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1800. Solar Time Sun will be on the observer’s meridian again when the Earth
has moved to point C in its orbit. Thus, during the course of
The Earth’s rotation on its axis causes the Sun and a day the Sun appears to move eastward with respect to the
other celestial bodies to appear to move across the sky from stars.
east to west each day. If a person located on the Earth’s The apparent positions of the stars are commonly
equator measured the time interval between two successive reckoned with reference to an imaginary point called the
transits overhead of a very distant star, he would be vernal equinox, the intersection of the celestial equator and
measuring the period of the Earth’s rotation. If he then the ecliptic. The period of the Earth’s rotation measured
made a similar measurement of the Sun, the resulting time
with respect to the vernal equinox is called a sidereal day.
would be about 4 minutes longer. This is due to the Earth’s
The period with respect to the Sun is called an apparent
motion around the Sun, which continuously changes the
solar day.
apparent place of the Sun among the stars. Thus, during the
course of a day the Sun appears to move a little to the east When measuring time by the Earth’s rotation, using the
among the stars, so that the Earth must rotate on its axis actual position of the Sun, or the apparent Sun, results in
through more than 360° in order to bring the Sun overhead apparent solar time. Use of the apparent Sun as a time ref-
again. erence results in time of non-constant rate for at least three
See Figure 1800. If the Sun is on the observer’s meridian reasons. First, revolution of the Earth in its orbit is not con-
when the Earth is at point A in its orbit around the Sun, it will stant. Second, time is measured along the celestial equator
not be on the observer’s meridian after the Earth has rotated and the path of the real Sun is not along the celestial equa-
through 360° because the Earth will have moved along its tor. Rather, its path is along the ecliptic, which is tilted at an
orbit to point B. Before the Sun is again on the observer’s angle of 23° 27' with respect to the celestial equator. Third,
meridian, the Earth must turn a little more on its axis. The rotation of the Earth on its axis is not constant.

Figure 1800. Apparent eastward movement of the Sun with respect to the stars.


631. 1995 is (+) 00m05s. proceed as follows. correction to 1200 to obtain the exact time of meridian UT0 is the rotational time of a particular place of passage. daily pages. the apparent noon.192. 1995. add the 37 second out minor variations in the rotation of the Earth. and varies 16m22s in November. hour of mean solar time. use the time listed under equation of time is listed in the bottom right hand corner of the “Mer. The time of the Sun at meridian passage 1802. Equation of Time line between the values for upper and lower meridian passage on April 16th indicates that the sign of the equation Mean solar time. therefore. upper meridian passage is given as 1159. 1994. Example 1: Determine the time of the Sun’s meridian passage (Local Apparent Noon) on June 16. 1994. apparent solar time of upper meridian passage. 1994. If the Almanac lists the time of meridian passage as Coordinated Universal Time. Atomic time is defined by the Systeme International To determine the exact time of meridian passage. listed in the Almanac to find the dividing line marking where ent Sun with a fictitious mean Sun. Figure 1801. The navigator most often deals with the equation of time indicating that on April 18. All values for the equation of time on the same side Sun. used as a 1200. is listed on the right hand Day Eqn. is sometimes ahead of and sometimes behind meridian passage on this date. the equation of time is when determining the time of upper meridian passage of the positive. meridian when the mean Sun indicated 1200 local time. 1995. The value of meridian passage Universal time (UT) is counted from 0 hours at from the “Mer. Were it not for the difference in rate between equation of time for upper meridian passage of the Sun on the mean and apparent Sun. observed as the diurnal motion of stars or 1994. SUN MOON the equation of time at meridian transit. averaging passage occurs after 1200. with a duration of 9. apparent solar time. This mean Sun moves the equation of time changes between positive and negative eastward along the celestial equator at a uniform speed equal values. There are two ways to solve the problem. This difference. Examine the equations of time standard reference worldwide for certain purposes.276 TIME To obtain a constant rate of time. provides a uniform measure of time which approximates the average apparent time. Upper meridian passage. is 12h00m37s. because of irregularities in the Earth’s rotation. Therefore. To calculate latitude and longitude at LAN. This value is listed radiation corresponding to the transition between two immediately to the left of the “Mer. The equation of time for April 16. Pass. 1994. to determine the correct sign for the equation of time.4 minutes. 17. The therefore. Examine the trend of the values near this dividing line to the average speed of the apparent Sun along the ecliptic.”column. with a duration of one mean solar day. April 18. or UTC. the value is given as 00m37s.” column indicates that meridian midnight. Mer. Determine the time of the speed of the mean Sun along the celestial equator is 15° per upper meridian passage of the Sun on April 16. Pass. Upper Lower Age Phase The sign of the equation of time is negative if the time m s m s h m h m h m d of Sun’s meridian passage is earlier than 1200 and positive 16 00 02 00 05 12 00 00 26 12 55 16 17 00 13 00 20 12 00 01 25 13 54 17 if later than 1200.” column to estimate LAN unless extraordinary the page. is kept . therefore. this value is 1201. Pass. of Time Mer. use (SI) second. daily pages of the Nautical Almanac. is called the equation of time. observation. depending on the accuracy required for the value of meridian passage.770 cycles of the value given for the equation of time. Therefore. International Atomic Time (TAI) is an international time Use the “12h” column because the problem asked for scale based on the average of a number of atomic clocks. For June 16. The dividing 1801. the Nautical seldom requires the time of meridian passage to accuracies Almanac’s right hand daily page for June 16. Therefore: Apparent Time = Mean Time 18 00 27 00 33 11 59 02 25 14 55 18 + (equation of time). Solution: From Figure 1801. This mean Sun. therefore. Pass. is offset from exactly 1200 mean solar time. The Sun transits the observer’s upper meridian at local of the dividing line as April 18th are positive. extraterrestrial radio sources. is given as 1200. the navigator Solution: See Figure 2008 in Chapter 20. upper meridian passage of the Sun on April 16. The exact time of meridian passage for June 16. or mean time as it is commonly of time changes between lower meridian passage and upper called. This time difference. 00h 12h Pass. The Example 2: See Figure 1801. For June 16. we replace the appar. UT1 is computed by correcting UT0 for the effect of The equation of time’s maximum value approaches polar motion on the longitude of the observer. 18.” column on the hyperfine levels of the ground state of cesium 133. however. 1995. 1995. the Sun would be on the observer’s April 16. which never exceeds becomes: does it become positive or negative? Note that on about 16. Pass. takes place at 11h59m55s. The greater than one minute. accuracy is required. Fundamental Systems of Time is given to the nearest minute in the “Mer. the question. 1995. meridian passage at LAN.

minutes. it indicates how much of a day has 4. each obtain minutes of time. . minutes. That is. 3. 4. 6. 1 Example 2: Convert 215° 24' 45" to time units.25' = 15" Solution: of arc. Multiply the hours by 15 to obtain degrees of arc. In the Nautical Almanac. Divide the minutes of arc by 15 to obtain minutes Time of day is an indication of the phase of rotation of of time.S. permitting Therefore any time interval can be expressed as an separate entries with degrees. of arc. Multiply the remainder of step 2 by 15 to obtain theoretical usage. and seconds. One day represents one complete rotation of the Earth. Time and Arc 1. indicated above. Dynamical time has replaced ephemeris time in 3.9 seconds of TAI. minute has 60 seconds. Divide the minutes of time by four to obtain seconds. minutes. Intercon. seconds. (6) 14h21m39s = 215° 24' 45" To convert arc to time: 1803. or 360° ÷ of time. Moon. obtain seconds of time. It differs from TAI by an integral number of 2. This table is arranged in this manner because the version of these units can be made by the relationships navigator converts arc to time more often than the reverse. and GPS (2) 21m ÷ 4 = 005° 00' 00" (remainder 1) signals have a time reference encoded in the data message. and is based on the orbital motions of the minutes of arc. Multiply the remainder from step 3 by four to elapsed. 24 = 15° 6. is defined as 86. The U. 2. also known as Terrestrial minutes of arc Dynamical Time (TDT). and vice versa. One hour later. but is always kept within 0. (1) 215° ÷ 15 = 14h00m00s remainder 5 Summarizing in table form: (2) 5×4 = 00h20m00s (3) 24' ÷ 15 = 00h01m00s remainder 9 (4) 9×4 = 00h00m36s 1d =24h =360° (5) 45" ÷ 15 = 00h00m03s 60m =1h =15° 4m = 1° =60' (6) 215° 24' 45" = 14h21m39s 60s = 1m = 15' 4s = 1' = 60" Solutions can also be made using arc to time conversion 1s = 15" = 0. Naval Observatory Master Clock is used to coordinate Loran signals. and seconds. One nanosecond (one (5) 3 × 15 = 000° 00' 45" one-billionth of a second) of time is roughly equivalent to one foot on the Earth for the GPS system. the table given near the back of the volume is in two parts. Multiply the remainder by 15 to obtain seconds of arc. (3) 1 × 15 = 000° 15' 00" GPS time is normally within 15 nanoseconds with SA off. the Earth 5. Divide the seconds of arc by 15 to obtain seconds has turned through 1/24 of a day. minute of time is equivalent to 15° ÷ 60 = 0. Solution: Dissemination of time is an inherent part of various (1) 14h × 15 = 210° 00' 00" electronic navigation systems. the geoid.25' tables in the almanacs. since 1 hour or 60 minutes is equivalent to 15° of arc. Thus. rotation with respect to the stars. at zero hours the day begins. and quarter minutes equivalent amount of rotation. and has a unit of duration related to the period of the Earth’s Example 1: Convert 14h21m39s to arc. or what part of a rotation has been completed. or 1/24 of 360°. Earth. Delta T is the difference between UT1 and TDT. (4) 39s ÷ 4 = 000° 09' 00" (remainder 3) about 70 nanoseconds with SA on. using the To convert time to arc: Nautical Almanac arc to time conversion table. and planets.400 seconds on 5. the Earth. Divide the seconds of time by four to obtain Terrestrial time (TT). degrees. Smaller intervals can also be stated in angular units. Add the resulting hours. Sidereal time is the hour angle of the vernal equinox. Add the resulting degrees. Divide the degrees by 15 to obtain hours. and 1 second of time is equivalent to 15' ÷ 60 = 0. Example 3: Convert 334°18'22" to time units. TIME 277 within one second of TAI by the introduction of leap 1. Multiply the remainder from step 1 by four to Each day is divided into 24 hours of 60 minutes.25° = 15' of arc.

The time is changed as convenient. Since a chronometer is set approximately to from being in error and to provide a starting place for each GMT and not reset until it is overhauled and cleaned about new day. called the zone 334° 00. either fast (F) or slow (S). At any instant the date approximately 18m. 156°24.) Since time grows later toward the east and earlier toward ZT 18h27m09s the west of an observer. day later than the date immediately to the east of the line. Each time zone is identified by the number solution to the nearest second of time. 039°04. The mean Sun is the 334° 18' 22" = 22h17m13s celestial reference point for zone time. a positive ZD is subtracted. a positive ZT is added and a 1804.4' W. is it the same date around the earth. the time meridian or zone meridian. This line every 3 years. when crossing the boundary Convert the 22" to the nearest quarter minute of arc for between zones. normally set to some form of zone time (ZT). and a negative one added. and designated gaining or losing. traveling eastward from east longitude to west longitude. The Date Line ZD –03 h (rev. any difference of Required: (1) ZT at long. (2) GMT 15h27m09s 1805. To prevent the date chronometer. usually at a whole hour. Interpolate if more of times the longitude of its zone meridian is divisible by precise results are required. and time in consecutive zones differs by 4. Time and Longitude negative one subtracted. or daily rate. converting GMT to ZT.8' E. This number and its sign. watches and clocks are 12h04m21s. An hour later the Earth would Example: The GMT is 15h27m09s.1 second. have turned through 15°. time is the same. expressed in time units. is the number of whole hours that are 000° 18. If a person is error in 24 hours is called chronometer rate. Since chronometer error is subject to immediately to the west of the date line (east longitude) is 1 change. See Figure 1806. places east of an observer have later time. Therefore.5° on each side of the time meridian the 3. it should be determined from time to time. Chronometer rate is recorded to the nearest 0. there is nearly always a chronometer error coincides with the 180th meridian over most of its length. Zone Time Example: At GMT 1200 on May 12 the chronometer reads At sea.00m = 22h16m00s description (ZD). depending upon the direction of reckoning. expressed ZT 05h27m09s in units of time instead of arc. within a time 2. preferably daily at sea. . Thus. May 27. at precisely Greenwich Chronometer time (C) is time indicated by a noon. longitude between two points is a measure of the angle (2) ZT at long.) The difference in time between two places is equal to the difference of longitude between their meridians. It is recorded to the nearest whole or half second.25m = 00h01m13s added to or subtracted from the zone time to obtain Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). Chronometer error at GMT 0530. and when the date line is crossed the per day for three years. and the difference is exactly (1) GMT 15h27m09s equal to the difference in longitude. In (CE). zone extending 7. 1806. A traveler circling the Earth gains or 1807. Chronometer error is found by radio When solving celestial problems. as well as ashore. Suppose the Sun were directly over a certain point on the Earth at a given time. 1. we convert local time to time signal. The change in chronometer crossing this line. With a consistent rate of 1s time is becoming later. the chronometer error would total date becomes 1 day earlier. Converting ZT to GMT. the same instrument. by comparison with another timepiece of known Greenwich time and then convert this to local time on the error. Chronometer error at 1200 GMT May 12. and the Sun would then be directly over a meridian 15° farther west. 15°. At GMT 1600 on May 18 it reads 4h04m25s. Chronometer Time loses an entire day depending on the direction of travel. Chronometer error at 1600 GMT May 18. or by applying chronometer rate to previous readings of opposite side of the date line. and only for a single instant of time. At sea the nearest meridian exactly divisible by 15° is usually used as Required: . time at the lower branch of one’s meridian is 12 hours earlier or later. Chronometer rate. ZD +10h (rev. and Solutions: those west have earlier time. a date line is fixed by informal agreement. Thus. the date is altered by one day. through which the Earth must rotate to separate them.278 TIME Solution: exactly one hour. positive in west longitude and negative in east longitude.

TIME 279 Figure 1806. Time Zone Chart. .

(F)4m21s This may also be at some selected GMT.5d) and read immediately after the altitude is taken. as they can be set from a convenient GMT diff. the chronometer time to find GMT. the date at the place farther east is one day later GMT as an intermediate step. GMT 27d05h30m watch time. Digital stopwatches and wristwatches are ideal GMT 18d16h00m for this purpose. At each zone meridian. and a time diagram used to avoid error. the local mean error. the watch can be set exactly to difference in longitude between the local and time meridian ZT or GMT. without compensating (F)4m21s CE 1600 May 18 advantages. without finding GMT). If the observer is west of the time meridian. 4s (gained) If a stopwatch is used for timing observations. except that the correct time.280 TIME Solutions: with a 24-hour dial is used. Sidereal Time check it for accuracy. sign of difference of longitude is reversed. CE Even though a watch is set to zone time approximately. the correction is subtracted.6s (gain) be started at some convenient GMT. the has a second-setting hand. Thus.5° (30m) from the time meridian. except that for timing celestial observations it may differ by more than 7. to approximate GMT and Greenwich date. This is ignored in finding chronometer reference. The GMT may be in error by 12h. including zone description to local time to obtain approximate 0°. like zone time. its time is designated am before noon 16h00m00s C 04 04 25 and pm after noon. rather than a zone meridian. GMT 12h00m00s May 12 C To determine watch error compare the reading of the 12h04m21s CE watch with that of the chronometer at a selected moment. start the watch and 1810. If a watch equinox) as the celestial reference point. Local Mean Time CE (F)4m30s 0530 May 27 Local mean time (LMT). Watch Time added. if chronometer error is applied to time at each meridian differs from every other meridian. the actual GMT should be determined. and presents a 06d04h = 6. set it to not normally encountered in navigation. such as a whole 5m or 10m. LMT and ZT are identical. GMT May 18 graduated to 24 hours. some whole minute slightly ahead of the correct time and stopped. the correction is 1808. The problem is usually one of the kind of time used (mean or apparent) is between the converting the LMT taken from the table to ZT. GMT observations. the difference is by one hour. It differs from chronometer time on a 12-hour basis. and twilight tables. The time of each observation is then the GMT plus the 4. uses the Because GMT is on a 24-hour basis and mean Sun as the celestial reference point. If the watch is can be used. labeled fast (F) or slow (S) Conversion of ZT (including GMT) to LMT is the to indicate whether the watch is ahead of or behind the same as conversion in the opposite direction. known as watch error (WE). Unless a watch is 2. the longitude zone time. × rate 1809. At sea. a 12-hour error can difference being equal to the difference of longitude result. a 12-hour zone time in that the local meridian is used as the terrestrial ambiguity exists. the lower branches of two time meridians (as the standard difference between the times is normally not more than meridian for local time. If the Sun for setting. (F)4m25s diff. but if the watch is Sidereal time uses the first point of Aries (vernal graduated to 12 hours. This can be resolved by mentally applying the expressed in time units. correction equal to the difference of longitude. When the set time arrives. (+)0m05s diff. Watch time (WT) is usually an approximation of Where there is an irregular zone boundary. 12d12h diff. If the watch If LMT is to be corrected to daylight saving time. and the time is so designated. This is done by applying a than at the place farther west.2d CE 1200 May 12 greater probability of error. In this case the 12-hour ambiguity in GMT 18d16h GMT should be resolved. it is found from ZT. This method requires additional work. This problem is If a watch is to be set exactly to ZT or GMT. and the Greenwich meridian for 30m. Since the Earth . A time diagram can be used for resolving doubt as In navigation the principal use of LMT is in rising. this will not be reflected. is easiest to set a comparing watch to GMT. GMT. However. If Greenwich time is desired. and if east of it. 08d13h30m (8. or the ZT can first be found and then increased not set exactly to one of these times. and the conversion is made directly. 1. CE (F)4m25s 1600 May 18 corr. (F)4m25s its error on GMT can be determined and used for timing 3. it should daily rate 0.

and LHA = 360° – t (E).7' of Aries. which is labeled east or of mean solar time units to mean sidereal time units is west. to indicate the direction of 1:1. If time is needed to Consider a very simple system consisting of an better than 3 milliseconds. Radio time signals can be used either to perform a ease of use. This the time it takes the signal to pass through the receiver. scientific requirements. later than the on-time transmitter signal. nation. measurement. since both indicate the angular Solution: distance of a celestial reference point west of a terrestrial GMT 3h24m16s June 1 reference meridian. LAT = one revolution about the Sun (1 year) it makes one complete LHA apparent Sun plus or minus 180°. the majority employ some type of radio transmission. When using a radio wave served. signal. mean Sun. Time might be used in this 24m16s 6°04. time and frequency dissemination systems. TIME 281 revolves around the Sun. The ratio way is called meridian angle (t). Time And Hour Angle Example: Find LHA and t of the Sun at GMT 3h24m16s on Both time and hour angle are a measure of the phase of June 1. Dissemination Systems as received are more than adequate for ordinary needs. Among the Way) and by the mutual observation of navigation satellites more important elements are accuracy. Local hour angle measured in this guished from the slightly irregular sidereal time. local hour angle (LHA) at two places This accounts for the daily shift of the stars nearly 1° differs by their difference in longitude. 1975. availability of time signal. In solar days. No single system incorporates all desired charac- instead of a clock. reliability. of mean solar units) than with respect to the Sun. teristics. it is often convenient to express hour angle in correspondingly shorter. Sidereal time is Earth’s rotation and revolution are the same. triangle. and since the direction of the Time is customarily expressed in time units. and LHA at westward each night. coverage. it completes a measured from the upper branch of the celestial meridian. The most accurate means of time and frequency dissemination today is by the mutual exchange of time A number of common elements characterize most signals through communication (commonly called Two. when it is to be distin. λ 118°48. applies to any 3h 225°35. leaving the transmitter at 0000 UTC. ambiguity. This is similar to measurement of longitude from the rate is called mean sidereal time. Characteristic Elements of Dissemination emissions or established systems such as radionavigation Systems systems.5' W RADIO DISSEMINATION OF TIME SIGNALS 1812. and LST = LHA Aries.5' measured from the upper branch of the celestial meridian. and the solution for kilometer it takes the radio wave to propagate and arrive at one user may not be satisfactory to another. new considerations evolve. Hence. will reach the In most cases standard time and frequency emissions receiver at a later time equivalent to the propagation . a correction must be made for unmodulated 10-kHz signal as shown in Figure 1813. sidereal time terms of the shorter arc between the local meridian and the is not quite constant in rate. and its hours. repeat- (commonly called Common View). Greenwich meridian. but only the apparent Sun. and are LHA 112°51. LHA = t (W). t 112°51. sidereal days are shorter than longitude 0° is called Greenwich hour angle (GHA). celestial reference point remains almost fixed in relation to Meridian angle is used in the solution of the navigational the stars. 118°48. Hour angle. Because of nutation.6s hour angle. ability. The relative importance of these characteristics One is the delay time of approximately 3 microseconds per will vary from one user to the next. either in dedicated time and frequency 1813. like longitude. many systems exist for the more exacting Of the many systems for time and frequency dissemi. but solar time is measured from the lower branch. rotation of the Earth. Thus. LMT = LHA mean Sun plus or minus 180°. the first point GHA 231°39. and during Thus. A westerly meridian angle is numerically A navigator very seldom uses sidereal time.00273791.2' W. and occasionally the Moon. for long. a user 1. rotation more with respect to the stars than with the Sun.2' W Hour angles are usually expressed in arc units.000 kilometers from a common elements are discussed in the following transmitter receives the time signal about 3 milliseconds examination of a hypothetical radio signal. cost to the user. However.0' respect. while an easterly meridian angle is equal to Astronomers use it to regulate mean time because its 360° – LHA. like rotation with respect to the stars in less time (about 3m56. Time based upon the average body. As with time. equal to LHA. minutes. however. however. These the reception point. 1811. and seconds are addition. and the number of users clock’s function or to set clocks.7' point on the celestial sphere. are commonly used.

the likelihood teristics of standard time signals assigned to allocated that a time signal will be available when scheduled. including the Earth.773 kilometers per second). the signal is ambiguous and the 1814. The propagation media. This means. transmitted with little or no degradation in accuracy. influence the stability and accuracy of received radio signals. Propagation delays are affected in varying degrees by extraneous radiations in the propagation media.S. Standard Time Broadcasts other in some known way. No. For such dedicated to know the time perhaps to a minute or so.e. line-of-sight practical consideration when measurements are frequencies. In a vacuum and with a noise-free background. Naval Observatory twice a day. increases confidence that all measurements can be related to each 1815. However. while broadcasts of the lower carrier undertaken in the field. in the case of the hypothetical 10-kHz Radio has been used to transmit standard time and signal. the International Radio requiring only coarse time information. such as a single time broadcast. The most accurate scattered or remote locations. the signals should be received at a distant point essentially as transmitted. solar disturbances. except for a constant path delay with the radio wave propagating near the speed of light (299. perhaps only once or should not exceed 1 X 10-10.. One way is to divide those carrier frequencies low enough to be reflected by the ionosphere (below 30 MHz) from those sufficiently high to penetrate Figure 1813. atmosphere. and weather conditions. bands. as well as physical and electrical characteristics of transmitters and receivers.282 TIME delay. The has allocated certain frequencies in five bands for standard man on the street who has to keep an appointment needs frequency and time signal emission. This is a very important systems tend to be those which use the higher. 2. that the user must know the time to ± 50 frequency signals since the early 1900’s. Another important characteristic The World Administrative Radio Council (WARC) of a timing system is the percent of time available. gives charac- frequency dissemination is reliability. The user must know this delay because the Propagation fade-out can sometimes prevent reception of accuracy of his knowledge of time can be no better than HF signals. a user who needs time to fractional frequency deviations from the internationally a few microseconds employs a very good clock which designated standard for measurement of time interval only needs an occasional update. diurnal effects. Further. the coverage of a system is an important concept. Although standard frequency transmissions. he wants it on Consultative Committee (CCIR) recommends that carrier demand. the degree to which the delay is known. i. for an information by radio entails propagation of electromagnetic extended period of time to check his clock or frequency energy from a transmitter to a distant receiver. As opposed to the microseconds (half the period of the signal). Radio Wave Propagation Factors user must somehow decide which cycle is the “on time” cycle. The U. if the delay varies from one day to the In a typical standard frequency and time broadcast. the transfer of user may desire to use this system. Radio dissemination systems can be classified in a number of different ways. the physical transfer of time via portable clocks. In addition. Since all cycles of the signal are identical. They would accuracy. Thus. and ionosphere. On the other hand. . the latter are restricted to line-of-sight like all measurements to be referenced to one time system applications but show little or no signal deterioration to eliminate corrections for different time systems used at caused by propagation anomalies. system. so he carries a wristwatch that gives the time 24 frequencies be maintained so that the average daily hours a day. the next without the user knowing. a one-reference frequencies show the greatest number of users. accuracy will be limited signals are directly related to some master clock and are by the lack of repeatability. the ionosphere (above 30 MHz). An additional characteristic of time and Time Service Announcement Series 1. Single tone time dissemination. The former can be observed at great distances from the transmitter but suffer Many users are interested in making time coordinated from ionospheric propagation anomalies that limit measurements over large geographic areas. as reported by the CCIR. dependent upon the frequency of the transmission and length of signal path. say once a day. standard. among others.

station WWVH transmits from Kauai.001s as transmitted. Broadcast format of station WWV. have no automatic Hawaii on the same frequencies with the exception of 20. Normally. Colorado these signals because they are required to be accurate to at at the internationally allocated frequencies of 2. WWVB. In this instance the operator is guided by the standard frequencies. Most maritime nations broadcast time signals several The various time signal systems used throughout the times daily from one or more stations. Absolute reliance may be placed on Station WWV broadcasts from Fort Collins. NIST Frequency and Time Dissemination Services. least 0. The Coordinated (NIST) broadcasts continuous time and frequency Universal Time (UTC) as received by a vessel may differ reference signals from WWV. The clock is checked by astronomical these broadcasts are given in NIST Special Publication observations or radio time signals and is normally correct to 432.0 MHz. 117. and the signals are given by MHz. standards laboratory. or begun at least three days prior to departure. the time transmitted is maintained virtually The National Institute of Standards and Technology uniform with respect to atomic clocks. GOES satellite system. TIME 283 1816. if conditions permit. Radio Naviga- equipped with radio receiving equipment normally has no tional Aids. Other radio stations. Because of their wide coverage and The majority of radio time signals are transmitted relative simplicity. popularly called time they are determined. Time Signals be maintained. The broadcast signals include standard time and hand.0. Both HF emissions are directly controlled by cesium beam At sea. Signals.0 transmission system installed. the HF services from WWV and automatically. and 20. WWVH. .9 second. ticks. 10. and a vessel world are discussed in NIMA Pub. 5. 15.25 second. and in port daily checks should atomic frequency and time standards. however. and volume 5 of Admiralty List of Radio difficulty in obtaining a time tick anywhere in the world. Details of clock at the station. a spring-driven chronometer should be checked frequency standards with periodic reference to the NIST daily by radio time signal. Error and rate are entered in The usual method of determining chronometer error the chronometer record book (or record sheet) each time and daily rate is by radio time signals. being controlled by the standard clock of an astronomical observatory or a national measurement WWVH are used extensively for navigation.5.0. 0. and the from (GMT) by as much as 0.0. Figure 1816a. Only the United States signals are discussed here. and various voice announcements.

except for omission of the 29th and 59th marker about 0. Each pulse is preceded by 10 variations in the rate of rotation of the Earth. With the exception of the beginning tone at UT1. each minute. The time ticks in the WWV and WWVH emissions are 1817. The Central Bureau of the International Earth Rotation minute intervals. Radio Navigational Aids.284 TIME Figure 1816b. All time announcements are UTC. should be of a leap second. Dating of event in the vicinity of a positive leap second. No.9 seconds of the celestial navigator’s time scale. UTC is maintained within WWVH. however. A positive or negative leap Figure 1817a. Because of the 5 milliseconds duration. 117. The IERS announces the new leap second referred to for further information on time signals. Leap-Second Adjustments shown in Figure 1816a and Figure 1816b. Broadcast format of station WWVH. The 1-second UTC markers are transmitted continuously by WWV and By international agreement. at least several weeks in advance. Time voice announcements are given also at 1. The introduction of leap seconds allows a clock to each minute (800 milliseconds) all 1-second markers are of keep approximately in step with the Sun. Service (IERS) decides upon and announces the introduction Pub. . the milliseconds of silence and followed by 25 milliseconds of occurrences of the leap seconds are not predictable in detail. silence.

. followed one second later by 00h00m00s of the first day of Figure 1817b. TIME 285 second is introduced the last second of a UTC month. first preference is given to the end of December and June. but the following month. 23h59m58s is UTC. mariners are advised by messages from NIMA. Dating of event in the vicinity of a negative leap second. The dating of events in the vicinity of a leap second is and second preference is given to the end of March and effected in the manner indicated in Figure 1817a and Figure September. Whenever leap second adjustments are to be made to In the case of a negative leap second. ends at 00h00m00s of the first day of the following month. A positive leap second begins at 23h59m60s and 1817b.

286 TIME .