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Agrarian reform

G. CORAZON C. AQUINO (1986-1992)


1987 Constitution (Article II, Section 21) "The State shall promote
comprehensive rural development and agrarian reform"
Proclamation 131 (Instituting a Comprehensive Agrarian Reform
Program)
Instituted the CARP as a major program of the government

It provided for a special fund known as the Agrarian Reform


Fund (ARF) in the amount of 50 Billion Pesos to cover the estimated
cost of the program for the period 1987-1992

It covers all agricultural lands regardless of tenurial


arrangement and commodity produced, all public and private
agricultural lands, including other lands of the public domain suitable to
agriculture

Executive Order No. 229 (Providing the Mechanism for the


Implementation of the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform
Program)
Provided the mechanisms for CARP's implementation such as
administrative procedures and mechanics for land registration, private
land acquisition, and compensation procedures to landowners

It also specified the composition and functions of the governing


entities that will coordinate and supervise the implementation of the
program

Executive Order No. 129-A (Modifying Executive Order No.


129, Reorganizing and Strengthening the Department of
Agrarian Reform Program and for Other Purposes)
Provided for the strengthening of the DAR as the lead agency
responsible for the implementation of CARP

Reorganized, streamlined and expanded power and operation


of DAR
Executive Order No. 228 (Declaring Full Land Ownership to
Qualified Farmer Beneficiaries Covered by Presidential
Decree No. 27; Determining the Value of Remaining
Unvalued Rice and Corn Lands Subject to P.D. No. 27; and
Providing for the Manner of Payment by the Farmer
Beneficiary and Mode of Compensation to the Landowner)
Declared full landownership to qualified farmer-beneficiaries
covered byP.D. No. 27

Determined the value of remaining unvalued rice and corn land


subject toP.D. No. 27

Provided for the manner of payment by the FB and mode of


compensation to the landowner

Republic Act No. 6657 (Comprehensive Agrarian Reform


Law) An Act Instituting A Comprehensive Agrarian
Reform Program to Promote Social Justice and
Industrialization, Providing the Mechanism for Its
Implementation, and for Other Purposes)
Pursuant to Section 4, Article XIII of the 1987 Constitution, it
undertakes an agrarian reform program founded on the right of farmers
and regular farmworkers, who are landless, to own directly or
collectively the lands they till or, in the case of other farmworkers, to
receive a just share of the fruits thereof

It covers, regardless of tenurial arrangement and commodity


produced, all public and private agricultural lands as provided
in Proclamation No. 131 andExecutive Order No. 229, including other
lands of the public domain suitable for agriculture

More specifically, the following lands are covered by CARP:

a) All alienable and disposable lands of the public domain


devoted to or suitable for agriculture;
b) All lands of the public domain in excess of the specific
limits as determined by Congress in Section 4 (a) of R.A. No.
6657;

c) All other lands owned by the government devoted to or


suitable for agriculture; and

d) All private lands devoted or suitable for agriculture


regardless of the agricultural products raised or that can be raised
thereon

Executive Order No. 405 (Vesting in the Land Bank of the


Philippines the Primary Responsibility to Determine the Land
Valuation and Compensation for All Lands Covered Under
Republic Act No. 6657, Known as the Comprehensive Agrarian
Reform Law of 1988)
Vested in the Land Bank of the Philippines the primary
responsibility for land valuation

Executive Order No. 406 (Mandating Certain Departments


and Agencies to Align Their Respective Programs and
Projects with the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program,
Directing the Department of Agrarian Reform to Accelerate
the Agrarian Reform Beneficiaries Development Through the
Provision of Economic and Social Infrastructure Support,
and Providing the Necessary Implementing Mechanisms for
the Purpose)
Emphasized that CARP is central to the government's efforts to
hasten countryside agro-industrial development

Directed the implementing agencies to align their respective


programs and projects with the CARP

This created CARP Implementing Teams from the national to


the municipal levels
It also identified and gave priority to 24 Strategic Operating
Provinces (SOP) where the bulk of CARP workload lies, without
prejudice to program implementation in other provinces of the country

Executive Order No. 407 (Accelerating the Acquisition and


Distribution of Agricultural Lands, Pasture Lands, Fishponds,
Agro-Forestry Lands and Other Lands of the Public Domain
Suitable for Agriculture)
Directed all government instrumentalities, including financial
institutions and corporations, to turn over to DAR all lands suitable for
agriculture for coverage under CARP

Executive Order No. 448 (Amending Executive Order No.


407, Series of 1990, Entitled, "Accelerating the Acquisition
and Distribution of Agricultural Lands, Pasture Lands,
Fishponds, Agro-Forestry Lands and Other Lands of Public
Domain Suitable for Agriculture")
Amended Executive Order No. 407, series of 1990, providing
that:
"All lands or portions thereof reserved by virtue of Presidential
proclamations for specific public uses by the government, its agencies
and instrumentalities, including government-owned or controlled
corporations suitable for agriculture and no longer actually, directly and
exclusively used or necessary for the purposes for which they have
been reserved, as determined by the Department of Agrarian Reform
in coordination with the government agency or instrumentality
concerned in whose favor the reservation was established, shall be
segregated from the reservation and transferred to the Department of
Agrarian Reform for distribution to qualified beneficiaries under the
Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program."

Executive Order No. 506 (Further Amending Executive Order No.


407, Series of 1990, as Amended By Executive Order No. 448,
Series of 1991, Accelerating the Acquisition and Distribution of
Agricultural Lands, Pasture Lands, Fishponds, Agro-Forestry
Lands and Other Lands of Public Domain Suitable for Agriculture)
It declared that except national parks and other protected areas,
all lands or portions of the public domain reserved by virtue of
proclamation or law for specific purposes or uses by departments,
bureaus, offices and agencies of the Government, which are suitable
for agriculture and no longer actually, directly and exclusively used or
necessary for the purpose for which they have been reserved as
determined by the Department of Agrarian Reform in coordination with
the government agency or instrumentality concerned in whose favor
the reservation was established, shall be segregated from the
reservation and transferred to the Department of Agrarian Reform for
distribution to qualified beneficiaries under the Comprehensive
Agrarian Reform Program.

It also provided that all existing and proposed National Parks,


Game Refuge and Bird Sanctuaries, Wildlife Reserves, Wilderness
Areas and Other Protected Areas, including old growth or virgin
forests, and all forests above 1,000 meters elevation or above 50
percent slope, are hereby excluded from the present segregation,
acquisition and distribution procedures being conducted by the
Department of Agrarian Reform until such time as these area shall
have been identified, studied and determined to be either retained and
reclassified under the National Integrated Protected Areas System of
DENR or to be segregated for agricultural purposes.
H. FIDEL V. RAMOS (1992-1998)
Republic Act No. 7881 (An Act Amending Certain Provisions of Republic
Act No. 6657, Entitled "An Act Instituting a Comprehensive Agrarian
Reform Program to Promote Social Justice and Industrialization,
Providing the Mechanism for Its Implementation, and for Other
Purposes")
Amended certain provisions of Republic Act No. 6657, more
significantly Section 10 thereof on exemptions and exclusions from
CARP, to wit:

a) Lands actually, directly or exclusively used for parks and


wildlife, forest reserves, reforestation, fish sanctuaries and
breeding grounds, watersheds and mangroves;

b) Private lands actually, directly or exclusively used for


prawn farms and fishponds: Provided, That said prawn farms and
fishponds have not been distributed and Certificate of Land
Ownership Award (CLOA) issued to agrarian reform beneficiaries
(ARBs) under CARP; and

c) Lands actually, directly and exclusively used and found to


be necessary for sites and institutions, and all lands with 18%
slope and over, except those already developed.

Republic Act No. 7905 (An Act to Strengthen the Implementation of the
Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program, and for Other Purposes)
It aimed to strengthen the implementation of the CARP by
amending certain provisions of Republic Act No. 6657, particularly the
provisions on the creation of support services office (Section 35),
funding for support services (Section 36), Provincial Agrarian Reform
Coordinating Committee (Section 44) and province-by-province
implementation of CARP (Section 45).

Republic Act No. 8532 (An Act Strengthening Further the


Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP), By
Providing Augmentation Fund Therefor, Amending for the
Purpose Section 63 of Republic Act No. 6657, Otherwise
Known as "The CARP Law of 1988")
It authorized the appropriation of an additional amount of not
more than P50 billion needed to implement the CARP until year 2008

It provided for yearly appropriations of not less than P3 billion


from the General Appropriations Act
ARCs (Agrarian Reform Communities)

The DAR, under the leadership of President Fidel V. Ramos


and Secretary Ernesto D. Garilao, pursued the "development of
agrarian reform communities (ARCs) as its key program for national
development."

An ARC is a barangay at the minimum or a cluster of


contiguous barangays where there is a critical mass of farmers and
farmworkers awaiting the full implementation of agrarian reform. These
farmers and farmworkers will anchor the integrated development of the
area.

In order to optimize the allocation and use of limited resources


and create an impact, the DAR has adopted a geographical focus and
realigned its priorities towards the development of viable ARCs. In
these areas, DAR shall intensify its interventions to increase farm
production, improve household income, and promote sustainable
development.

ARCs shall serve as growth points in the countryside.


I. JOSEPH E. ESTRADA (1998-2001)
Executive Order No. 26 (Providing Opportunities for the Development of
Beneficiaries Under the Comprehensive Land Reform Program to
Become Productive Entrepreneurs, Providing the Mechanism Therefor
and for Other Purposes)
It provided that lands covered by Certificates of Land
Ownership Award (CLOA) shall now be accepted as collateral to
secure loans by their registered owners, with the consent of the
farmers cooperative to which they are members, with the government
financial institutions, as well as, with the private financial institutions:
Provided, That the loan proceeds shall be used exclusively in the
furtherance of the agricultural productivity of the land and related
activities.
MAGKASAKA (Magkabalikat sa Kaunlarang Agraryo)
To ensure adequate support services, there is a need for
greater private sector participation, both civil society and business, in
the development of agrarian reform areas.

MAGKASAKA, pursued under the framework of Joint Economic


Enterprises, aimed to bring investments into the countryside. Investors
will be encouraged to become partners of the farmers in establishing
rural business enterprises, particularly in agrarian reform communities
(ARCs). They will contribute capital, technology and management
support, while the farmers will contribute the use of their land but not
the land itself. The land cannot be used to settle obligations of the
enterprise. This ensures that ownership of the land remains in the
hand of the farmers.
J. GLORIA MACAPAGAL ARROYO (2001-2010)
Bayan-Anihan (Bayan-Anihan Program for Rural Development BPRD)
It is DAR's banner program under the Arroyo Administration to
hasten the implementation of the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform
Program (CARP)

The six main thrusts of Bayan-Anihan are the following:

(a) fast tracking of land acquisition and distribution;

(b) integrating, rationalizing and institutionalizing the delivery


of support services;

(c) swift delivery of agrarian justice;

(d) promoting peace;

(e) intensifying and institutionalizing social marketing; and

(f) modernizing the DAR bureaucracy.


K. BENIGNO SIMEON C. AQUINO III (2010-PRESENT)