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Distributed computing is a model in which components of a software system are shared among multiple computers to improve efficiency and performance. According to the narrowest of definitions, distributed computing is limited to programs with components shared

among computers within a limited geographic area. Broader definitions include shared tasks as well

as program components.

In the broadest sense of the term, distributed

computing just means that

something is shared among multiple systems which may also be in different locations.

Distributed computing is a field of computer science that studies distributed systems. A distributed system is a model in which components located on networked computers communicate and coordinate their actions by passing

messages(In computer science, message passing sends a message to a process (which may be an actor or object) and relies on the process and the supporting infrastructure to select and invoke the actual code to run. Message passing differs from conventional programming where a process, subroutine, or function is directly invoked by name. Message passing is key to some models of concurrency and object-oriented programming.

Message passing is used ubiquitously in modern computer software. It is used as a way for the objects that make up a program to work with each other and as a means for objects and systems running on different computers (e.g., the Internet) to interact. Message passing may be implemented by various mechanisms, including channels.). The components interact

with each other in order to achieve a common goal. Three significant characteristics of distributed systems are:

concurrency of components, lack of a global clock, and independent failure of components. [1] Examples of distributed systems vary from SOA-based systems to massively multiplayer online games to peer-to-peer applications.

A computer program that runs in a distributed system is called a distributed program, and distributed programming is the process of writing such programs. [2] There are many alternatives for the message passing mechanism, including pure HTTP, RPC-like connectors and message queues. [

A goal and challenge pursued by some computer scientists and practitioners in distributed systems is location

transparency(In computer networks, location transparency is the use of names to identify network resources, rather than their actual location. [1][2] For example, files are accessed by a unique file name, but the actual data is stored in physical sectors scattered around a disk in either the local computer or in a network. In a location transparency system, the actual location where the file is stored doesn't matter to the user. A distributed system will need to employ a networked scheme for naming resources.

The main benefit of location transparency is that it no longer matters where the resource is located. Depending on how the network is set, the user may be able to obtain files that reside on another computer connected to the particular network. [1] This means that the location of a resource doesn't matter to either the software developers or the end-users. This creates the illusion that the entire system is located in a single computer, which greatly simplifies software development.); however,

this goal has fallen out of favour in industry, as distributed systems are different from conventional non-distributed systems, and the differences, such as network partitions, partial system failures, and partial upgrades, cannot simply be "papered over" by attempts at "transparency" (see CAP theorem). [citation needed]

Distributed computing also refers to the use of distributed systems to solve computational problems. In distributed computing, a problem is divided into many tasks, each of which is solved by one or more computers, [3] which communicate with each other by message passing


distributed system is a model in which components located on networkedcomputers communicate and

messages. ...

Three significant characteristics

coordinate their actions by passing

distributed systems are:

concurrency of components, lack of a global clock, and independent failure of components.