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Printed in USA. Copyright 1984 by ASME


by Jacques Paulon

Head of Compressor Research Group

Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA)
92320 Chatillon (FRANCE)

NOMENCLATURE Knowledge of such a response is necessary for the

prediction of the behavior of the compressor when
a speed of sound m sec -1 submitted to inlet total pressure maldistributions.
A area of inlet duct m 2 This is the case of airplane engines at high
F LAPLACE transform incidence angle conditions or in the case of a
axial length of compressor m transverse gust.
L axial length of inlet duct m
M Mach number Few experimental or theoretical results can be
static pressure PO found in the open literature on the transient
P mean static pressure Pa response of a compressor (1) (2) . On the other nand
/J non dimensional LAPLACE parameter many empirical transfer function have been pr^,ocsed
t time sec (ref. (3) to (7)) but they were not validated or
V velocity m sec -1 discarded after comparison with test results. That is
Z abscissa m why an experimental research at low Mach number and
P flow acceleration m sec - 2 near one dimensional conditions has been started at
Is non dimensional abscissa ONERA (8) in order to be able to choose among the
(9 non dimensional time various transfer functions proposed and, if
P density kg m3 necessary, find new forms for transfer functions.
0 non dimensional parameter
6 time lag sec The following tests were made
CO frequency sec -1
.1. reduced frequency (i) the compressor was subjected to a sudden
throttle area change, that induced a corresponding
Subscripts step change in mass flow and compressor outlet
pressure ;
1 upstream of compressor
2 downstream of compressor (ii) a throttle area modulator was installed, that
SS steady state induced periodic mass flow and pressure fluctuation.
C compressor
Examples of the corresponding test results and
Superscripts theoretical data analysis will be presented.

complex amplitude of perturbation terms 2. DESCRIPTION OF THE TEST FACILITY

/ fluctuation
A schematic view of the test compressor is shown
I. INTRODUCTION on figure 1. The compressor is a rotating annular
cascade followed by an annular stator cascade. In
Aerodynamic operation of a compressor during order to reduce the 3-D effects, a high hub-to-tip
transients and any unsteady regime is controlled by ratio (0.957) has been choosen. It was verified that
its response to transient pressure and mass flow for moderate back pressures the flow is actually one
fluctuations. dimensional (axisymmetric and practically independent

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of radius, outside of the wall boundary layers that Knife
are relatively small).

The inlet duct is equipped with a filter, settling Throttle

chamber and converging duct that insures uniform flow
Peripheral gap
at the inlet of the rotor.
A conical outlet duct, with a conical center-body, I'I Outlet duct
decreases the outer diameter of the exhaust channel.

Table I gives the main geometric and aerodynamic

parameters of the facility.

Table I Wall pressure

Geometric and Aerodynamic parameters Transducers
P ty
Inlet ductlLength 0.80 m
Diameter 0.20 m
Inlet . `^
Filter ng Motor
Settling chamber Volume 0.12 m3 Settlin

diameter 0.465 m t t t t t
Number of rotor blades 46
Height of the blades 0.009 m 1a) Step throttle area variation
Blade relative outlet angle 40
Number of stator blades 50
Corn- Axial length of compressor 0.120 m
Rotating disk
pressor Speed of rotation 3000 to 6000 rpm
Fixed disk
Maximum mass flow 2 kg/sec Peripheral
Maximum power 30 kW OD^ gap
Maximum axial velocity 120 m/sec

Outlet Length 0.70 m Outlet duct

duct { Outlet diameter 0.220 m

In configuration (i) designed for a step variation

of the outlet area (fig. 1a), a paper sheet was Wall pressor
placed downstream of the compressor outlet section. A Transducers
sharp knife with multiple blades driven by a fast Pt I ,-...
actuating device ruptured the paper membrane in a
time the duration of which was short compared to the
duration of the transients. Filter - Motor
In order to avoid unsteady operation before the
rupture of the membrane a peripheral gap was managed
between the diffuser outlet and the membrane.
Therefore the step operation took place between two
steady operating points of the compressor. 1 b) Modulated throttle area

In configuration (ii) an area modulator was used Fig. 1 Schematic view of the test compressor.
instead of the punctured membrane (fig. 1b). This
modulator was made of two identical disks, one of
them fixed, the other, driven by a small variable (i) Step variation of outlet area (fig. 1a)
speed electric motor, rotating at a fixed speed. Both Wall static pressure measurements were made in
disks have a great number (16-32 or 64) triangular the three following stations
openings, the maximum passage area being close to (1) upstream of the rotor
half of the duct area. A frequency range between 80 (2) downstream of the stator
and 1200 Hz was covered. (3) at the outlet of the diffuser channel,
slightly upstream of its end section.
To avoid compressor stall in the case of a
completely closed valve operation, a peripheral gap The transient total pressure at the entrance of
was also used in this configuration. In both cases the inlet duct was also measured by means of a Kulite
(i) and (ii) the time-wise area variation was small equipped Pitot tube.
compared to the area of the pheripheral gap.
(ii) Modulation of the outlet area (fig. 1b).
Wall static pressure measurements were made in
Transient wall pressure transducers (Kulite) were stations (1) and (2) only. The total pressure at the
used in both configurations. The following entrance of the inlet duct was measured in this case
measurements were made : also.

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the outlet duct, and (1), at the rotor inlet, one
The analog pressure signals were recorded on notes the short duration of the throttle opening,
magnetic tapes, digitized and reduced to obtain the compared to the transients. It shall also be noted,
transfer function of the compressor as will be that at station (2), outlet from the stator, the
explained below. In the case of the modulated pressure signal is, at a different magnitude, similar
throttle area tests, direct measurement of the ratio to the imposed pressure step. The practically
of upstream to downstream pressure peaks were also constant value of the inlet total pressure shall also
measured by means of an electronic amplitude meter. A be noted.
Fourier analyzer was also used in some cases.
Two examples of wall pressure fluctuations induced
Typical examples of oscillogram pictures taken by by the rotating throttle valve are shown on figure 2b
means of a Polaroid camera are shown on figure 2. The for two frequences of the area modulator.
top image, figure 2a, corresponds to a step variation
of the throttle area. Comparing wall pressure The recorded signals are periodic , but higher
measurements in stations (3), at the end section of frequency disturbances are noted in some cases.


Wall static pressure

1 - Inlet to rotor
2 - Outlet from stator
3- End section of outlet duct
P ty - Total inlet pressure

Wall static pressure

Modulation frequency : 693

2 1 - Inlet to rotor
2 - Outlet from stator

Wall static pressure

Modulation frequency : 1173

1 - Inlet to rotor
2 2 - Outlet from stator

2b) Modulated throttle area

Fig. 2 Examples of pressure measurements.

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No correct explanations have been given for It is quite easy to show that direct transfer
these perturbations. functions such as the relaxation type relation


z d(p2 fzo )_ dP1 /

11 , o)-f^<-^xo) (3a)
The pressure rise through a subsonic compressor is dt dP,
function of inlet conditions. There exists therefore
a transfer function that gives one of the pressures on the time-laq ., lie -

(the upstream or the downstream one) when the other

is known.
^2 7z^ =^aPPI/ 7+ ^`,a^ (3b)
In the case of our test compressor, the axial
length of which is small, the volume of air enclosed
in the blade channels is small. The height of the at time t-3
passage being the same upstream and downstream of the do not correctly represent the phenomenon.
compressor, it is assumed that upstream and
downstream axial velocities are identical, although In these relations time lag may be taken as
time dependent. the time necessary for a particle to travel from
rotor inlet to stator outlet and
The transfer function can thus be expressed either
as a relation between upstream and downstream total d
pressures (the measurement of which is difficult) or c!I
between upstream and downstream static pressure, easy
to measure by means of wall pressure transducers. is the steady state slope of the upstream to
downstream pressure characteristic.
Data reduction, however, is different for the two
configurations. The corresponding transfer functions

4.1 Step variation of the throttle area (4a)

The LAPLACE transformation of the upstream and

downstream pressure variations is the easiest way to P1 14/
get to the transfer function. We use the following
integrals for the LAPLACE transformation (9) or

1^ /
e Oaf

^`^ dP
= dP e

where M is the Mach number corresponding to the inlet


(4) _ c` e P t 8(t) -y2 (to)) cL t axial velocity, tend both towards zero as4increases,
to and do not reflect the asymptotic behavior of the
experimental results.

where to is the time when pressure starts to decay in A more sophisticated way to search for a transfer
station (2). An accurate value of to is easily function is therefore necessary.
Since it was verified that the flow through the
Non-dimensional parameterdvaries as t -1 and, for compressor is nearly one-dimensional, the momentum
any regular function,d- infinity corresponds to time and mass flow equations can be written as
t o andd- 0 to an infinite time, but no other
correspondence exists between time t and parameter 4. aXf fVz av + aP _

at aZ Paz
Figure 3 gives an example of variation of 't(1)
and 'i (4) as well as that of (5)
t Vz. all Vz -O
pat Pa y az aZ
N ^A
This function is the LAPLACE transform of where f/,( is for the body force at abscissa z.
the transfer function F/e , that according to the
well-known integral relations of the LAPLACE If only small perturbations are considered, and if
transformation (9). non-dimensional abscissa and time

(t) (t0)_ ` dFx/ t a) (4>(A) ^,<t^dA (2)

are defined, the following linearized system of
equations is obtained
gives the value of'tjt) when e 1 (t) is known.
aVz t M aVz +
The great difficulty in using LAPLACE DL9 3 pa/ a (6)
transformations is that once image F) is known it
is difficult to obtain its original F^a(t) a) t M aP ,.^. aVz O
Therefore the only way to use f/ (-") is to
compare it to various empirical transfer functions.
paa9 Pc` D` a^

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where dashes indicate small perturbations. obtained from experimental values of /i.f and /7,2 with
the theoretical one deduced from the simple delay law
The steady state value of r' is obtained by
setting to zero the time derivatives

rss _(7 M)^c(P2^

= ^5 (12)
dP, P
at time t-'
Using LAPLACE transformation for Eqs. (6) one
transform of
cL . p a cL a
+ t a =O
/Oa Pads 'c
and the LAPLACE transform of the transfer function
P 1 / 4 becomes
00, / --075

1 e-'J/il +M Fen

Fx/^ - rf
201 ,00

j/ ^ /) a VZ II F, e / 1/- M

2 `I 0.^ S -125
0 05 , i5 2 25

which emphazises two facts Fig. 3 Step throttle area variation. Laplace transforms
of upstream and downstream pressures and of the
(1) - F/.f increases exponentialy asdbecomes transfer function F2 f =p2/PT.
infinite, and this is verified by experimental
evidence, 80 ,1 , LAPLACE transform
of transfer function

(2) -F/a is function of the ratio Uz^ , i.e. of

the part of the test facility that is upstream of the
rotor inlet.
Theoretical value of f2 , using a
Let us assume that the inlet duct and the inlet lag type law for body forces
settling chamber can be assimilated to a single
constant section duct, the area of which A is large
compared to the inlet area A c of the compressor. The
'S t
I Evpenmental values of _,

length of this duct will be called L. By means of a

one-dimensional model similar to (8) but in which the
mean Mach number can be neglected we obtain the
following relation between z and

0.5 1 is 2 25
Non dimensional LAPLACEparameter
aVZ (M 4Q l 0 (10)
Fig. 4 Step throttle area variation. Comparison of theoretical and
experimental transfer functions.

where L is the length of the equivalent inlet duct

for which the LAPLACE transform is
and a=//A . Thus,

/^ /l N)> ^^ e (13)
t^ 2 I Mt^tccn^
( L/ / e

t ' J+ + P ^^i'H ^ P 4.2 Periodic throttle area variation

( n+ atanh(4L_/Z) 4'/ The periodic upstream and downstream pressure
signals can be developed in FOURIER series of which
we will analyze the first term only. Therefore using
the above non-dimensional parameters we write
We tried out various expressions for P and
several of them could fit correctly the shape of the I} ^^_/r nzO/
^12 B/
curve FL/-T (A) of figure 3. As an examP-le we show on t
figure 4 the correspondance between Fl/-f (ii) l

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where 'z, and '7 2 are independent of time (but

eventually functions of frequency) and ft is the 5. CONCLUSION
reduced frequency
Using test results obtained on a subsonic
compressor with near one-dimensional flow and
transients induced by a time wise variable area it
has been shown that during transients inlet and
/ indicates the module of a complex parameter. outlet pressures are functions of both inlet axial
velocity and inlet static pressure. The relation
The transfer function can be directly between these parameters depends on the inlet duct
derived from equation (11) geometry.

It was also shown that prediction of the response

of the compressor to the transients requires the
h+^a tcth (SLL/) (14) resolution of the momentum and the mass conservation
equations through the compressor, at least under
their simplified one-dimensional form that takes into
account body forces.
l 7 +cotaH (rzL/8) n^ ,
e=M 1 No completely satisfactory assumption on the
It is now easier to discuss the physical meaning of transient body forces has been found up to now.
the various assumptions made on the shape of P" However the assumption that body-forces lag with a
constant delay behind the inlet pressure variation
that induces them seems to give the best theoretical
If we assume the time lag law o jiation (12), the description of test results

(15) (1) Peacock, R.E. and GAS, D.K. - Compressor

IdP p response to pulsed transients AIAA/SAE/ASME
16th Joint Propulsion Conference 30 June-2
July 1980, Hartford, AIAA n 80/1080.
assumes that for a given inlet pressure the body
force intensity and time lag is independent of the (2) Peacock, R.E. and Eralp, O.C. - Compressor
frequency. response to spatially repetitive and non
repetitive transients, Israel Joint Gas
On the other hand if a relaxation type relation Turbine Congress, Haifa July 9-11, 1979,
such as (3b) is used paper 79 GT-Isr 14.
(3) Fabri, J. - Amplifications of distorsions in an
dP^ ^^n9 ^^ta(n1)
- (16)
axial flow compressor stage.
CIMAC-GT Congress, Tokyo (1977) TP ONERA no
1977 3.

(4) Ferrand, P., - Etude theorique des instabilites

the body force and the time lag are both decaying de 1'ecoulement dar_s les compresseurs
when frequency increases. If a decrease of body force axiaux. These de Doctorat de specialite
intensity with increasing frequency seems to be a Universite d'Aix-Marseille UER-IMF (1980).
sound assumption, it is more difficult to adopt an
assumption for which the time lag decreases as (5) Takata, H. and Nagano, S. - Non linear analysis
of rotating stall. ASME 72 GT 3. Journal of
frequency increases. Therefore we prefer relation
Engineering for Power (1972).
(15) and figure 5 shows the correspondance between
transfer function Fz^ based on equations (14) and
(15) and the corresponding test results. (6) Adamczik, J.J. - Unsteady fluid dynamic response
Transfer function defined no ratio of downsrreom
of an isolated rotor with distorted inflow.
15^ to upstream pressure fluctuation amplitude AIAA paper 74-49 (1974).

(7) Greitzer, E.M. - Surge and rotating stall in

axial flow compressors. Trans. ASME Journal
of Engineering for Power (1976).

(8) Fabri, J. and Paulon, J. - Experimental and

theoretical determination of the transfer
function of a compressor. Symposium on
aeroelasticity in turbomachines (IUTAM)
Lausanne, (1980). TP ONERA n 1980-100.

(9) McLachlan, N. and Humbert, M. - Formulaire pour

Non dimensionof pul Lion le calcul symbolique. Gauthier Villars
0,5 1.5 2 5=20 t1/n (1941).
0 25() 00
5 710
An Frequency F (Hz)

Fig. 5 - Comparison of theoretical and experimental transfer function

for a compressor with periodic modulated throttle area.

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