHEMISTRY SET X (Periodic Table-Bromine & Test) .....
.....
A5 Bromine is extracted by reacting the potassium bromide in seawater with .....
................................................. [1]

(b) The bromine is purified by treatment with sulfur dioxide.


Describe a test for sulfur dioxide.

test ..................................................................................................

result ...............................................................................................

[2]

(c) Bromine is a halogen.


Complete the table to estimate both the density and boiling point of bromine.

density of solid boiling point


halogen
halogen in g/cm3 / C

fluorine 1.51 188

chlorine 1.56 35

bromine

iodine 4.93 184


[2]

(d) Bromine is a liquid with a low boiling point and a strong


smell.
A technician spilt some bromine in the corner of a room which is free of draughts.
After thirty seconds the bromine could be smelt on the other side of the room.

technician

bromine spillage

Fig
.2

Use the kinetic particle theory to explain why the bromine could be smelt on the
other side of the room.

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................
[3]
[Total
: 8]
IGCSE CHEMISTRY SET X (Periodic Table & Structure)

5 The halogens are a group of diatomic non-metals showing a trend in colour, state and
reactivity.

(a) In this description, what is the meaning of

(i) diatomic, [1]

(ii) state?

[1]
(b) The table gives some information about some of the halogens.

melting point boiling point state at room


element colour
/ oC / oC temperature

chlorine -101 -35 green

bromine -7 +59

iodine +114 grey-black

(i) Complete the last column in the table to show the state of each of the
halogens at room temperature.

[2]

(ii) State the colour of bromine.

[1]

(iii) Suggest a value for the boiling point of iodine.

[1]

(c) Complete the word equation for the reaction of chlorine with potassium

iodide. chlorine + potassium

iodide +

[2]

(d) (i) Draw a diagram to show the electronic structure of a chlorine molecule.
Show only the outer electrons.
[2]

(ii) State a use of chlorine.

(e) The structures of some substances containing halogens are shown below.
[1]

Na+ Cl Na+ Cl

Cl Na+ Cl Na+ F
F Br
Na+ Cl Na+ Cl H F
Br
Cl
Br

A B C D

(i) Which one of these structures, A, B, C or D, shows an element?


[1]

(ii) Which one of these structures forms hydrochloric acid when dissolved in
water?

(iii) Complete the following sentence.

Structure B conducts electricity when it is molten because


[1]

(f) Astatine, At, is below iodine in Group VII of the Periodic Table.

(i) In which Period of the Periodic Table is astatine?


[1]

(ii) How many protons does astatine have in its nucleus?

W
h
a
t

(iii) Astatine has many isotopes. d


o you understand by the term isotopes? [1]

[1]

(iv) The most common isotope of astatine has a nucleon number (mass number) of
210.
Calculate the number of neutrons in this isotope of astatine.

[1]
Tot
al /
17
IGCSE CHEMISTRY SET X (Periodic Table, Bonding and Test)

3 The electronic structures of various atoms are shown below.

A B
C

(a) (i) Which one of these structures A to E represents a noble gas?

[1]

(ii) Which two of these structures represent atoms from the same Group of the
Periodic Table?

and [1]

(iii) Which one of these structures represents an atom with an atomic number of 8?

[1]

(iv) Which one of these structures forms a stable ion by gaining one electron?

[1]

(v) Which one of these structures is in Period 3 of the Periodic Table?

[1]
(b) Complete the following sentences using words from the list.
m
ol
chlorine diamond high low e
c
sharing sodium strong transfer ul
e.
weak

Covalent bonds are formed by the of pairs of electrons.

Simple covalent molecules such as and bromine have

melting points. Giant covalent structures such as have many

bonds and have high melting points.

[5]

(c) The simplest covalent molecule is hydrogen.

(i) Draw a diagram to show how the electrons are arranged in a hydrogen
[1]
(ii) Describe a test for

hydrogen. test

result [2]

Total / 13

IGCSE CHEMISTRY SET X (Periodic Table- Halogen)

6 The halogens are a group of elements showing trends in colour, state and reaction with other
halide ions.

(a) Complete the word equation for the reaction of chlorine with aqueous
potassium bromide.

chlorine + potassium bromide + [2]

(b) Explain why an aqueous solution of iodine does not react with potassium chloride.

[1]
(c) The table shows the properties of some halogens.

halogen state at room colour boiling point / C density of solid /


-3
temperature g cm

fluorine gas yellow 1.51

chlorine green 35 1.56

bromine liquid red-brown 59

iodine solid 184 4.93

(i) Complete the missing spaces in the table. [2]

(ii) Suggest values for

the boiling point of fluorine,

the density of bromine. [2]

(d) How many electrons does an atom of fluorine have

(i) in total,

(ii) in its outer shell? [2]

(e) State a use for chlorine.

1]

[Tota

l:

10]
IGCSE CHEMISTRY SET X (Periodic Table-halogen, Structure and diffusion)

6 Bromine is an element in Group VII of the Periodic Table.

(a) Write the formula for a molecule of bromine.


are
[1] sh
ow
n
(b) Complete the diagram below to show the arrangement of the bel
molecules in liquid bromine. ow
.
represents a bromine molecule

[2]

(c) A teacher placed a small amount of liquid bromine

A B C D

Na+ Na+ Br Br Br
Br Br
Br
F F
Na+ Br Na+ H Br
Br Br Zn2 Zn2+
+

Na+ Br Br Br
+
Na Br

Br Br
F 2
2+
Zn
+
Zn
Br Na+ Br Na+

(i) Write the simplest formula for the substance with structure A.
[1]

(ii) State the name of the substance with structure D.

[1]

(iii) State the type of bonding within a molecule of structure C.


[1]

(iv) Which two structures are giant structures?

and [1]

(v) Why does structure A conduct electricity when it is molten?

[1]

[Total: 14]
IGCSE chemistry SET X (Periodic Table)

1 The diagram shows part of the Periodic Table.


Only some of the elements are shown.

Li
Na Mg
K Ca Ti V
Zr Nb

(a) Answer the following questions by choosing only from the elements shown in
the diagram.
You can use each element once, more than once or not at all.

(i) State the names of two transition elements shown in the diagram.

.......................................................... and ......................................................... [2]

(ii) State the name of an element which is in Period 3 of the Periodic Table.

.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(iii) Which element has the electronic structure 2,8,1?

.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(iv) Which element has the fastest reaction with water?

.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(v) Which element has 23 protons in its nucleus?


in the bottom of a sealed gas jar of air. After two minutes brown fumes were seen
just above the liquid surface. After one hour the brown colour had spread
completely throughout the gas jar.

air

liq
ui
d
br
o
mi
ne

start after 2 minutes after

Use the kinetic particle theory to explain these observations.


[3]
(d) Magnesium salts are colourless but Group VII elements are coloured.
An aqueous solution of magnesium bromide reacts with an aqueous solution of
chlorine.

magnesium bromide + chlorine magnesium chloride + bromine

State the colour change in this reaction.

[2]

(e) A solution of magnesium bromide will not react with iodine.


Explain why there is no reaction.

[1]

(f) The structures of some compounds containing bromine


.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(b) Sodium reacts with oxygen to form sodium peroxide, Na2 O .


2
Complete the symbol equation for this reaction.

............... Na + ............... Na2 O


2

[2]
[Total: 8]
IGCSE chemistry SET X (Periodic Table & Bonding)

3 Use the Periodic Table to help you answer these questions.

(a) Tellurium, Te, is in Group VI of the Periodic Table. (


d
In which Period is tellurium? )
S
..................................................................................................................................... t
.[1] a
t
(b) What determines the order of the elements in the Periodic Table? e
t
..................................................................................................................................... h
.[1] e
n
a
m
e
o
f
a
m
e
t
a
lli
c
e
l
(c) How many electrons does an atom of tellurium have in its outer shell? e
m
..................................................................................................................................... e
.[1] n
t which is in the same Period as tellurium. ex
ce
..................................................................................................................................... ss
.[1] chl
ori
(e) Tellurium reacts with excess chlorine to form tellurium(IV) chloride, TeCl4. ne.

(i) Chlorine is a diatomic molecule. Te +


... Cl2
Explain what is meant by [1]

1 diatomic,
............................................................................................................

2. molecule.
...........................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
.[3]

(ii) Complete the following equation for the reaction between tellurium and
Total / 8

IGCSE chemistry SET X (Periodic Table-halogen)

4 Bromine is an element in Group VII of the Periodic Table.

(a) State the name given to the Group VII elements.

......................................................................................................................................
[1]

(b) Bromine has two isotopes.


The nucleon (mass) number of bromine-79 is 79 and of bromine-81 is 81.

(i) What is the meaning of the term isotopes?

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

(ii) Complete the table to show the numbers of electrons, neutrons and protons in
one atom of bromine-79 and bromine-81. A copy of the Periodic Table is
printed on page 20.

number of bromine-79 bromine-81

electrons

neutrons

protons
[5]
(c) Bromine is extracted from seawater by treatment with chlorine.
When chlorine is bubbled through a solution of potassium bromide, the solution (i)
turns orange-red. Wh
at
doe
s
this
tell
you about the reactivity of chlorine compared with bromine?

...................................................................................................................................
[2]
(ii) Write a word equation for this reaction.

(d) In order to get the maximum yield of bromine from seawater, acid is added during the extraction
procedure.
The graph shows how the yield of bromine changes with pH.

100

80

yield of 60
bromine
%
40

20

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
pH

(i) What is the highest pH at which the yield of bromine is 100%?

...................................................................................................................................

(ii) The pH scale is used to measure acidity.


Some pH values are given below.

pH 3 pH 5 pH 7 pH 9 pH 11

From this list of pH values choose

the pH which is most acidic. .....................................................................................

the pH of a neutral solution. ......................................................................................


[3]
(e) Bromine water can be used to distinguish between ethane and ethene.

H H HC H H

CH CC
H H H H
ethane ethene

Describe what you would observe when bromine water is added to ethene.

..........................................................................................................................................
[1]
Total / 12
IGCSE chemistry SET X (Periodic Table-G1 & Radioactivity)

1 The table below gives some information about the elements in Group I of the Periodic Table.

element boiling point / oC density / g cm 3 radius of atom in reactivity with


the metal / nm water

lithium 1342 0.53 0.157

sodium 883 0.97 0.191 rapid

potassium 760 0.86 0.235 very rapid

rubidium 1.53 0.250 extremely rapid

caesium 669 1.88 explosive

(a) How does the density of the Group I elements change down the Group?

[2]

(b) Suggest a value for the boiling point of rubidium.

[1]

(c) Suggest a value for the radius of a caesium atom.

[1]

(d) Use the information in the table to suggest how fast lithium reacts with water
compared with the other Group I metals.

[1]

(e) State three properties shown by all


metals.

1.

2.

3. [3]

(f) When sodium reacts with water, hydrogen is given off.

2Na(s) + 2H20(I) 2Na0H(aq) +


H2(g)

(i) State the name of the other product formed in this reaction.
[ (ii)
1
] D

.
test

resuIt [2]

(g) The diagrams beIow show three types of hydrogen atom.

+ + +
n nn

hydrogen deuterium tritium

(i) State the name of the positiveIy charged particIe in the nucIeus.

[1]

(ii) What is the name given to atoms with the same number of positive charges
in the nucIeus but different numbers of neutrons?

[1]

(iii) State

[1]
(ii) Complete the equation to show what happens when a sodium atom forms a
sodium ion.

+
Na Na + [1]
(d) Complete these sentences about the properties of the Group I elements using words from
the list.
Total /
acidic basic decrease hard
12
increase lithium potassium soft
IGCSE
che
mist
ry
The Group I elements are relatively metals which SET
X
in reactivity going down the Group. (Per
iodi
Sodium reacts more violently with water than . The Group I metals all form c
Tabl
oxides. e-
Bro
[4] min
e)

4 Bromine is one of the halogens in Group VII.

(a) (i) Predict which halogen has the lightest colour.

...............................................................................................................................[1]

(ii) Predict which halogens are solids at room temperature.

...............................................................................................................................[1]

(b) Bromine is obtained from the bromide ions in sea water. Sea water is concentrated
by evaporation. Chlorine gas is bubbled through the solution. Chlorine
oxidises the bromide ion to bromine.

(i) Complete the following equation.

Cl +
................... + .................. [2]
2

......Br

(ii) Explain using the idea of electron transfer why the bromide ion is oxidised
by chlorine.

The bromide ion is oxidised because ........................................................................

..............................................................................................................................

..... Chlorine is the oxidising agent because

....................................................................

...............................................................................................................................[2]

(iii) Name a reagent that can be oxidised by bromine molecules.

...............................................................................................................................[1]

(c) Bromine reacts with phosphorus to form phosphorus tribromide.


Draw a diagram showing the arrangement of the valency electrons in one molecule
of this covalent compound. The electron distribution of bromine is:
2 + 8 + 18 + 7.

Use x to represent an electron from phosphorus.


Use o to represent an electron from bromine. [3]

(d) Phosphorus tribromide reacts with water to form two acids.

(i) Balance the equation for this reaction.


[1]
PBr3 + ......H2O
......HBr + H3PO3

(ii) Describe by giving essential details how you could show that
phosphorous acid, H3PO3, is a weaker acid than hydrogen bromide.

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................[2]

(e) Hydrogen bromide is an acid. When it is dissolved in water the following


reaction occurs.

HBr + H O
2 H O+ 3+ Br

(i) Name the particle lost by the hydrogen bromide molecule.

...............................................................................................................................[1]

(ii) What type of reagent is the water molecule in this reaction?

...............................................................................................................................[1]

IGCSE chemistry SET X (Periodic Table-G-2)

2 Calcium and other minerals are essential for healthy teeth and bones. Tablets can be taken to
provide these minerals.
Healthy
Bones
Each tablet
contains
calcium
magnesi
um zinc
copper
boron
(a) Boron is a non-metal with a macromolecular structure.

(i) What is the valency of boron?

...........................................................................

(ii) Predict two physical properties of boron.

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

(iii) Name another element and a compound that have macromolecular

structures. element ..

compound

(iv) Sketch the structure of one of the above macromolecular substances.

[7]

(b) Describe the reactions, if any, of zinc and copper(II) ions with an excess of aqueous sodium
hydroxide.
....
(i) zinc ions
.....
addition of aqueous sodium hydroxide .....................................................................
.....

.....

.....
........................................................................................................... excess sodium

hydroxide ..........................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

(ii) copper(II) ions

addition of aqueous sodium hydroxide .....................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

excess sodium hydroxide ..........................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................[4]

(c) Each tablet contains the same number of moles of CaCO3 and MgCO3. One tablet
reacted with excess hydrochloric acid to produce 0.24 dm3 of carbon dioxide at r.t.p.

CaCO3 + 2HCl CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O MgCO3 +


2HCl MgCl2 + CO2 + H2O

(i) Calculate how many moles of CaCO3 there are in one tablet.

number of moles CO2 = .............. number of

moles of CaCO3 and MgCO3 = .............. number of moles of CaCO3 =

..............

[3]
the number of nucIeons in a singIe atom of tritium.

[1]

(iv) Tritium is a radioactive form of hydrogen.

State one medicaI use of radioactivity.

[1]
Total
/ 15
IGCSE chemistry SET X (Periodic Table & Bonding)

1 (a) The table gives some information about five elements, A, B, C, D and E.
Complete the table by writing either metal or non-metal in the last column.

element properties metal or non-metal

A shiny solid which conducts electricity

B reddish brown liquid with a low boiling point

a form of carbon which is black in colour and conducts


C
electricity

white solid which is an insulator and has a high melting


D
point

E dull yellow solid which does not conduct heat

[5]

(b) Describe how metallic character changes across a Period.


[1]

(c) Sodium is in Group I of the Periodic Table.

(i) Draw a diagram to show the full electronic structure of sodium.

(ii) Calculate the volume of hydrochloric acid, 1.0 mol / dm3, needed to react with one
tablet.

number of moles of CaCO3 and MgCO3 in one tablet = ..............


Use your answer to (c)(i).

number of moles of HCl needed to react with one tablet = ..............

volume of hydrochloric acid, 1.0 mol / dm3, needed to


react with one tablet = .............. [2]
IGCSE chemistry SET X (Periodic Table-Period 6)

5 The first three elements in Period 6 of the Periodic Table of the Elements are caesium, barium
and lanthanum.
ato
(a) How many more protons, electrons and neutrons are there in one atom of m.
lanthanum than in one atom of caesium. Use your copy of the Periodic Table of Us
the Elements to help you. eo
to
number of protons ................................................ rep
res
number of electrons ................................................ ent
an
number of neutrons ................................................ ele
ctr
[3] on
fro
(b) All three metals can be obtained by the electrolysis of a molten halide. The m
electrolysis of the aqueous halides does not produce the metal. a
chl
(i) Complete the equation for the reduction of lanthanum ions at the ori
negative electrode (cathode). ne
ato
3+ m.
La + ................
................

(ii) Name the three products formed by the electrolysis of aqueous caesium
bromide.

...................................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................

.[4] (c) All three metals react with cold water. Complete the word equation for these

reactions. metal + water ................................. + ............................. [2] [2]

(d) Barium chloride is an ionic compound. Draw a diagram that shows the formula of
the compound, the charges on the ions and gives the arrangement of the valency
electrons around the negative ion.
The electron distribution of a barium atom is 2.8.18.18.8.2

Use x to represent an electron from a barium

(e) Describe, by means of a simple diagram, the lattice structure of an ionic compound, such as
caesium chloride.

[2]

(
f
)

T
h
e reactions of these metals with oxygen are exothermic.

2Ba(s) + O2(g) 2BaO(s)

(i) Give an example of bond forming in this reaction.

...................................................................................................................................

(ii) Explain using the idea of bond breaking and forming why this reaction is
exothermic.

...................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................[3]

IGCSE chemistry SET X (Periodic Table-Group VII & Tests)

1 Three of the halogens in Group VII are:


chlorin bromin
e e iodine

(a) (i) How does their colour change down the Group?
[1]

(ii) How does their physical state (solid, liquid or gas) change down the
Group?

(iii)

o
[1]
lour and physical state of fluorine. colour

physical state [2]

(b) Describe how you could distinguish between aqueous potassium bromide and
aqueous potassium iodide.

test

result with bromide

result with iodide [3]

(c) 0.015 moles of iodine react with 0.045 moles of chlorine to form 0.030 moles of a
single product. Complete the equation.

I2 + Cl2 [2]

(d) Traces of chlorine can be separated from bromine vapour by diffusion.


Which gas would diffuse the faster and why?

[2]

IGCSE chemistry SET X (Periodic Table-Iron)

1 Iron is a transition element.

(a) Which of the following statements about transition


used or formed in the extraction.

carbon monoxide coke iron ore limestone


slag

(i) Which substance is a mineral containing largely calcium carbonate?

[1]

(ii) Which substance is formed when impurities in the ore react with calcium oxide?

[1]

(iii) Which substance is also called hematite?

[1]
(d) State two functions of the coke used in the blast furnace.

[2]

(e) Most of the iron is converted into mild steel or stainless steel. Give one use for

each. mild steel

stainless steel [2]

4 Use your copy of the periodic table to help you answer these questions.

(a) Predict the formula of each of the following compounds.


[2]

(i) barium oxide (


[1] ii
)
G
(ii) boron oxide i
[1] v
e
t
(b) Give the formula of the following ions. w
o
d
(i) sulphide i
[1] f
f
e
r
(ii) gallium
e
[1]
n
c
(c) Draw a diagram showing the arrangement of the valency electrons in one e
molecule of the covalent compound nitrogen trichloride. s
i
n
t
h
e
i
r
c
h
e
Use x to represent an electron from a nitrogen atom. m
Use o to represent an electron from a chlorine atom. i
c
[3] a
l
p
(d) Potassium and vanadium are elements in Period IV. r
o
(i) State two differences in their physical properties. p
e
r
ties.

[2]


. [2]

(e) Fluorine and astatine are halogens. Use your knowledge of the other halogens to predict the
following:

(i) The physical state of fluorine at r.t.p.


[2
The physical state of astatine at r.t.p.

[2]

(ii) Two similarities in their chemical properties

IGCSE chemistry SET X (Periodic Table-Period 4)

1 For each of the following select an element from Period 4, potassium to krypton, that
matches the description.

[Total:
(a) It is a brown liquid at room temperature. 7]

(b) It forms a compound with hydrogen having the formula XH4.

(c) A metal that reacts violently with cold water.

(d) It has a complete outer energy

level. (e) It has oxidation states of 2

and 3 only. (f) It can form an ion of-

the type X .

(g) One of its oxides is the catalyst in the Contact Process.


elements are correct?

Tick three boxes.

The metals are highly coloured e.g. yellow, green, blue.

The metals have low melting points.

Their compounds are highly coloured.

Their compounds are colourless.

The elements and their compounds are often used as catalysts.

They have more than one oxidation state.

[3]

(b) (i) In which Period in the Periodic Table is iron to be found?

[1]

(ii) Use the Periodic Table to work out the number of protons and the
number of neutrons in one atom of iron.

number of protons = number of neutrons = [1]

(c) Iron is extracted in a blast furnace. The list below gives some of the substances

IGCSE chemistry SET X (Periodic Table)

1 For each of the following unfamiliar elements predict one physical and one chemical
property.
(c)
(a) caesium (Cs) flu
ori
physical property ne
(F)
.............................................................................................................. chemical
p
property .............................................................................................................
h
....................................................................................................................................
. [2] y

(b) vanadium (V) s

physical property i

.............................................................................................................. chemical c

property ............................................................................................................. a

.................................................................................................................................... l
. [2]
p
roperty .............................................................................................................. .

chemical property [

............................................................................................................. 2

.................................................................................................................................... ]

[Total: 6]

6 Thallium is a metal in Group III. It has oxidation states of +1 and +3.

(a) Give the formula for the following thallium compounds.

(i) thallium(I)
sulfide .................................................................................................. [1]

(ii) thallium(III) chloride .............................................................................................


[1]

(b) Thallium(I) chloride is insoluble in water. Complete the description of the


preparation of a pure sample of this salt.

Step 1

Mix a solution of sodium chloride with thallium(I) sulfate solution. A white


precipitate forms.

Step 2
(i)
.................................................................................................................................... N
. [1] a
m
Step 3 e
a
.................................................................................................................................... n
. [1] o
t
Step 4 h
e
.................................................................................................................................... r
. [1] m
e
(c) When thallium(I) chloride is exposed to light, a photochemical reaction occurs. It t
changes from a white solid to a violet solid. a
l
h
a
li
d
e
w
h
ic
h
c
h
a
n
g
es colour when exposed to light. Give the major use of this metal halide.

name ...................................................................................................................

.......

use ......................................................................................................................

. [2]

(ii) A piece of paper coated with thallium(I) chloride is exposed to a bright light.

paper coated
with
thallium(I)
chloride

l
a
m
p

Suggest two ways of increasing the time it takes for the violet colour to appear.

....................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................. [2]

(d) Thallium(I) hydroxide is an alkali. It has similar properties to sodium hydroxide.

(i) Complete the following word equation.

thallium(I ammoniu ..................... + ...................... .....................


) m . + .
hydroxid +
sulfate
e ..................... [1]
.

(ii) Complete the equation.

............ Tl OH + H2SO4 .................. [2]


+ ..................

(iii) Aqueous thallium(I) hydroxide was added to aqueous iron(II) sulfate. Describe
what you would see and complete the ionic equation for the reaction.

observation ................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................[1]
equation Fe2+ + ....... OH ................ [1]

[Total: 14]

2 Manganese is a transition element. It has more than one valency and the metal and its
compounds are catalysts.

(a) (i) Predict three other properties of manganese that are typical of transition mangan
elements. ese(II)
+
.............................................................................................................................. hydroch
..... loric
.......
.............................................................................................................................. .............
.[3] ...........
+ ........
(ii) Complete the electron distribution of manganese by inserting one number. .............
..........
2 + 8 + .......... + 2 oxide
acid
[1]

(b) It has several oxides, three of which are shown below.


Manganese(II) oxide, which is basic.
Manganese(III) oxide, which is
amphoteric. Manganese(IV) oxide,
which is acidic.

(i) Complete the word equation.


...............................
[2]

(ii) Which, if any, of these oxides will react with sodium hydroxide?

...............................................................................................................................[1]
(c) Aqueous hydrogen peroxide decomposes to form water and oxygen.

2H2O2(aq) 2H2O(l) +

O2(g) This reaction is catalysed by manganese(IV)

oxide

The following experiments were carried out to investigate the rate of this
reaction.

A 0.1 g sample of manganese(IV) oxide was added to 20 cm3 of 0.2 M


hydrogen peroxide solution. The volume of oxygen produced was measured every
minute. The results of this experiment are shown on the graph.

volume of
oxygen /
cm3

0
0
time / min

(i) How does the rate of reaction vary with time? Explain why the rate varies.

...................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................[3]

(ii) The following experiment was carried out at the same temperature.

0.1 g of manganese(IV) oxide and 20 cm3 of 0.4 M hydrogen peroxide

Sketch the curve for this experiment on the same grid. [2]
(iii) How would the shape of the graph differ if only half the mass of catalyst had been used
in these experiments?
.[2]
..............................................................................................................................
.....

..............................................................................................................................
.....

..............................................................................................................................

IGCSE chemistry SET X (Periodic Table-Period 3)

3 The elements in Period 3 and some of their common oxidation states are shown below.

Element Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
Oxidation
State +1 +2 +3 +4 3 2 1 0

(a) (i) Why do the oxidation states increase from sodium to silicon?

...............................................................................................................................[1]

(ii) After Group(IV) the oxidation states are negative and decrease across the period.
Explain why.

...................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................[2]

(b) The following compounds contain two elements. Predict their

formulae. aluminium sulphide ............................................

silicon phosphide ............................................ [2]

(c) Choose a different element from Period 3 that matches each description.

(i) It has a similar structure to diamond.

...............................................................................................................................[1]

(ii) It reacts violently with cold water to form a solution pH = 14.

...............................................................................................................................[1]

(iii) It has a gaseous oxide of the type XO2, which is acidic.

...............................................................................................................................[1]

(d) The only oxidation state of argon is zero. Why it is used to fill light bulbs?

..........................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................[1]

(e) Draw a diagram that shows the arrangement of the valency electrons in the ionic
compound sodium phosphide.
(iv
)
M
Use o to represent an electron from sodium. as
Use x to represent an electron from phosphorus. s
of
[3] su
lp
(f) Sodium reacts with sulphur to form sodium sulphide. hu
r
2Na + S lef
Na2S t
un
re
An 11.5 g sample of sodium is reacted with 10 g of sulphur. All of the sodium
ac
reacted but there was an excess of sulphur.
te
Calculate the mass of sulphur left unreacted.
d
=
(i) Number of moles of sodium atoms reacted
....
= ..................... [2 moles of Na react with 1 mole of S] ....
....
(ii) Number of moles of sulphur atoms that reacted = .................. ....
.g
(iii) Mass of sulphur reacted = ...................g [4]

IGCSE chemistry SET X (Periodic Table Group IV)

5 The first three elements in Group IV are carbon, silicon and germanium.
The elements and their compounds have similar properties.

(a) The compound, silicon carbide, has a macromolecular structure similar to


that of diamond.
(i) A
m
aj
or
us
e
of
si
li
c
o
n
c
ar
bi
d
e
is
to
re
in
fo
rc
e
al
u
m
in
iu
m
al
lo
ys
w
hi
c
h
ar
e
u
s
e
d
in
th
e
c
o
n
st
ru
ct
io
n
of
s
p
a
c
e
cr
af
t.
S
uggest three of its physical properties.

[3]

(ii) Complete the following description of the structure of silicon carbide.

Each carbon atom is bonded to four atoms.

Each silicon atom is bonded to carbon atoms. [2]

(b) Germanium(IV) oxide, GeO2, has the same macromolecular structure as silicon(IV)
oxide. Draw the structural formula of germanium(IV) oxide.

[3]
(c) Germanium forms a series of hydrides comparable to the alkanes.

(i) Draw the structural formula of the hydride which contains four germanium
atoms per molecule.

[1]
(ii) Predict the products of the complete combustion of this
hydride.

[2]

[Total: 11]
10 Look at this part of the Periodic Table.

It shows the symbols of three elements in Group 1 of the Periodic Table.

Li

Na

The names of the three elements are lithium, sodium and potassium.

(a) What is the name of the elements in Group 1?

Choose from alkali metals


halogens
noble gases
transition elements

answer ...................................................................................................................................[1]

(b) Put lithium, sodium and potassium in order of reactivity.

Write the most reactive element first.

most reactive ....................................................................

....................................................................

least reactive .................................................................... [1]

(c)
Meena wants to identify metals.
She uses a flame test.

(i) Describe how Meena does the flame test.

You may draw a diagram to help your answer.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[2]

(ii) Look at the table. It shows Meenas results.

Complete this table.

metal flame colour

sodium ....................................
lithium red

potassium lilac
[1]

[Total: 5]
10 This question is about the halogens and their reactions.

(a) Write down two uses of chlorine.

1 ................................................................................................................................................

2 .......................................................................................................................................... [2]

(b) Bromine, chlorine and iodine are halogens.

Put the halogens in order of reactivity.

Write the most reactive first.

most reactive ..................................................

..................................................

least reactive .................................................. [1]


(c) Chlorine water is added to a solution of sodium iodide.

A brown solution is formed.

Similar experiments can be done with

chlorine water and sodium bromide solution

bromine water and sodium iodide solution

iodine solution and sodium bromide solution.

Look at the table. It shows the results from these and other experiments.

chlorine water bromine water iodine solution


sodium chloride
no reaction no reaction
solution
sodium bromide
orange solution no reaction
solution
sodium iodide
brown solution
solution

Complete the table to show the missing result. [1]


(d) Chlorine is a green gas.

Bromine is an orange liquid.

Iodine is a solid.

What colour is solid iodine?

............................................................................................................................................. [1]

(e) Chlorine, bromine and iodine are all in Group 7 of the Periodic Table.

They all react in a similar way.

Explain why.

Use ideas about electronic structure.

...................................................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................................. [1] [Total:

6]

12 Lithium, sodium and potassium are known as the alkali metals.

(a) They are stored in oil. Explain why.

...................................................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) Different flame colours are seen when compounds of the alkali metals are put into a Bunsen
flame.

flame test wire

Draw straight lines to match the metal to its flame colour.

metal flame colour

lithium orange

sodium lilac

potassium red

[2]

[Total: 4]

10 This question is about bonding and the Periodic Table.

(a) Oxygen, O2, hydrogen, H2, and water, H2O, are all molecules.

What is a molecule?

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[1]

(b) Ethanol, C2H5OH, is another molecule.

Write down the total number of atoms in one molecule of ethanol.

...............................................................................................................................................[1]

(c) The atoms in a hydrogen molecule are bonded using a shared pair of electrons.

What is the name of this type of bond?

Choose from the list.

covalent
intermolecular ionic
metallic

answer ..................................................................................................................................[1]

(d) The elements in the Periodic Table are arranged in groups and periods.
(i) Write down what is meant by a period.

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(ii) Lithium, sodium and potassium are in the same group.

Explain why.

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

[Total: 5]
11 This question is about Group 1 elements.

(a) The Group 1 elements have a name.

Look at the list.

alkali metals
halogens noble
gases
transition metals

What is the name given to the Group 1 elements?

Choose from the list.

answer ..................................................................................................................................[1]

(b) (i) Sodium reacts with water.

Sodium hydroxide and hydrogen gas are made.

Write the word equation for this reaction.

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(ii) Potassium also reacts with water.

What are the names of the products of this reaction?

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(c) The labels have fallen off three bottles.

Sarah tests the chemical from one bottle.

She uses the flame test.

She gets an orange flame.

Which chemical is in the bottle?

Choose from the list.

lithium chloride
potassium chloride
sodium chloride

answer ..................................................................................................................................[1]

[Total: 4]

IGCSE chemistry SET X (Periodic Table)

(a) The table below lists the properties of five elements. The letters used are not the symbols for the elements.

Element solubility in water melting point(oC) Electrical conductivity Thermal


Of the solid conductivity
A insoluble 113 does not conduct poor
B insoluble -157 does not conduct poor
C reacts 39 good good
D soluble -101 does not conduct poor
E insoluble -39 good good

i. Which of the elements are metals?

(1)
ii. Which of the non-metals are gaseous at rom temperature(25oC)?

(1)
iii. Which of the elements is mercury?

(1)
iv. Give two differences between metals and non-metals other than those mentioned in
the table.

(2)
v. Which non-metallic element conducts electricity?

(1)

(b) (i) Which non-metallic element conducts electricity?

(ii) Name one semi-metal (metalloid).

(1)

IGCSE chemistry SET X (Periodic Table)


Some elements in the periodic Table are represented by the letters A to E and are
contained in the simplified table below.

A B D
C E
Choose from A to E:

a) A noble gas
b) A halogen
c) The most reactive metal
d) The most reactive non-metal

(4)

IGCSE chemistry SET X (Periodic Table)


This question is about the periodic table of the elements. The letters shown in the table are
not the symbols of the elements. You will need to use these in some of your answers. Each
letter may be used once, more than once or not at all.

I II
III IV V VI VII 0
L
Q E G J Z M
R D
T

a) How many protons does an atom of element L contain?

(1)
b) Which element shown forms ions with a single negative charge?

(1)
c) Which metallic element is more reactive than R?

(1)
d) Which element has its electrons arranged in four shells?

(1)
e) How many neutrons are there in an atom of element M (mass number 19)?

(1)

8. This question is about the Periodic Table.

Use the Periodic Table found on the back page to help you answer these questions.

(a) How many elements are there in the Periodic Table?

Tick your answer.

number of elements in the Periodic tick one box only


Table
less than 50

about 50

just over 100

over 1000

[1]

(b) Find calcium, Ca, on the Periodic Table.

What is the atomic number of calcium?

........................................................................................................................................[1]
(c) Find oxygen, O, on the Periodic Table.

Write down the name of an element in the same group as oxygen.

........................................................................................................................................[1]

(d) Find carbon, C, on the Periodic Table.

Write down the name of an element in the same period as carbon.

........................................................................................................................................[1]
(e) Write down the name of a transition element.

........................................................................................................................................[1]

(f) Calcium, Ca, reacts with oxygen, O2, to make calcium oxide, CaO.

Write a balanced symbol equation for this reaction.

........................................................................................................................................[2]

[Total: 7]

9. This question is about the Group 1 metals.

Sodium and potassium are Group 1 metals.

(a) Write down the name of one other Group 1 metal.

Use the Periodic Table to help you.

........................................................................................................................................[1]
(b) Sodium and potassium are stored under oil.

Explain why.

............................................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................................[2]

(c) Look at the diagram of a sodium atom.

part A
x x xxx
xx x
xx
x x
electron

(i) What is the name of part A?

...............................................................................................................................[1]
(ii) What is the charge on an electron?

Choose from

negative

neutral

positive

...............................................................................................................................[1]

[Total: 5]

11 This question is about the elements in Group 7 and their compounds.

(a) Draw a straight line from each substance to its use.

substance use

antiseptic for cuts

chlorine

filling balloons

iodine

food flavouring

sodium chloride

killing bacteria in swimming pools


[3]

(b) Chlorine and iodine are both elements in Group 7 of the Periodic Table.

Write down the name of one other element in Group 7.

You may wish to use the Periodic Table on the back page to help you.

...............................................................................................................................................[1]

(c) Sodium reacts with chlorine to make sodium chloride.

Write the word equation for the reaction between sodium and chlorine.
...............................................................................................................................................[1]

[Total: 5]
9 This question is about the Periodic Table and transition elements.

Look at the diagram.

It shows the position of some elements in the Periodic Table.

Na

K Ni

Ag

(a) (i) Write down the symbols for two elements that are in the same group.

Choose from the diagram.

answer .................................. and ................................... [1]

(ii) Write down the symbols for two elements that are in the same period.

Choose from the diagram.

answer .................................. and ................................... [1]

(iii) Write down the symbol of a transition element.

Choose from the diagram.

answer ............................................................................ [1]

(b) Compounds of transition elements are often coloured.

Iron(II) compounds are usually green.

Look at the list. It gives the colours of some transition metal compounds.

blue grey

orange

pink

purple

(i) What colour are most copper compounds?

Choose from the list.

answer ......................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) What colour are most iron(III) compounds?


Choose from the list.

answer ......................................................................................................................... [1]

[Total: 5]
11 This question is about the elements in Group 7.

Elements in Group 7 are called halogens.

Two examples of elements in Group 7 are chlorine and iodine.

(a) One of the halogens is an orange liquid at room temperature.

Which one?

............................................................................................................................................ [1]

(b) Look at the balanced symbol equation.

It shows the reaction between sodium and chlorine.

2Na + Cl 2
2NaCl

Write down the name of the product of this reaction.

............................................................................................................................................ [1]

(c) Chlorine will react with a solution of potassium iodide to make potassium chloride.

This is a displacement reaction.

Complete the word equation for this displacement reaction.

potassium
chlorine + +
iodide

[1]

(d) Astatine, At, is another halogen.

It is highly radioactive and so is very difficult to investigate in a laboratory.

A scientist predicts astatine will react with sodium.

Write the balanced symbol equation for this reaction.

............................................................................................................................................ [2]

[Total: 5]

12 This question is about Group 1 elements.

(a) (i) Sodium reacts with water.

Sodium hydroxide and hydrogen gas are made.

Write the word equation for this reaction.

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(ii) Potassium also reacts with water.


What are the names of the products of this reaction?

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(b) (i) Lithium, sodium and potassium all react in a similar way with water.

Explain why.

Use ideas about electrons.

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(ii) Potassium is more reactive than lithium.

Explain why.

Use ideas about loss of electrons.

...........................................................................................................................................

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(c) Sodium hydroxide contains sodium ions.

A metal ion is formed when a metal atom loses an electron.

Write a symbol equation for the formation of a sodium ion from a sodium atom.

Use e as the symbol for an electron.

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[Total: 5]

Questions

Need to use the Periodic Table

1. Answer the questions which follow using only the elements in this list:

Caesium, chlorine, molybdenum, neon, nickel, nitrogen, strontium, tin.

a) Name an element which is

i. In group 2

ii. In the same group as silicon

iii. In the same group as phosphorus

b) How many electrons are there in the outer lvels of atoms of (i) strontium, (ii)
chlorine, (iii) nitrogen?

c) Divide the list of elements at eh beginning of the questions into metal and non-
metals.

d) Name two elements which are likely to have the greatest number of colorured
compounds.

e) Name (i) the most reactive metal, (ii) the lest reactive element.
2. This question concerns the chemistry of the elements Li, Na, K, Rb and Cs on the
extreme left-hand side of the Periodic table.

a) A is the least dense of all metals.

b) When metal B dropped onto water it melts into a small ball and rushes around the
surface. A gas,C, is given off and this burns with a lilac flame. A white trail dissolves
into the water to make a solution of D.

c) When metal E is heated in a green gas F it bursn with an orange flame and leaves
whiete solid product G.

d) Write equations for:

i. The retain of B with water

ii. The reaction between E and F.

e) What would you expect to see if solution D was tested with red and blue litmus
paper.

f) Explain why B melts into a small ball when it is dropped onto water.

3. This question is about astatine, At, at the bottom of group 7of the periodic table.
Astatine is radioactive, and extremely rare.

a) Showing only the outer elections, draw dots-and cross diagrams to show the
arrangement of electrons in an astatine atom, an astatide ion and an astatine
molecule.

b) What physical state would you expect astatine to be in at room temperature?

c) Would you expect astatine to be more or less reactive than iodine?

d) Describe hydrogen astatide, and suggest a likely pH for a reasonably concentrated


solution of it in water.

e) What would you expect caesium astatide to look like? Will it be soluble in water?
Explain your reasoning.

f) Write an ionic equation for the reaction that will occur if you add chlorine water to a
solution of sodium astatide. Assume that astatine is insoluble in water. Explain
clearly why this reaction would be counted as redox reaction.

4. Predict any five properties of the element palladium, Pa (atomic number 46), or its
compounds. The properties can be either physical or chemical.

5. Explain as fully as you can why:

a) Neon is an unreactive mono atomic gas

b) Potassium is ore reactive than sodium

c) Chlorine displaces bromine form potassium bromide solution

6. In this question you will be given some information about three elements. You should
say, with reasons, where you might expect find them in the Periodic table. You can them
between:

Group I or 2 element

Transition element

Group 7 element

Noble gas.

a) Element A
Melting point(oC) -112
Boiling point (oC) -108
Density at 0oC(g/cm3) 0.0059
Retain with chlorine None
Reaction with oxygen None
Reaction with sodium none
b) Element B

B melts at 1890oC and is a good conductor of electricity. It has no reaction with cold
water, but will react with chlorine on heating. It reacts very slowly with dilute
hydrochloric acid and dilute sulfuric acid. Compounds of B are highly coloured
including blue, green, purple, orange and yellow.

c) Element C

Melting point (oC) 850


Boiling point (oC) 1487
Reaction with cold water Steady production of
hydrogen
Reaction with dilute Very vigorous reaction
hydrochloric acid producing hydrogen and a
colorless solution
Reaction with oxygen Burns to give a white solid
7.
Structured Questions:

VIII
I III IV V
II VI VII
H J K M
B G Q L
A C D E F N
The above shows her top part of the Periodic Table and group an period numbers. The
letters are to chemical symbol. Answer the questions, using only these letters to refer to
the elements:
a) Which group members are in the halogen family?

..

b) Give the letters of the non-metallic elements

..

c) Which is the most reactive metal?

..

d) Which is the most reactive non-metal?

..

e) Which group number is for the alkali metals?

..

f) How many transition metals are shown?

..

g) Which is the element with the greatest number of protons?

..

h) How many inert gases are shown and what are they?

..

i) Which is the element essential for life?

..

j) Which element has the smallest atom?

..

k) What are the magnetic elements?



..

l) Give the element which contains two electrons in its outermost shell?

..

12.This is a spiral form of the Periodic Table:

a) Copy out the above form of the Periodic Table, putting in the symbols and atomic
numbers fo the first twenty elements.

..

..

..

..

b) Which segment are


i. Alkali metals;
ii. Halogens;
iii. Noble gases?

i.

..

ii.

..

iii.

..

c) What advantages, if any, does this spiral from have over the conventional Periodic
Table?

..

..

..

13.Imagine that a new element called davidium had been isolated. It has a low density,
and is a solid which is soft and can be easily cut with a knife. It is extremely reactive
with both air and water. It is a good conductor of heat and electricity and also has a low
melting point.
a) Which group of the Periodic Table would you place davidium in?

..

b) How many electrons would it have in the outermost shell of its atom?

..

c) How would you store it?

..

d) Given its symbol you think would be the symbol for its ion?

..

e) Write sulphate, nitrate, carbonate, chloride and hydroxide.

..

f) Write a balanced chemical equation for its reaction with oxygen(air).

..

g) Write balanced chemical water.

..

h) Name three other elements which have properties similar to davidium.

..

14.Complete the Table of chemical formulae shown below. To help you, the group to which
the element belongs is given.

Name Group Oxide Hydroxide Nitrate sulphate


Lithium I Li2O
Barium II Ba(NO3)2
Gallium III Ga2(SO4)3
germanium IV Ge(OH)4

15.
a) Between which two groups of elements are the transition metals found?

..

b) State four characteristic properties of transition metals, giving an example for each
property.

..

c) Chromium is a useful transition metal. However, most of its ores come from Russia
and South Africa. What would be the effect if imports of chromium into Singapore
were stopped?

..