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CHAPTER 11

SATELLITE NAVIGATION

INTRODUCTION

1100. Development determine one’s position on Earth. His studies in support of
this hypothesis earned him the first National Aeronautics
The idea that led to development of the satellite and Space Administration award for important contri-
navigation systems dates back to 1957 and the first launch butions to space development.
of an artificial satellite into orbit, Russia’s Sputnik I. Dr. In 1958, the Applied Physics Laboratory proposed
William H. Guier and Dr. George C. Wieffenbach at the exploring the possibility of an operational satellite Doppler
Applied Physics Laboratory of the Johns Hopkins navigation system. The Chief of Naval Operations then set
University were monitoring the famous “beeps” forth requirements for such a system. The first successful
transmitted by the passing satellite. They plotted the launching of a prototype system satellite in April 1960
received signals at precise intervals, and noticed that a demonstrated the Doppler system’s operational feasibility.
characteristic Doppler curve emerged. Since satellites The Navy Navigation Satellite System (NAVSAT,
generally follow fixed orbits, they reasoned that this curve also known as TRANSIT) was the first operational satellite
could be used to describe the satellite’s orbit. They then navigation system. The system’s accuracy was better than
demonstrated that they could determine all of the orbital 0.1 nautical mile anywhere in the world, though its
parameters for a passing satellite by Doppler observation of availability was somewhat limited. It was used primarily
a single pass from a single fixed station. The Doppler shift for the navigation of surface ships and submarines, but it
apparent while receiving a transmission from a passing also had some applications in air navigation. It was also
satellite proved to be an effective measuring device for used in hydrographic surveying and geodetic position
establishing the satellite orbit. determination.
Dr. Frank T. McClure, also of the Applied Physics The transit launch program ended in 1988 and the
Laboratory, reasoned in reverse: If the satellite orbit was system was disestablished when the Global Positioning
known, Doppler shift measurements could be used to System became operational in 1996.

THE GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM

1101. System Description 21 operational satellites with three satellites orbiting as
active spares. The satellites orbit at an altitude of 20,200
The Federal Radionavigation Plan has designated km, in six separate orbital planes, each plane inclined
the NAVigation System using Timing And Ranging 55° relative to the equator. The satellites complete an
(NAVSTAR) Global Positioning System (GPS) as the orbit approximately once every 12 hours.
primary navigation system of the U.S. government. GPS GPS satellites transmit pseudorandom noise (PRN)
is a spaced-based radio positioning system which sequence-modulated radio frequencies, designated L1
provides suitably equipped users with highly accurate (1575.42 MHz) and L2 (1227.60 MHz). The satellite
position, velocity, and time data. It consists of three transmits both a Coarse Acquisition Code (C/A code) and
major segments: a space segment, a control segment, a Precision Code (P code). Both the P and C/A codes are
and a user segment. transmitted on the L1 carrier; only the P code is transmitted
The space segment comprises some 24 satellites. on the L2 carrier. Superimposed on both the C/A and P
Spacing of the satellites in their orbits is arranged so that codes is the navigation message. This message contains the
at least four satellites are in view to a user at any time, satellite ephemeris data, atmospheric propagation
anywhere on the Earth. Each satellite transmits signals correction data, and satellite clock bias.
on two radio frequencies, superimposed on which are GPS assigns a unique C/A code and a unique P code to
navigation and system data. Included in this data are each satellite. This practice, known as code division
predicted satellite ephemeris, atmospheric propagation multiple access (CDMA), allows all satellites the use of a
correction data, satellite clock error information, and common carrier frequency while still allowing the receiver
satellite health data. This segment normally consists of to determine which satellite is transmitting. CDMA also

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The distance measurements described above are done by located in Hawaii. and altitude) and time (four unknowns). The processor in points can be disregarded since it is hundreds of miles from the the receiver then converts these signals to navigation surface of the Earth. updates the navigation message proportional to its distance traveled. expensive. the rate plus an offset due to the frequency error of the user’s subtraction of that constant error from the resulting distance clock. The intersection of three spheres of position process signals from four or more orbiting satellites yields two possible points of receiver position. all-weather. user depends primarily on the variability of the errors in Since each satellite broadcasts using its own unique C/A making pseudorange measurements. The MCS code. are satellite allows the receiver to calculate the distance from the also used for transmitting and receiving satellite control satellite. The ground antennas. obtain an accurate position from GPS. located in Colorado Springs. only three time information. are generated in phase with each other. charac- satellites. the pres- the three unknown components of position (or velocity) ence of receiver clock error adds an additional unknown. located the time required for the signal to reach the receiver from the at Ascension Island. Pseudorange is the true distance reached. Kwajalein. and Ascension Island. The satellite’s atomic continuous. installing a clock that dimensional positioning and navigation information. and position then determine the receiver’s position. . will lead to tremendous range errors. uploading. System Capabilities receiver at the speed of light. The intersections of those spheres of telemetry. Colorado Springs. One of these either simultaneously or sequentially. three. The control segment includes a master control 1103. The satellites must be used. centered at the satellite with a radius equal to this distance The user equipment is designed to receive and measurement. Knowing information to the satellites. four timing measurements are required to solve for The navigation accuracy that can be achieved by any the resulting four unknowns. however. even extremely slight timing errors between the clocks on the satellite and in the receiver GPS provides multiple users with accurate. four and an additional satellite timing measurement is made. between the satellite and the user plus an offset due to the Assuming that the satellite clocks are perfectly synchro- user’s clock bias. tracking. The ground antennas then transmit this random code and the code generated by the receiver. In practice. By decoding the ephemeris data and system determinations will reduce the fix error until a “pinpoint” po- timing information on each satellite’s signal. Pseudorange rate is the true slant range nized and the receiver clock’s error is constant. therefore. The master control GPS measures distances between satellites in orbit and station. it can be assigned a unique PRN geometry of the satellites as seen from the user’s location sequence number. accumulating ranging data from the satellites’ terized by a special wave form known as the pseudo-random signals and relaying them to the MCS. commanding. the instantaneous and P code combination. those distances. GPS determines position in three dimensions. Colorado. identified when the GPS control system communicates with Selective Availability is discussed further below. These signals. the user’s sition is obtained. Global Positioning System Concepts station (MCS). clock is accurate to 10-9 seconds. This is due to receiver clock error. Diego Garcia. applications. The signal from processes this information to determine satellite position the satellite arrives at the receiver following a time delay and signal data accuracy. It is important to note here that the number receiver/processor can convert the pseudorange and of lines of position required to employ this technique is a pseudorange rate to three-dimensional position and function of the number of lines of position required to obtain velocity. common-grid. users about a particular GPS satellite. Diego comparing timing signals generated simultaneously by the Garcia. worldwide. must be located on a sphere information. Timing signals travel from the satellite to the 1102. This number is how a satellite is on Earth. and the unknown user time (or frequency) bias. The monitor stations. and Kwajalein. consists of a receiver on Earth. and ground antennas located throughout the world. The GPS user measures fix error caused by the inaccuracies in the receiver clock is pseudorange and pseudorange rate by synchronizing and reduced by simultaneously subtracting a constant timing error tracking the navigation signal from each of the four from four satellite timing measurements until a pinpoint fix is selected satellites. Four measurements are necessary to solve for a fix. This time delay is of each satellite and relays this information to the ground detected by the phase shift between the received pseudo- antennas. Therefore. Since GPS is used in a wide variety of measurements are required to obtain a fix from GPS. and the presence of Selective Availability (SA). receiver clock accuracy is sacrificed. passively track the satellites’ and receiver’s internal clocks. accurate on a receiver would make the receiver prohibitively To obtain a navigation solution of position (latitude. longitude. then.164 SATELLITE NAVIGATION allows for easy user identification of each GPS satellite. from marine navigation to land surveying. The receiver. a fourth measurement is required to these receivers can vary greatly in function and design. Theoretically. Therefore. navigation message generation. and computes spheres of position from equipment and facilities required for satellite monitoring. control. a number of monitor stations.

frequency and phase modulation. the second (L2) transmits modulated. The P code and C/A code messages are divided into individual bits known as chips.23 MHz (10.23 1104a. The P and C/A codes phase modulate the ing the carrier’s phase. The chipping rate for the P-code is 10. and a navigation data This is analogous to sending the same data along a carrier message.023 tude of the carrier are unchanged by the “information × 106 bits per second). Two separate carrier frequencies carry the signal the P-code sequence repeats every seven days. transmitted on both L1 and L2. and for the data message.023 MHz (1. transmitted on L1 only. for the C/A code. C/A code. the C/A code is transmitted at a phase angle of 90° GPS is known as bi-phase shift keying (BPSK). The C/A code repeats once every millisecond. The frequency at which by varying its amplitude (amplitude modulation. or FM).” and the digital information is transmitted by shift- bits per second). See Figure rate.60 MHz. The periods of repetition for the C/A and P codes differ. The GPS signal consists of three separate digital “1’s” and “0’s” contained in the P and C/A codes are messages: the P-code. In phase modulation. Figure 1104b. SATELLITE NAVIGATION 165 1104. the frequency and the ampli- × 106 bits per second). 50 Hz (50 signal. or AM) or bits are sent for each type of signal is known as the chipping its frequency (frequency modulation. Modulation of the L1 and L2 carrier frequencies with the C/A and P code signals. Figure 1104a. 1. the indicated along the carrier by a shift in the carrier phase. The phase modulation employed by carriers. . transmitted by a GPS satellite. Digital data transmission with amplitude.42 MHz. GPS Signal Coding from the P code. This is simply another way of saying that the on 1227. The first carrier frequency As stated above the GPS carrier frequencies are phase (L1) transmits on 1575.

23 MHz) = 20. carrier signal. signal’s time delay.5 minutes to receive all 25 frames.” The code must be repeatable (i. non- with only the P code. the PPS is available only to The correlation process compares the signal received authorized users. At the same time. the randomness of the signals must be such that the with the C/A and P codes generated by the receiver. repeatability to enable the receiver to make the required each frame consisting of 1500 bits.e.) The navigation message consists of 25 data frames. on the other hand. is available worldwide to by comparing the square wave function of the received anyone possessing a GPS receiver.023 processed and matched by using an autocorrelation MHz) = 2. The navigation message contains 1106. GPS was designed.166 SATELLITE NAVIGATION Figure 1104c. therefore. SPS. GPS signal spreading and recovery from satellite to receiver. 30 seconds to receive one data frame and 12. mainly the U. This spreading of the carrier signal random) because it is in comparing the two signals that the lowers the total signal strength below the thermal noise receiver makes its distance calculations.S. the signal has enough Hz. modulated random code.S. is shaped differently from the L2 carrier. by the U. matching process excludes all possible combinations ellite signal will be collapsed into the original carrier except the combination that occurs when the generated frequency band. The computer logic of the receiver recognizes the “chipping rate” of the modulating signal. In the case of the square wave signals as either a +1 or a 0 depending on P code. 1105. It also contains coefficients for ionospheric delay Standard Positioning Service (SPS). Due to this BPSK. Each frame is divided measurement while simultaneously retaining enough into five subframes of 300 bits each.” The signals are MHz. models used by C/A receivers and coefficients used to first and foremost. The Correlation Process military may need to limit during time of war to prevent use by enemies. Department of Defense as a calculate Universal Coordinated Time (UTC).046 MHz. military and authorized from the satellites with the signal generated by the receiver allies. the sat. this spreading is equal to (2 × 10. Therefore PPS provides . the code must be random for the correlation process to ed in Figure 1104c. and almanac data for the satellites in the GPS: the Precise Positioning Service (PPS) and the orbit. threshold present at the receiver. modulated with both the P code and C/A This process defines the necessity for a “pseudo- code. allowing the transition between tracking the C/A code to the P code..46 whether the signal is “on” or “off. take randomness to ensure incorrect calculations are excluded. The signal power is then raised above the signal is shifted a distance proportional to the received thermal noise level. See Figure 1104b. Note that the L1 function. the spreading is equal to (2 × 1. For the C/A code. the carrier frequency is “spread” signal with the square wave function generated by the about its center frequency by an amount equal to twice the receiver. ephemeris and clock data for the Two levels of navigational accuracy are provided by satellite being tracked. When the satellite signal is multiplied work. Precise Positioning Service and Standard GPS system time of transmission. its extremely accurate positioning capability is an asset access to which the U. United States military asset. a handover word Positioning Service (HOW). It will. These simultaneous requirements to be The navigation message is superimposed on both the P both repeatable (non-random) and random give rise to the code and C/A code with a data rate of 50 bits per second (50 description of “pseudo-random”. This effect is demonstrat. Therefore.S.

presents the effect on SA and A-S on different types of GPS Anti-spoofing is designed to negate any hostile imita. Limited accuracy. This Doppler offset is proportional to the dual frequency ionosphere correction methodology is the relative velocity along the line of sight between the . A-S On C/A-Code. the errors into the satellite signal: (1) The epsilon error: an typical SPS receiver uses only the C/A code because it is error in satellite ephemeris data in the navigation message. If no stored GPS PPS receivers can use either the P code or the C/A almanac information exists. Then. ** Certain PPS-capable UE do not have P.S. or both. errors Full accuracy. errors Full accuracy.gov. A carrier tracking loop tracks the carrier frequency code phase. no errors Not spoofable** spoofable SA at Non-Zero Value Y-Code.uscg. The presence of SA is the largest source of corrections is unavailable. The C/A code remains 1107. an ionospheric modeling error present in an SPS GPS position measurement. GPS Receiver Operations unaffected. Satellite visibility is determined by user-entered these devices. the SPS user cannot rely on access to the P code during time of war. Maximum accuracy to locate and lock onto the signal from any satellite in view. in determining position. denying a potential adversary the ability to measure propagation delays between L1 and L2 and to use GPS to nominal SPS accuracy. The technique must be used. unaffected by A-S. errors spoofable spoofable SA Set to Zero Y-Code. it has to track vilian users are unaware when this P code transformation satellite signals. SA introduces two compute ionospheric delay corrections. make pseudorange measurements. A-S Off C/A-Code. a more accurate position than does SPS.* A-S Off C/A-Code. Figure 1106. as mentioned above. enough to track and lock on the P code signal without The receiver’s carrier tracking loop will locally initially tracking the C/A code. no errors Full accuracy. Since C/A is transmitted only on L1. whether off or on. SATELLITE NAVIGATION 167 SA/A-S Configuration SIS Interface Conditions PPS Users SPS Users SA Set to Zero P-Code. no errors spoofable spoofable SA at Non-Zero Value P-Code. programmed to degrade the signals’ accuracy even further Therefore.navcen.*** A-S On C/A-Code. employs this technique to the satellite signals at random times and without warning. Full accuracy. the receiver locks on the P code for while a code tracking loop tracks the C/A and P code precise positioning (subject to SA if not cryptographically signals. errors Not spoofable** spoofable * “Full accuracy” defined as equivalent to a PPS-capable UE operated in a similar manner. The C/A code is normally used to information about all the other satellites in the constel- acquire the satellite signal and determine the approximate P lation. and takes place. Figure 1106 http://www. Full accuracy. therefore. The technique alters the P code into another code.or Y-code tracking abilities and remain spoofable despite A-S protection being applied *** Assuming negligible accuracy degradation due to C/A-code operation (but more susceptible to jamming). accuracy to civilian users: selective availability (SA) and SPS receivers. Consequently. this degradation in accuracy is accounted USCG’s NAVCEN Web site: for in the 100-meter accuracy calculation. received frequency. SA can be access to the P code when transformed to the Y code. unavailable and an ionospheric modeling procedure is Two cryptographic methods are employed to deny PPS required to calculate the required corrections. no errors Full accuracy. tion of GPS signals. the user will be subject to the accuracy predictions of position. ci. satellite produced L1 frequency due to a Doppler shift in the Since the C/A code is transmitted on only one frequency. Without track. In order for the GPS receiver to navigate. measurements. and by almanac degradation of SA and will be unable to track the Y code. velocity. Some PPS receivers possess a clock accurate iterative process to acquire and track satellite signals. designated the Y code. Some PPS receivers can generate an L1 carrier frequency which differs from the track only the C/A code and disregard the P code entirely. and time. then the receiver must attempt code. provide positions anti-spoofing (A-S). the C/A code is not protected and can be spoofed. Limited accuracy. it can difference in propagation delay is then used to calculate demodulate the navigation message and read the almanac ionospheric corrections. Since anti-spoofing is applied only to the P collect navigation data. Effect of SA and A-S on GPS accuracy. The two tracking loops operate together in an equipped). code. The A-S feature denies SPS users errors into both the C/A and P code signals. the and (2) clock dither: error introduced in the satellite atomic dual frequency method of calculating ionospheric clocks’ timing. SA operates by introducing controlled with a degraded accuracy. can be checked at the frequency method. The U. A typical satellite tracking sequence begins with the Only users employing the proper cryptographic receiver determining which satellites are available for it to devices can defeat both SA and anti-spoofing. information stored internal to the receiver. The When the receiver is locked onto a satellite. is obtained by using the P code on both L1 and L2. This is less accurate than the dual status of SA.

Since this greatly increases the broadcast signals and the user’s receiver. measurements are termed pseudorange because a receiver There are special types of DOP’s for each of the clock offset makes them inaccurate. For the vertical biased by a receiver clock error. the navigation message also gives the receiver the handover geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) and the user word. Recall from the discussion in Article 1101 that the (latitude and longitude) errors. The receiver then converts this position into coordinates This velocity is then used to aid the code tracking loop. two things must be done: 1) The center There are two formal position accuracy requirements frequency of the replica must be adjusted to be the same as for GPS: the center frequency of the received signal. The receiver’s tracking loop will generate a replica of the 1108. It is independent of the quality of approaches that of an atomic clock. subject to a receiver frequency receiver solves this clock bias problem by making a fourth bias. errors in the 50 Hz receiver be given the approximate P code phase to narrow its navigation message. this handover user’s receiver. The GPS receiver uses this receiver’s position in three dimensions and of GPS time. the GDOP measures the “spread” of the satellites use do not have this capability. The seven day repeat period of the P code requires that the the predictability of the satellite’s orbit. the vertical dilution of precision (VDOP) a fourth unknown into the system of equations for which the describes the effect of satellite geometry on altitude GPS receiver must solve (the other three being the x calculations. User Range Errors and Geometric Dilution of targeted satellite’s C/A code with estimated ranging delay. For some receivers. therefore. The horizontal dilution of precision coordinate. errors due to atmospheric distortion and provides this P code phase information. the precision of the receiver’s search window to a manageable time. including the clock stability. The accuracy of these measurements will has been stripped from the carrier. the code that allows a GPS receiver to shift from C/A equivalent range error (UERE). they do not position and time solution dimensions. The worst GDOP would has read the navigation message. word is unnecessary. only a range DOP’s combine to determine the GDOP. C/A code though a millisecond search window to correlate with the received C/A code and obtain C/A tracking. around the receiver. The receiver will then slew the code loop generated shall be 100 meters 2 drms or better. they can acquire the P code directly. the receiver has an estimate of the the satellite and the receiver. The center frequency of the replica is set by meters SEP (spherical error probable) or better. allowing for a relatively small search window. is a random error navigation message. The carrier tracking loop adjusts the frequency of the pseudorange measurement. The handover word correlation process. The UERE. and 2) the phase of the replica code must be lined up with the phase of the 1) The PPS spherical position accuracy shall be 16 received code. variable. Generally the cost of the receiver. that is. These two DOP’s combine . measurements between the GPS receiver and the satellites. using the Doppler-estimated output of the carrier tracking 2) The SPS user two dimensional position accuracy loop. the product of several factors. This The GDOP depends on the geometry of the satellites in normally requires the receiver to have a clock whose accuracy relation to the user’s receiver. The handover word is the calculations to compensate for it. It is repeated in the second 30 second data which is the function of errors in both the satellites and the block of each subframe. This clock bias introduces dimension. these particular represent the true range from the satellite. The handover word is required due to the long phase The UERE is the error in the measurement of the (seven days) of the P code signal. The two most important factors affecting accuracy. most receivers for non-military marine speaking. The UERE is millisecond. Assume that a universal set of GPS pseudorange Once the carrier tracking loop and the code tracking measurements results in a set of GPS position loop have locked onto the received signal and the C/A code measurements. Precision In order to match the received signal with the internally generated replica. and z coordinate of the receiver (HDOP) describes satellite geometry’s effect on position position). The optimum case would be to have one Once the receiver has acquired the satellite signals from satellite directly overhead and the other three spaced 120° four GPS satellites. are continuously code tracking to P code tracking. the receiver is ready to occur if the satellites were spaced closely together or in a line begin making pseudorange measurements. y coordinate. Once the four frequency. resulting in a fourth equation to receiver-generated frequency until it matches the incoming allow solving for the fourth unknown. relative velocity to calculate the velocity of the receiver. referenced to an Earth model based on the World Geodetic The code tracking loop is used to make pseudorange System (1984). and around the receiver on the horizon. Recall that these overhead. The C/A code repeats every pseudoranges from each satellite to the user. and the quality of the repeated every subframe in a 30 bit long block of data in the satellite’s signal.e.168 SATELLITE NAVIGATION satellite and the receiver. This determines the relative velocity between equations are solved. achieved carrier and code tracking. the navigation message conform to a normal (i. This gives the receiver other around a mean of zero) probability function because the information crucial to a pseudorange measurement. values symmetrically distributed is demodulated and read.

These charged molecules have lost one or more night. the magnitude of in the ionosphere comes from the ultraviolet (U-V) the accuracy degradation caused by this effect will be radiation of the Sun. ∆t = --------------------------- 2 mately 50 km is the stratosphere. it stands to reason that the time delay molecules and a correspondingly high number of free value will be highest when the Sun is shining and lowest at electrons. the energy input that causes the ions to be formed lowest around 0500 local time. group time delay results in a 1109. GPS accuracy is a phenomenon known as group time delay. ionosphere on the radio frequency signals that comprise the The group time delay is a function of several elements. Experimental evidence has borne this out. Ionospheric Delay Errors delay in the time a signal takes to travel through a given distance. since GPS relies on extremely Article 1108 covered errors in GPS positions due to accurate timing measurement of these signals between errors inherent in the satellite signal (UERE) and the satellites and ground receivers. as the name implies. to determine the position dilution of precision (PDOP). showing electrons. the effects of K = constant the ionosphere are the most significant to GPS operation. The general extending from the surface of the Earth to an altitude of form of the equation describing the delay effect is: approximately 10 km. In addition to these rays. is that region of Since the Sun’s U-V radiation ionizes the molecules in the atmosphere which contains a large number of ionized the upper atmosphere. Another have a noticeable effect on the magnitude of GPS position major cause of accuracy degradation is the effect of the error. No atom will loose an electron without an input that the value for TEC is highest around 1500 local time and of energy. See Figure 1108. above the f stratosphere and extending to an altitude that varies as a where function of the time of day is the ionosphere. The PDOP combined with the time dilution of precision The largest effect that this ionospheric effect has on (TDOP) results in the GDOP. the larger the number of free electrons which will exist daily variations. The ionosphere. Consider the Earth the atmosphere’s total electron content (TEC). this group time delay can geometry of the satellite constellation (GDOP). in this region of the atmosphere. Position and time error computations. the magnitude of this time delay error also . of the degree of the atmosphere’s ionization. a measure as surrounded by three layers of atmosphere. and it is directly proportional to be useful in understanding this concept. is known as the troposphere. Finally. Obviously. Though radio ∆t = group time delay signals are subjected to effects which degrade its accuracy f = operating frequency in all three layers of this atmospheric model. Above ( K × TEC ) the troposphere and extending to an altitude of approxi. The first layer. the more intense the Sun’s highest during daylight operations. GPS signal. SATELLITE NAVIGATION 169 Figure 1108. Therefore. It is inversely proportional to the square of the frequency at A discussion of a model of the Earth’s atmosphere will which the satellite transmits. Therefore. As the name implies.

typically follows an eleven year pattern. accuracy degradation into the system. Recall from the discussion in Article delay function). the period of the variation. it is highest at the vernal equinox. then. The to copy the L2 carrier frequency. used demonstrate a diffuse reflection pattern. These ranges will be the only method of correction available. 1103 that the C/A and P codes are transmitted on carrier and a minimum value of delay are introduced. the constant term can be properties of the carrier frequencies. The equation: first reception is the direct path reception. and (2) the ionospheric delay method. a constant divided by the square of the frequency. The dual frequency minimize this multipath error. the receiver’s antenna can be designed to reject combining the two range equations derived from the two a signal that it recognizes as a reflection. different because the group time delay for each signal will be different. the high data eliminated and one is left with an equation in which the true frequency of both the P and C/A codes and their resulting range is simply a function of the two carrier frequencies and good correlation properties minimize the effect of the measured ranges R(L1) and R(L2). By In addition. the time of day. For them.S. DIFFERENTIAL GPS 1113. The range from the satellite to the user will be the true range combined with the range error Multipath reflection errors occur when the receiver caused by the time delay. the dual frequency technique coefficients representing the maximum value of the time requires the ability to acquire and track both the L1 and L2 delay (i. only those coefficients for use in this delay model are transmitted to the authorized users are able to use the dual frequency receiver in the navigation data message. (2) It alleviates the need to propagation to less than 20 feet. then it does not need any of this data. having had to travel a longer distance where R(f) is the range which differs from the actual range to the receiver. reduce the maximum error expected from multipath therefore. the signal that is received directly from the satellite. For most open ocean navigation . the higher the TEC value ionospheric correction data. The Ionospheric Delay Model frequency technique. however.e. This model is frequency L1. this effect shows a solar cycle dependence. and Positioning System provides the most accurate positions allied military. Recall that the error term is a function of signal strength of any reflection that arrives at the receiver. two major advantages over the ionospheric model method. Therefore. The L1 and L2 frequencies correction method takes two such range measurements.. The second reception is from a reflection of that same signal from the ground or any R(f) = R actual + error term other reflective surface. This Recall also that only authorized operators with access to is obviously a reasonable design consideration because it is DOD cryptographic material are able to copy the P code. The significant portion of the data message is devoted to greater the number of sunspots. but only the P code is transmitted on L2. the ionospheric delay model Given that this ionospheric delay introduces a serious provides the correction for the group time delay. at the time of day when the maximum diurnal time delay It follows. The GPS signal is designed to as a function of the carrier frequency. As stated in Article correction method. this method of correction is not as accurate as the dual the distance between the satellite and the user based on frequency method. frequency signals. include ionospheric data on the navigation message. The direct path signal arrives first.170 SATELLITE NAVIGATION varies with the seasons. how does GPS ac- count for it? There are two methods used: (1) the dual 1111. The value for this time delay is determined from a cosinusoidal function into which As the term implies. The next solar The vast majority of maritime users cannot copy dual cycle will be at a minimum in 2006 and peak again in 2010. Differential GPS Concept available to navigators today. In addition to the frequency measurements. A Finally. The design features mentioned above combine to (1) It calculates corrections from real-time measured data. If the receiver is dual and the greater the group time delay effect. Dual Frequency Correction Technique the diurnal ionospheric variation. the amplitude of the cosine wave representing the frequency signals. They should also make clear that the most accurate positioning information is available The discussions above make it clear that the Global to only a small fraction of the using population: U. This method has multipath propagation. that only those authorized users are able occurs that the largest magnitude of error appears. lowering the R(L1) and R(L2). The solar cycle frequency capable. for the non-military user. it is more accurate. the reflected signal. designed to be most accurate at the diurnal maximum. arrives later. This is because of the frequency dependence 1112. it is both the L1 and L2 carrier signal. The ionospheric delay model mathematically models 1110. The dual frequency method measures 1110. Multipath Reflection Errors of the time delay error. as shown by the following detects parts of the same signal at two different times.

it accuracy provided by this navigational method is required then calculates the theoretical time it should take for a to ensure ship’s safety. In open While many marine GPS receivers incorporate WAAS waters of the continental U. DGPS accuracy will commonly degrade by an States. It is a different situation as the mariner approaches Located on an accurately surveyed site. is within 100 miles of he DGPS transmitter. The restricted channel. position is available for them to plot. WAAS was designed to provide tional signals are sent from geostationary satellites via HF 7 meter accuracy 95% of the time. for coverage of the entire U. with reference The WAAS signal. and all the other error sources the two concept of Differential GPS (DGPS). the user’s receiver is close enough to take if ever needs greater than 100 meter accuracy in the middle advantage of any DGPS correction signal. 100 meter this difference in time is caused by all the errors to which accuracy is not sufficient to ensure ship’s safety in most the GPS signal is subjected. This difference in his way through a restricted channel in a thick fog will time between the theoretical and the actual is the basis for certainly appreciate the fact that even a degraded GPS the DGPS receiver’s computation of a timing error signal. and parts of Mexico additional 1 meter per 100 miles from the transmitter site. WAAS/LAAS for Aeronautical Use circuitry (but not the more accurate. The theory behind a DGPS system is straightforward. except that correc. the receiver already knows its location. DGPS was designed to signals directly to the user’s GPS receiver. providing an electronic readout of availability. At low angles to the horizon. the degraded accuracy inherent in selective extremely high altitude of the GPS satellites means that. The errors which contribute to GPS DGPS position can be used as the primary input to an accuracy degradation. The problem then becomes how to obtain user’s receivers are simultaneously subject.S. on the other hand. Knowing the two locations. effect of which is to correct for selective availability. SATELLITE NAVIGATION 171 applications.S. A mariner seldom user’s receiver. WAAS is intended for enroute air navigation. WAAS is not optimized for surface navigation because the In 1994 the National Telecommunications and Infor. the order of a few meters. Any mariner who has groped it actually takes for the signal to arrive. as is the case use one can expect about 1-3 meter accuracy when the user with DGPS. This is an extremely displaying the correct position for the navigator to plot. The 100 meter accuracy of GPS in satellite’s signal to reach it. except for receiver piloting situations. as availability and the inability to copy the precision code long as the DGPS receiver is within 100-200 km of the presents no serious hazard to navigation. DGPS results in positions accurately surveyed position utilizes GPS signals to at least as accurate as those obtainable by the Precise calculate timing errors and then broadcasts a correction Positioning Service. It receives data which mariner will shift to visual piloting. the mariner needs P error and multipath error. Both systems have been found in actual use to provide The Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS) is accuracies somewhat better than designed. The DGPS the accuracy of the Precise Positioning Service with due system then broadcasts a timing correction signal. are experienced simultaneously by both the position accurate enough to pilot safely in the most DGPS receiver and a relatively close user’s receiver. flows around them and continues on unblocked. the for the Department of Transportation which concluded that WAAS signal may be blocked and the resulting GPS the optimum mix of enhanced GPS systems for overall ci. position accuracy significantly degraded with no warning. Typically for harbor approaches and piloting. This capability is not limited to simply signal to account for these errors. while not certified for use in the stations located at airports and broadcasting their correction marine environment as is DGPS. The answer to this seeming dilemma lies in the ionospheric delay. the WAAS signal can be . ionospheric time delay and selective electronic chart system. WAAS AND LAAS IN MARINE NAVIGATION 1114. The powerful concept. vilian use would consist of DGPS for marine and terrestrial The DGPS signal. on concept is similar to the DGPS concept. navigational tool if its limitations are understood. The Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) The accuracy of WAAS and DGPS is comparable. the DGPS shore. The increase in tell it where the satellite is. the regard to the legitimate security concerns of the U.S. is a terrain-following use and a combined WAAS/LAAS system for air signal that is unaffected by objects in its path. In this situation. This eliminates provide 10 meter accuracy 95% of the time. and Canada. to which both the DGPS and the code accuracy. HF radio signals are line-of-sight and are transmitted from mation Administration (NTIA) produced a technical report geostationary satellites. receivers share in common. It then compares the time that this situation is not sufficient. It simply navigation. Differential GPS is a system in which a receiver at an For suitably equipped users. errors. shorter-range LAAS). intended for precision airport approaches. Over 100 with 25 reference stations widely spaced across the United miles. of the ocean. military. However.. can be a very useful message on VHF radio frequencies. but in actual the need for a separate receiver and antenna.

150 meters vertical. problem for the GLONASS system. which does provide warning of WAAS WAAS signal may be blocked. provide position.8 degrees. military asset gree of accuracy (for systems that can integrate both that can be degraded for civilian use on order of the U. A great deal of preliminary sci. ual satellites by 45 degrees. a far more cost-efficient way to place The user segment consists of various types of receivers that them in orbit and maintain the constellation. civilian uses The Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS). Disruption of either system might leave Euro- pean users without their primary navigation system at a 1116. GPS satellites are only launched one at a the former Soviet Union. the primary one being that GPS is a U. the planes separated by 120 degrees and the individ- cost and size of receivers have plummeted. Economic during ongoing development. time. The ground segment of GLONASS lies entirely within While U.S. operating in 25 ian use that GPS does not: integrity monitoring.172 SATELLITE NAVIGATION expected to be available and useful. on the same rocket. Government (as is the Russian satellite navigation system and the full constellation is scheduled to be up by 2008. In early 2002 the European Union erational. or in any area where tall buildings.S. there being no provision MHz.] accuracy is necessary in the most confined waters. channels with 0. and velocity information. Manufacturers will undoubtedly offer a variety of (EU) decided to fund the development of its new Galileo systems which exploit the best technologies of both GPS satellite navigation system. Reliability has been an ongoing time. Galileo will also provide an important feature for civil. The designed system fix accuracy for civilian altitude of 23. SATELLITE NAVIGATION SYSTEMS 1115. will be two separate satellite navigation systems to rely on. Frequency sharing with GPS studies have emphasized this need. The orbits are at an (10. an additional 15 cm/sec. and is based on the same principles as GPS.5 MHz.313 nm). and the resulting GPS fix satellite signal failure. but new satellite de- turization techniques that will allow several to be launched signs with longer life spans are addressing these concerns. GLONASS signals are in the L-band. Galileo should be first available in 2005. Outside the U. alerting the user that the system is Since the development of GPS. and Galileo. Currently. 15minutes at an altitude of 19. WAAS LAAS data. in velocity. has been in use point that GPS planners are developing new frequencies since 1993. Its WAAS can enhance the navigator’s situational range is about 30 miles. but availability is not assured. 2000). ing. and designed to serve higher latitudes than GPS. but is only available in selected areas near airports.S. and from 1240 to 1260 receiving proper satellite signals. about 11hours. Several factors influenced the decision to develop Ga. is less subject to block- should be used with extreme caution in these areas. eral marine navigational use. . GLONASS). may contain Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring trees.. The issue of compatibility with GPS is being addressed ellite navigation system independent of GPS. various European operating improperly. to the under the control of the Russian military. a marine receiver will provide no indication when has WAAS circuitry and is programmed to use the WAAS WAAS data is not a part of the fix.750 nm). It is therefore not suitable for gen- awareness when available. providing not only redundancy.5625 MHz separation in 2 bands: from a civilian GPS user receives no indication that his unit is not 1602. systems’ signals). and removes the affected signal from could be in error by many meters. The and enhancements to GPS for civilian use (WAAS and space segment consists of 24 satellites in three orbital LAAS). councils and commissions have expressed a need for a sat. and the orbital period is satellites (27 usable and three spares) in three orbital planes. broadcast on VHF. Military codes provide accuracies of factor in the EU decision. Galileo will be use is 100 meters horizontal (95%).S. are proliferating far more rapidly than anticipated. participation. and the planes. SA has been turned off (as of May 1. GLONASS critical time. Since the highest the fix solution. and technological stud. enable the full deployment of Galileo over the next few The benefit of Galileo for the navigator is that there years. Integration with existing shipboard electronic entific work has already been accomplished.100 km each inclined 56 degrees to the equator.S. However. Galileo satellites are being designed with new minia. the (RAIM) software. In contrast. which will systems such as ECDIS and ECS will be ensured. NON-U. The orbits are inclined to the Plans call for the Galileo constellation to consist of 30 equator at an angle of 64. The Galileo System for such notification in the code. Galileo will pro- vide such a signal. but also an increased de- lileo. and it is reasonable to assume that a ies by the European Space Agency over several years have high degree of compatibility will exist when Galileo is op- proven its feasibility. or other obstructions rise above the horizon.616 km (about 12. [Aircraft GPS receivers data. Galileo will be under civilian con- trol and dedicated primarily to civilian use.5625 MHz to 1615. is under discussion. provided the receiver Further. It is important to note that since GPS has been operational. based on Scandinavian some 10-20 meters horizontal.