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ADVANCED FLUID

DYNAMICS

Mechanical Engineering Department

UET, Lahore

anaeems@uet.edu.pk

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. Engineering Fluid Mechanics by Clayton T. Crowe,

Donald F. Elger, Barbara C. Williams, and John A.

Roberson, John Wiley & Sons Inc., 9th Edition.

2. Fluid Mechanics by Frank M. White, McGraw Hill,

4th Edition.

3. Fluid Mechanics by Victor L. Streeter, E. Benjamin,

McGraw Hill.

4. Mechanics of Fluids by Massey Van Nostrand

Reinhold Company Ltd.

Some Other Useful Books

1. Fluid Mechanics with Engineering Applications by

R.L. Daugherty, J.B. Franzini & E.J. Finnemore

McDonald, 5th Edition

Reuben M. Olson, 3rd Edition

FLUIDS

A fluid is a substance that deforms continuously

when subjected to a shear stress, no matter

how small that shear stress may be.

A fluid can be either a gas or a liquid.

CONTINUUM

In dealing with fluid-flow relations on a

mathematical or analytical basis, it is necessary

to consider that the actual molecular structure

is replaced by a hypothetical continuous

substance, called the continuum.

SYSTEM

A system, in fluid mechanics and thermodynamics, is

defined as a quantity of matter or a region in space

chosen for study.

Closed System: A closed system (also known as a

control mass) consists of a fixed amount of mass, and

no mass can cross its boundary. The volume of a

closed system does not have to be fixed.

SYSTEM

Open System: An open system is a properly selected

region in space. Both mass and energy can cross the

boundary of a control volume, which is called a control

surface.

The real or imaginary surface that separates the

system from its surroundings is called the boundary.

Surroundings are the portions of matter external to

the system which are affected by the changes in

system.

FLUID PROPERTIES

The characteristics of a fluid by which its physical

conditions may be described are called properties of

the fluid.

Intensive properties are those that are independent of

the size or amount of the system (fluid).

Extensive properties are values related to the total

mass or size or extent of the system.

Extensive properties per unit mass are called specific

properties and these become intensive properties.

PROPERTIES INVOLVING THE MASS OR

WEIGHT OF THE FLUID

Mass Density, (or Density) [kg/m3]

The mass per unit volume is mass density.

The density of water at 4C is 1000 kg/m3 and

decreases slightly with increasing temperature.

The density of air at 20C and standard

atmospheric pressure is 1.2 kg/m3.

PROPERTIES INVOLVING THE MASS OR

WEIGHT OF THE FLUID

Variation in Density: For most applications, water can

be considered incompressible and, in turn, can be

assumed to have constant density.

Air, on the other hand, is a relatively compressible fluid

with variable density.

However, at velocities much less than the speed of

sound, the air density changes only slightly and the air

can also be treated as incompressible.

For an ideal gas from equation of state

p

RT

PROPERTIES INVOLVING THE MASS OR

WEIGHT OF THE FLUID

Speicific Weight, [N/m3] = g

The gravitational force per unit volume of fluid, or

simply the weight per unit volume, is defined as

specific weight.

Water at standard reference temperature of 4C has a

specific weight of 9810 N/m3.

Water at 20C has a specific weight of 9790 N/m3.

The specific weight of air at the same temperature and

at standard atmospheric pressure is 11.8 N/m3.

PROPERTIES INVOLVING THE MASS OR

WEIGHT OF THE FLUID

Specific Gravity, S

The ratio of the specific weight of a given liquid to the

specific weight of water at a standard reference

temperature is defined as specific gravity.

fluid fluid

S

w ater w ater

133 kN / m3

SHg 3

13.6

9.81 kN / m

PROPERTIES INVOLVING THE FLOW OF

HEAT

Specific Heat, c [J/kg K]

The property that describes the capacity of a

substance to store thermal energy is called

specific heat. By definition, it is the amount of

thermal energy that must be transferred to a

unit mass of a substance to raise its temperature

by one degree.

PROPERTIES INVOLVING THE FLOW OF

HEAT

Specific Heat (at constant volume & pressure)

If the specific volume v of the gas remains

constant while the temperature changes, then the

specific heat is identified as cv.

However, if the pressure is held constant during

the change in state, then the specific heat is

identified as cp. The ratio is given the symbol k.

PROPERTIES INVOLVING THE FLOW OF

HEAT

Specific Internal Energy, u [J/kg]

The energy that a substance possesses because of

the state of the molecular activity in the

substance is termed internal energy. The internal

energy is generally a function of temperature and

pressure. However, for an ideal gas, it is a function

of temperature alone.

PROPERTIES INVOLVING THE FLOW OF

HEAT

Specific Enthalpy, h [J/kg]

The combination u p

has been given the name specific enthalpy.

For an ideal gas, u and p are function of

temperature alone.

Consequently their sum, specific enthalpy, is also

a function solely of temperature.

VISCOSITY

Viscosity is that property of a fluid by virtue of

which it offers resistance to shear.

Whenever shear stress is applied to a fluid,

motion occurs. Solids can resist shear in a static

condition, but fluids deform continuously under

the action of a shear stress.

Viscous resistance is independent of the normal

force (pressure) acting within the fluid.

VISCOSITY Cont.

Viscosity, , is the ratio of the shear stress to the

velocity gradient.

dV / dy

Newtons law of viscosity states that for a given rate of

angular deformation the shear stress is directly

proportional to the viscosity.

dV

dy

VISCOSITY Cont.

Effect of Temperature: The viscosity of a gas increases

with temperature, but the viscosity of liquid decreases

with temperature, because the rate of activity (back-

and-forth motion) of the gas molecules increases with

an increase in temperature.

For liquids, the shear stress is involved with the

cohesive forces between molecules. These forces

decrease with temperature, which results in a

decrease in viscosity with an increase in temperature.

VISCOSITY Cont.

A reasonable estimate for the variation of gas viscosity

with absolute temperature is Sutherlands equation,

3/2

T T0 S

where 0 T0 T S

0 is the viscosity at temperature T0 and

S is the Sutherlands constant.

S = 111 K for air.

VISCOSITY Cont.

An equation for the variation of liquid viscosity with

temperature is

= C e b/T

where C and b are empirical constants that require

viscosity data at two temperatures for evaluation.

In general the effect of pressure on the dynamic

viscosity of common gases is minimal for pressures

less than 10 atmospheres.

VISCOSITY

Units of Viscosity: {N.s/m2}

A common unit of viscosity is the poise, which is 1

dyne s/cm2 or 0.1 Ns/m2.

The viscosity of water at 20C is one centipoise (10-2

poise) or 10-3 Ns/m2.

kinematic viscosity, the units are m2/s.

NEWTONIAN VERSUS NON-NEWTONIAN

FLUIDS

In a Newtonian fluid there is a linear relation between

the magnitude of applied shear stress and the

resulting rate of deformation ( is a constant).

Because shear stress () is directly proportional to the

shear strain (dV/dy), a plot relating these variables

results in a straight line passing through the origin.

The slope of this line is the value of the dynamic

viscosity.

NEWTONIAN VERSUS NON-NEWTONIAN

FLUIDS Cont.

Non-Newtonian Fluid

Newtonian Fluid

Ideal Fluid dV

dy

NEWTONIAN VERSUS NON-NEWTONIAN

FLUIDS Cont.

In a non-Newtonian fluid there is a non linear

relation between the magnitude of applied shear

stress and the resulting rate of angular deformation.

Gases and most common liquids tend to be

Newtonian fluids, while thick, long-chained

hydrocarbons may be non-Newtonian.

If the fluid is considered to be incompressible and

non-viscous, it is then called an ideal fluid.

VAPOR PRESSURE

The pressure at which a liquid will boil is called its

vapor pressure. This pressure is a function of

temperature and increases with it.

Water boils at 100C at sea-level atmospheric pressure

(101.3 kPa).

Boiling can also occur in water at temperatures much

below 100C if the pressure in the water is reduced to

its vapour pressure.

The vapor pressure of water at 10C is 1.23 kPa.

ELASTICITY

When the pressure acting on a mass of fluid

increases, the fluid contracts; when the pressure

decreases, it expands.

The elasticity of a fluid is related to the amount

of deformation (expansion or contraction) for a

given pressure change.

The elasticity is often called the compressibility

of the fluid.

The compressibility is defined as change in

volume due to change in pressure

ELASTICITY Cont.

The compressibility of a fluid is expressed by its bulk

modulus of elasticity Ev.

The bulk modulus of the fluids is a function of both

temperature & pressure

The bulk modulus is analogous to the modulus of

elasticity for solid

However, for fluids it is defined on a volume basis

rather than in terms of stress-strain relation for solid

bodies

ELASTICITY Cont.

ELASTICITY Cont.

Compressibility of Liquids:

For water at 20C, Ev = 2.2 GPa, which corresponds

to a 0.045% change in volume for a change of 1 MPa

in pressure.

As a liquid is compressed, its resistance to further

compression increases.

At 3000 atm the value of Ev for water has doubled.

Ev for water is maximum (2210 - 2840) from 0.1 to

100 MN/m2 at 50C.

ELASTICITY Cont.

Compressibility of Gases:

As P1V1n = P2V2n = Constantan, for a perfect gas.

So Ev = nP; where n = 1 for Isothermal Process & n= k

for Isentropic process.

Thus, the elasticity of an ideal gas is proportional to

the pressure.

At a pressure of 100 kPa, the isothermal modulus of

elasticity for a gas is 100 kPa, and for an isentropic

process it is 140 kPa.

SURFACE TENSION

At the interface between a liquid and a gas, or two

immiscible liquids, a film or special layer seems to

form on the liquid, apparently owing to attraction of

liquid molecules below the surface. This stretching

force per unit length of the film required to form this

film is called the surface tension, . This tension acts

in the plane of the surface.

Surface tension for a water-air surface at room

temperature is 0.073 N/m and at 100C is 0.059 N/m.

SURFACE TENSION Cont.

The action of surface tension is to increase the

pressure (over and above atmospheric pressure)

within a droplet of liquid and bubble or within a

small liquid jet.

Transformation of a liquid jet into droplets and the

binding together of wetted granular material, such

as fine, sandy soil are due to surface tension.

Capillary action is caused by surface tension, it

causes the liquid to rise within a small vertical tube

that is partially immersed in it by following the

cohesion or adhesion phenomenon.

SURFACE TENSION Cont.

Cohesion enables a liquid to resist tensile stress, while

adhesion enables it to adhere to another body

If cohesion predominates, the liquid surface will be

depressed at the point of contact.

For example mercury, unlike water, is depressed below the

true level.

SURFACE TENSION Cont.

Capillary rise in a tube is given by:

= ()

.

where = wetting angle & r = radius of tube.

PROBLEM

The specific weight of water at ordinary pressure and

temperature is 9.81 kN/m2. The specific gravity of

mercury (Hg) is 13.55. Compute the density of water,

and the specific weight and density of Hg.

Hints: =

&

=

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