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TITLE PAGE

AN EVALUATION OF PLAN IMPLEMENTATION


OF HOTORO GRA, KANO METROPOLIS

By

MUSTAPHA NASIRU
SMS/09/GEO/00316

A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY, FACAULTY

OF SOCIAL AND MANAGEMENT SCIENCES, BAYERO UNIVERSTITY KANO.

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELOR

OF SCIENCE (B.SC) DEGREE IN GEOGRAPHY.

JUNE, 2014.

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DEDICATION

To my unborn daughter; whose love has for long filled every bit of space in my heart.

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DECLARATION

I MUSTAPHA NASIRU with registration number SMS/09/GEO/00316, hereby declare that this

research report is based entirely on my research work and findings. All materials used have been

acknowledged in the reference part of this report.

__________________ __________________
MUSTAPHA NASIRU DATE
SMS/09/GEO/00316

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CERTIFICATION

This is to certify that this research work has been undertaken by Mustapha Nasiru

(SMS/09/Geo/00316) and approved under the supervision of Dr. Bello Gambo for the

fulfillment of the award of Bachelor for Science Degree in Geography (Bsc. Geography).

___________________ _____________________
SUPERVISOR DATE
DR. BELLO GAMBO

______________________ ____________________
HEAD OF DEPARTMENT DATE
DR MAHARAZU A. YUSUF

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

It is with great joy that I acknowledge the effort of my parents for bringing me into this world

and somehow supporting my struggles through it. Their efforts shall not be in vain.

I also acknowledge the effort of my entire teachers; my lecturers especially my humble project

supervisor; Dr. Bello Gambo, and my level coordinator; Mal. Halima Idris. Their efforts are

appreciated.

The advices, encouragements and well wishes of my friends and colleagues especially those of

Aisha Idris Ahmad, Aishatu Hassan, Suleiman Abdulrazaq, Adamu Wada Kadi, Muhammad

Ibrahim Maiwange, Yusuf Kabir Tobi and numerous others shall not be forgotten.

I shall not fail to acknowledge the authors of all the materials I consulted both online and offline

without which this study could not have been completed.

I shall strongly appreciate the effort of the staff of KNUPDA especially Mal. Sani Zakari who

welcomed me with dignity and fed me with a lots of relevant information which helped in

making this research a success.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE....................................................................................................................................i

DEDICATION.................................................................................................................................ii

DECLARATION............................................................................................................................iii

CERTIFICATION...........................................................................................................................iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.............................................................................................................v

LIST OF TABLES..........................................................................................................................ix

LIST OF FIGURES.........................................................................................................................x

ABSTRACT...................................................................................................................................xi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................1

1.1 BACKGROUND.......................................................................................................................1

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM....................................................................3

1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESEARCH...................................................................................4

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS.......................................................................................................4

1.5 AIM AND OBJECTIVES..........................................................................................................5

1.6 SCOPE.......................................................................................................................................5

1.7 THE STUDY AREA..................................................................................................................6

1.7.1 LOCATION AND SIZE.........................................................................................................6

1.7.2 POPULATION........................................................................................................................7

1.7.3 PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT...............................................................................................8

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1.7.4 HUMAN ACTIVITIES........................................................................................................10

1.8 LITERATURE REVIEW.........................................................................................................10

1.8.1 THE CONCEPT OF PLANNING EVALUATION..............................................................10

1.8.2 CONCEPT OF MASTER PLAN.........................................................................................13

1.8.3 THE CONCEPT OF IMPLEMENTATION.........................................................................15

1.8.4 THE KANO STATE URBAN PLANNING & DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY (KNUPDA).......16

1.9 RESEARCH METHODS........................................................................................................20

1.9.1 RESEARCH DESIGN..........................................................................................................20

1.9.2 RECONNAISSANCE..........................................................................................................21

1.9.3 POPULATION AND SAMPLE...........................................................................................21

1.9.4 INSTRUMENTS OF DATA COLLECTION.......................................................................22

1.9.5 METHODS OF ANALYSIS.................................................................................................22

CHAPTER TWO: DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION...................................................24

2.1 INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................................24

2.2 PLAN AND SATELLITE IMAGE PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS..............................25

2.3 PLAN IMPLEMENTATION...................................................................................................39

2.3.1 STAFF PERSONAL DATA.................................................................................................39

2.3.1 STAFF VIEW ON PLANNING IMPLEMENTATION OF HOTORO GRA.....................40

2.3.4 RESIDENTS VIEW ON THE PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF HOTORO GRA......46

CHAPTER THREE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS...................50

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3.1 SUMMARY.............................................................................................................................50

3.2 CONCLUSION........................................................................................................................51

3.3 RECOMMENDATIONS.........................................................................................................53

REFERENCES..............................................................................................................................54

APPENDIX I.................................................................................................................................58

APPENDIX II................................................................................................................................64

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LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: General Comment on the Above Analysis.......................................................................38

Table 2: Staff office position..........................................................................................................39

Table 3: Educational Qualification................................................................................................40

Table 4: Staff Experience In Planning and Implementation..........................................................40

Table 5 Objectives of the plan.......................................................................................................41

Table 6: Level of Implementation of the Plan...............................................................................42

Table 7: Reason for Achievement of Full Implementation............................................................42

Table 8: Reason for the Lack of Full Implementation...................................................................43

Table 9: Personal Data of the Residents........................................................................................44

Table 10: Length of time spent in the GRA...................................................................................44

Table 11: Educational Qualification of residents...........................................................................45

Table 12: Main Occupation of residents........................................................................................45

Table 13: Land Ownership.............................................................................................................46

Table 14: Means of Obtaining Land..............................................................................................47

Table 15: Types of land use developed with land..........................................................................47

Table 16: Government Approval on Land Development...............................................................48

Table 17: Government Prevention on Some Development...........................................................48

Table 18: Types of Land Use Ever Prevented By the Agency.......................................................49

Table 19: Effect of Prevention.......................................................................................................49

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1: Nasarawa LGA in Kano Metropolis.................................................................................6

Figure 2: Hotoro in Nasarawa LGA................................................................................................7

Figure 3: Full Hotoro GRA plan....................................................................................................25

Figure 4: Full Hotoro GRA Current Satellite Image.....................................................................26

Figure 5: Digitized Hotor GRA Plan Showing Transport Land use..............................................27

Figure 6: Digitized Hotoro GRA Satellite Image Showing Transport Land use...........................28

Figure 7: Digitized Hotoro GRA Plan Showing Planned Site for Hotel.......................................29

Figure 8: Digitized Hotoro GRA Current Satellite Image showing commercial land use............30

Figure 9: Digitized Hotoro GRA plan showing planned recreational landuse..............................31

Figure 10: Digitized Hotoro GRA current satellite image showing residences, cemetery and

mosques.........................................................................................................................................32

Figure 11: Digitized Hotoro GRA current satellite image showing hotel site...............................33

Figure 12: Digitized Hotoro GRA plan showing planned educational land use............................34

Figure 13: Digitized Hotoro GRA current satellite image showing educational landuse..............35

Figure 14: Digitized Hotoro GRA plan showing planned plots and some builtup areas...............36

Figure 15: Digitized Hotoro GRA current satellite image showing residences, cemetery and

mosques.........................................................................................................................................37

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ABSTRACT

This study made an evaluation of the implementation of the original plan of Hotoro GRA of
Nasarawa Local Government of Kano State. The aim of the study was to assess the extent to
which the Hotoro GRA plan has been implemented. Data were obtained through primary and
secondary sources which include reconnaissance survey, questionnaire survey as well as
digitization of the plan and satellite image for comparison respectively. Data from the
digitization was analyzed through comparison of the land uses in both the plan and the satellite
image. Data from questionnaire was analyzed using descriptive statistics and displayed on tables.
The result obtained showed that majority of the plan has been implemented only for some few
distortions and the absence of some land use which were proposed but not in the current
situation. Analysis from the questionnaire on the part of the staff of KNUPDA shows that the
authority is concerned about full implementation of all their plans with some of the staff claiming
full implementation has been achieved as far as planning is concerned although, majority
maintained the opposite. On the part of the residents of the study area, they confirmed the
activity of the authority in their area and also how the activity stop them from doing as they wish
with their lands. Even though the result shows that most of the planned areas have been
established, it is still a thing of concern that planning implementation evaluation is not being
practiced by the authority. It is thus recommended that the authority should put evaluation into
practice; which will give them the chance of assess their level of achievements, it is also
recommended that all proposed landuses should be put in place so as actual full implementation
should be achieved.

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND

Almost all developments require land; land is therefore in continual need, though its quality is

limited. The awareness of land as irreplaceable finite resource has made its use and management

require extreme care.

The Land Use Decree of 1978 states that all lands in the state are vested in the Governor who

shall hold it in trust and administer it for the benefit of all. Hence, the allocation of land

especially in urban areas and its disposition is the prerogative of the Governor and every

Nigerian has the right to apply (Abdulaziz, 2013).

Consequently, in every settlement, the need to plan and control buildings is paramount. As a

result, the town planning laws of Nigeria made provision for the establishment of planning

authorities all over the country, which have been bestowed with the power to carry out these

responsibilities. These authorities execute their functions through planning and enforcing bye-

laws. Bye-laws are simply the laws regulating development in a given geographical area. It is by

the enforcement of these laws that development within a layout or a town is controlled to ensure

that all planning goals are realized.

Almost every major city in Nigeria possess a master plan which is viewed as the panacea to the

haphazard growth and environmental problems of the urban centers. In respect of the master plan

Dawani (1982) quoted Adeyemi (1978) saying that although the master plan is intended to serve

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as a guide towards the development of community, once it is prepared it is shelved to gather dust.

Many cities acquired a plan in the past, and there planning ended. This shows the inability of

planners to see their plans through to successful implementation through the use of an efficient

tool such as development control. Development control is an instrument of overall environmental

quality control which sets standards and regulations guiding the bulk and use of structures as

well as air space around buildings.

Failure to implement plans has long been considered a significant barrier to effective planning

(Berke et al, 2006). Calkins (1979) names the lack of plan implementation as new plan

syndrome: Plans are continuously redone or updated without regard to the implementation

status of the originally prepared plan. The lack of an understanding of the degree to which plans

are implemented and of the determinants of effective implementation has hindered planners from

making better plans. Plans have proved to be a vital instrument of urban policy and a catalyst for

urban change. Physical plans put forth graphic images of the future that can rally stakeholders to

act (Nueman, 1998).

In western countries, research and discussion about monitoring and evaluation in urban planning

have been in progress for the past 40 years, but in Nigeria, evaluation and monitoring are not

popular research topics, and have a minimal role. The types of evaluation are limited; most

planning evaluations focus on evaluation of alternative plans. It is however expected that

evaluation and monitoring will play more important roles in the future and lead to improvement

in planning procedures and management.

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1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM

To solve the problems of urban environments, the establishment of effective planning for urban

planning and urban development through assisting, advising, and providing technical support to

local government for the implementation of urban planning is considered to be the effective and

useful method to promote orderly urban development.

However, designing a plan or making plans for the design is less of a problem than monitoring it

to make sure it has been implemented to the fullest. This is because usually it is easy to make

assumptions about a particular entity but to put into practice that assumption becomes a great

deal especially when dealing with a social being like man and also when dealing with a

geographic environment which is ever changing. The problem faced by planners is not planning

per say, but monitoring the plan since especially for a third world country like Nigeria where the

planners hardly or never consult the people before planning, thus the people find it difficult to

adapt to the plan, therefore you tend to find more distortions when it comes to implementation of

plans in places like Nigeria.

According to the deputy director of the department of urban planning, Kano state urban planning

and development authority when faced with the research topic, the department has so far not

tried evaluating the level of implementation of any of their plans, although monitoring is still

being practiced. It is thus problematic to keep maintaining a plan without assessing its

implementation level since the authority will not be able to know how much it has so far

achieved.

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1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESEARCH

One of the primary challenges in planning is to achieve effective plan implementation. During

implementation, strategies and activities proposed in a land-use plan are acted upon so that plan

goals can be realized. Regardless of the quality of planning process, or of a plan, little can be

expected to emerge from the exercise without effective implementation (Pal, 2001; Vedung,

1997; Morah, 1990 Gray, 1989; Mazmanian and Sabatier, 1989).

Therefore, the significance of evaluating a plan cannot be over emphasized since the plan cannot

be said to have achieved it aims without evaluating the extent to which it has been implemented.

Thus, this research will give the planners and all the people involved in the plan an idea of the

level of implementation achieved. Where necessary, the research will offer recommendations for

future developments.

Academically, this research cannot be overlooked since there are only few materials emphasizing

the evaluation of plan implementation. This is evident from my observation on the lack of

adequate materials on the topic even on the internet. Thus, student hoping to do similar research

on other areas or students wanting to expand on this particular study area will find relevant

materials which can be of great help to them.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

This research will find the required information through answering the following set of

questions;

To what extent has the plan been implemented?


What are the procedures taken by the authority involved for plan implementation?
What impact has the plan made since it was adopted?

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1.5 AIM AND OBJECTIVES

The aim of this research is to assess the extent to which the Hotoro GRA plan has been

implemented since it was planned for and also evaluate the impact of the plan on the

environment as well as the people of the GRA. This aim can be achieved through the following

objectives:

To compare the GRA plan with the current satellite image of the GRA.
To examine the factors that aided full implementation or otherwise as the case may be
To examine the procedure for the implementation

1.6 SCOPE

In planning, evaluation is twofold; it can be either plan impact evaluation or plan implementation

evaluation. Thus for the purpose of this research, the focus is on the implementation. Also, due to

insufficiency of time and data, the research is limited to Hotoro GRA only, due to time constraint

and the fact that this particular plan has been designed for a very long time and has never been

evaluated.

The plan which was re-traced by Ilyasu Ali in October 2003 but initially designed by Tesco Kuzti

Consulting Engineers Nigeria LTD in 1976 for the Urban Development Board Kano state which

is the currently monitored plan will be used to assess the level of implementation or distortion, as

the case may be.

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1.7 THE STUDY AREA

1.7.1 LOCATION AND SIZE


Hotoro is a ward of Nasarawa local government area in Kano state, Nigeria. It is located around

latitude 11058N and longitude 8033E. It covers about 2.27km2. Relatively, Hotoro GRA is

adjacent to Tarauni from the west, to Kundila to the south, and Limawa to the east. It is bounded

from the Southwest by Maiduguri road and also cut through by the same road to the northeast. It

is also cut through from southeast through northeast by Kwanar Sabo road (figures 1 and 2).

Source: QGIS Project Library (2014)


Figure 1: Nasarawa LGA in Kano Metropolis

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8O3428.62E

11O5912.62N

11O5740.20 N

8O3317.05E

Source: QGIS Project Library (2014)


Figure 2: Hotoro in Nasarawa LGA

1.7.2 POPULATION

As of 2006 census, the population of Kano Metropolis was said to be 2,828,861 people all within

an area of 499km2. Thus, taking population density into account, the Kano Metropolis has an

estimated amount of 5,669 people per square kilometer. Therefore, using similar formula, since

the area covers 2.2698km2, the study area as of 2006 therefore had about 12,868 people.

Considering the location of the study area and the influence of its surrounding, the residents are

mainly Hausa and few other random ethnic groups including Yoruba and Igbo among others.

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1.7.3 PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

CLIMATE
0 0
The temperature of Kano usually ranges between a maximum of 33 C and a minimum of 15.8 C

0
although sometimes during the harmattan it falls down to as low as 10 C. Kano has two seasonal

periods, which consist of four to five months of wet season and a long dry season lasting from

October to April. From the Atlantic Ocean, influences the wet season which starts from May and

ends in September. The commencement and length of wet season varies between northern and

southern parts of Kano State. The length of the season in Riruwai, which is southern part of Kano

State is six months from early May to late September. While in northern parts it is from June to

early September.

The average rainfall is between 63.3mm + 48.2mm in May and 133.4mm + 59mm in August the

wettest month. The movement of the tropical maritime air masses from the Southwest to the

North determines the weather of Kano State during the wet season. This air mass carries a lot of

moisture from over the Atlantic Ocean. This moisture condenses when it is forced to rise by

convection or over a barrier of highlands or an air mass; it then falls back as rain.

The period of the heights occurs when the sun passes over West Africa between March and June.

The dry season starts in October and lasts till about April of the following year. Temperatures are

low during this period because the sun is in the Southern Hemisphere and because of movement

of the desiccating continental air mass, which originates from the Sahara area and blows from the

Northeast carrying along with it the harmattan dust. This is also the harvesting season.

The climate of the area is under the entire climate of Kano region which is the tropical wet and

dry type, coded as Aw by W. Koppen although climatic changes are believed to have occurred in

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the past. Rainfall is very critical in the area because of its deficiency during the dry season. In a

normal year, mean annual rainfall is about 800mm. The rainy season is about 3-5months from

April to September, with a peak in July-August. In the area only 4months (June-September) are

actually wet.

The climate of the area therefore, controls the amount of water that is available, in both on the

surface and at sub-surface at any given time within a year (Olofin, 1987). Surface water is

therefore not available during dry season why groundwater level falls rapidly through seepage,

extraction by man and high evaportranspiration. The temperature regime is warm to hot

throughout the year, even though there is slightly cold period between November and February.

The main annual temperature is about 260C, but mean monthly values ranges between 210C in

the coldest month (December/January) and 310C in the hottest months (April/May).

SOIL AND VEGETATION


In their natural state, the soils are divided into four main groups. The ferruginous tropical soils

formed on crystalline acid rocks occupy about two fifth of the State to the south, southwest and

south east; the brown and reddish brown soils and latosols occur in the northern half; the brown

and reddish soils are in the northeastern corner; and the juvenile and hydromorphic soils occur

along the alluvial channel complexes.

The soils largely reflect the influence of parent materials. Intensive use of the soils and addition

of manure and chemical fertilizers have altered their character, profile, texture, structure and

chemical characteristics.

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According to Olofin (1987) the natural vegetation is mostly Sudan savanna composed of several

scattered trees which are hardly taller than 20m. Most of them are adapted to drought conditions

with the long taproot, leathery (in some cases thorny) and tiny leaves.

RELIEF AND GEOLOGY


Geologically, more than four-fifth of the study area as well as its surrounding environment is

underlain by quartzite, undifferentiated metasediments and basement complex rocks of the

Precambrian upper Cambrian origin. Prolonged weathering of the rocks produced deep clay-rich

regolith, which have been subjected to laterization.

1.7.4 HUMAN ACTIVITIES

People of the study area are predominantly civil servants, with some shop owners and others

involved in large scale farming. There are also a few others involved in artisanship.

1.8 LITERATURE REVIEW

1.8.1 THE CONCEPT OF PLANNING EVALUATION

While there may be a prolific body of research on the evaluation on policy implementation, there

has been a curious lack of parallel inquiry into evaluation in the planning field (Talen, 1996).

Although some work has attempted to link policy-implementation theory to planning practice,

planners have not yet developed an equivalent ability to link plans and plan implementation

practices to subsequent impacts (Berke et al., 2006). Given the lack of methods to empirically

evaluate plan implementation, many plans are impressionistically rather than empirically

assessed (Laurian et al., 2004). As a consequence, planners know very little about the effects of

plan on the city development process. Although measuring the effect of plans on urban

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development is a formidable empirical challenge, and comparisons between local institutions and

across metropolitan areas are frustrated by the sheer variety of local practices, a fuller

understanding of the relationship between planning tools and markets should enable policy

makers both to better appreciate the likely impacts of planning tools and to tailor them to achieve

desired outcomes (Adams et al., 2005).

Modelling the effects of planning has been relatively little researched, partly because their

quantification is very difficult. Silver & Goode (1990) and McGough & Tsoloacos (1994)

adopted macroeconomic models to analyses national or regional data, but planning variable is

absent. Recently, Bramley & Leishman (2005) adopt panel data to explore the impact of national

and regional policies on local housing market, and Henneberry et al (2005) use the cross-

sectional data to estimate the impact of planning on commercial property markets in England.

There are usually two types of evaluation approaches to assess the impact of plans: non-

quantitative and quantitative methods. The non-quantitative method is frequently used; however,

the evaluation criteria are subjective and vague. The quantitative approach is seldom applied due

to methodological and data difficulties. Nevertheless, it has been proved to provide solid support

to the assessment of the role of plan in implementation. Since the late 1970s, several categories

of quantitative approaches have been developed with the advancing computer technology. For

example, Alterman and Hill (1978) use grid overlays to quantify accordance and deviations

between land use plans and actual land use. Regression analysis is used to test the explanatory

strength of political and other factors that could affect implementation. Calkins (1979) applies

planning monitor to measure the extent to which the goals and objectives of the plan are met

and to explain any differences between planned and actual change. This is accomplished using

various ratios that produce effectiveness measures, such as the ratio between actual occurrence

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and anticipated occurrence as a measure of forecasting effectiveness. Calkins (1979) also

includes effectiveness measure, of spatial objectives in which planned and actual inventory

values for a number of sub regions are calculated. Using bivariate statistical measures, the

differences between planned and actual spatial distributions are quantified. Unfortunately, no

empirical results obtained from this method have been reported in the planning literature.

Alexander and Faludi (1989) develop a model, plan/programme-implementation-process (PPIP),

and give five criteria for comprehensive evaluation: conformity, rational process, optimality ex

ante, optimality ex post, and utilisation. Moreover, a proposed framework including a serious of

evaluation questions is provided to avoid the extremes of policy and plan evaluation implied in

the traditional model with its standard of conformity and the decision-centred model with its

standard of utilisation. However, no empirical studies were provided for this type of evaluation.

The more recent approach of plan evaluation demonstrated by Berke et al (2006) represents

another attempt to assess the impacts of plan in the implementation quantitatively. Berke et al

(2006) use a sample of plans, permits, and district-council planning agencies in New Zealand,

and examine two conceptions of success in plan implementation (conformance and

performance), the effects of the implementation practices of planning agencies, and the capacity

of agencies and permit applicants to bring about success.

Based on the evaluation outcome, a question appears, that is, is a plan with high implementation

conformance good one? Another key point is that, if implementation is defined and measured in

terms of conformance, plans and planners have an important influence on implementation

success. Alternatively, if implementation is defined and measured in terms of performance, plans

and planners are less influential in implementation. These lessons have broad implications for the

theory and practice of plan implementation. Alexander and Faludi (1989) argue that plans not

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implemented do not always indicate failure, and on the other hand, plans do not cease to be a

criterion of success. They hold the middle ground where implementation is still important but

where, as long as outcomes are beneficial, departures from plans are viewed with equanimity.

Identifying the factors affecting implementation is as important as plan implementation. Laurian

et al (2004) categorize the factors of plan implementation into two types: internal factors to the

plan (e.g. its quality) and external factors to the plan (e.g. the characteristics of the planning

agency and of local developers). Key factors of implementation are: the quality of the plan; the

capacity and commitment of land developers to implement plans; the capacity and commitment

of the staff and leadership of planning agencies to implement plans; and the interactions between

developers and agencies. Therefore, while analyzing the effects of plan, we cannot simply

conclude that a plan with high level of implementation is a good one. Only the combination of

quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis can help achieve better understanding of the role of

plan in city development.

1.8.2 CONCEPT OF MASTER PLAN

In order to have good understanding of the concept of master plan it will be relevant to

understand regional plans. Omuta and Onokerhoraye (1984) describe regional plans as policy

documents that outline government plans regarding a regional territory over a given period of

time say 20 or 30 years. In this case however, the regional plans summarize the desired pattern of

land-use in the area in question and over the given period. It shows the future planned size of

settlements transportation axes and other public utilities. The plans also provide

recommendations as to the preferential treatment that should be given to settlements depending

on existing problems in the area and their potential spatial order needed in the region. However,

regional plans in most cases are the tutelage from which master plans spring. The master plan is

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referred to in the literature by different names such as comprehensive plan; General plan; land

use plan, or blueprint plan (Dawani 1982). It has been defined by Onokerhoraye and Omuta

(1984) as the official document of a municipal government which sets forth its major policies

concerning desirable future physical development of a community. Alan Black (1969) looked at

it as an official policy guide to decision about the physical development of the community. The

concept of master plan was first developed in the USA in the 1940s and Western Europe in 1930s

to solve the problems of planning system which was rigid had much emphasis on land-use and

paid less attention to the increasing environmental problems. Hansen (1968) pointed out that the

plan tended to be physical in scope, detached from decision making and technically and

administratively primitive. Based on these criticisms, most advanced countries turn to other

planning approaches. In Nigeria, the master plans for various cities were produced by foreign

firms. The first major step in the preparation of comprehensive master plan was by

Koenigsbergers master plan for metropolitan Lagos in 1962 followed by Trevallion for

metropolitan Kano in 1963. This was followed closely by Max Locks master plan of Kaduna in

1967. Many other cities had their master plans in this period. However, master plans are

according to Onokerhoraye and Omuta (1984) prepared for six major purposes;

1) To provide the physical environment of the community as a setting human activities to

make it more functional, beautiful, decent, healthful, interesting and efficient


2) To promote the public interest of the community at large, rather than the interest of

individuals or special group within the community.


3) To facilitate the democratic determination and implementation of community policies on

physical development.
4) To affect political and technical co-ordination in community development
5) To inject long range actions
6) To bring professional and technical knowledge to bear on the making of political

decisions concerning the physical development of the community.

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In designing the master plan of a given area, planners use one of a combination of the following

concepts: The neighborhood; the radburn; the environmental area; the superblock and the cluster

concepts. Onokeerhoreye and Omuta (1984) noted that the choice of concept will determine

among other things, the circulatory system, the arrangement of the structure and the location and

distribution of community facilities.

1.8.3 THE CONCEPT OF IMPLEMENTATION

Despite its crucial virtue as a stage in planning, there is still no definite agreement on the

meaning of the term implementation. Mcloughlin (1969) defines implementation as a control

activity. Where control implies positive intervention in the Environment to pressman and

Wildvasky (1973), implementation refers to an act of carrying-out, accomplishing or fulfilling

stated objectives. Van meter and Van Horn (1975) view it as those actions by public and private

individuals (or groups) that are directed at the achievements of objectives set forth in prior policy

decisions. Koeningsberger (1977) sees it as the transportation of development strategies and

growth models into the daily life concerns of housing, shopping, schooling, recreation, street

cleaning and journey to work. It is conceived by Linchfield and Darin-Drabkin (1980) as

referring to planned intervention or planned development. In the words of Dawani (1982) as

generic concept, implementation is very complex and has been defined in very many ways to

means all sort of things to different people. According to him, in urban physical planning,

implementation means land development based on the provision of the plan. Onokerhoraye and

Omuta (1984) however defined implementation as a term embracing a variety of activities such

as providing the organizational framework for the implementation of a plan statutory control of

development, provision of financial stimulation and monitoring feedback.

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All these usage and meaning of implementation pertain to action, to intervention in the system

planned (Dawani, 1982). However, the concept of implementation is either used analytically or

descriptively in which differentiation have to be made. Analytically, implementation is a stage in

the rational decision making mode, since all decisions go through a number of steps from initial

to termination stages. On the other hand, it is descriptively used by planners to cover wider range

of actions rather than a stage in decision making. According to Dawani (1982(: quoting Lewis

and Flynn (1979) implementation in this sense is getting things done. And for Baret and Fudge

(1981) it is putting policy or plan into effect.

A common complaint is that planners and policy analysts had neglected the implementation stage

of planning in favor of the antecedent process of plan formulation and adoption (Dawani 1982).

Implementation as a link between planning and action is regarded by many scholars such as

Dawani (1982) as a missing link in the study of plans. The alleged failure of plans and their

attendant environmental problems in the past has led to a greater concern among planners and

environmentalist about the plan implementation and associated environmental problems.

1.8.4 THE KANO STATE URBAN PLANNING & DEVELOPMENT

AUTHORITY (KNUPDA)

The history of the Kano State Urban Planning and Development Authority (KNUPDA) dates

back to 1962 when the GREATER KANO PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT BOARD was

established to primarily ensure the orderly physical development of Kano Township. It was then

renamed METROPOLITAN KANO PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT BOARD in 1969.

Following the socio-economic, physical growth and political importance of some other towns in

the former Kano State, the Organization further witnessed some changes both in its name and

16
responsibilities. Thus, in 1976, the defunct KANO STATE URBAN DEVELOPMENT BOARD

was created to plan and provide infrastructural facilities necessary for healthy and orderly

physical development of all the designated urban centers in the State.

With the enactment of Kano State Edict No.5 of 1976, the powers and functions of the Urban

Development Board were made explicit. Section 15 of the Edict empowered the Board with the

Planning Authority for all Urban Areas of Kano State, in line with the Town and Country

Planning Law (Cap. 30) (Abdulaziz, 2013).

The functions of the Board were thus:-

To frame and publish an approved Planning Scheme for Urban Areas.


To control the development and use of Land in Urban areas.
To serve and maintain proper sanitary conditions, amenities and conveniences.
To preserve buildings and other objects of architectural, historic or artistic interest and

places of natural interest or beauty.


To provide and maintain proper infrastructure for urban development.
To plan, design and provide its own housing estate in Urban Areas.
To design and provide industrial, commercial and residential layouts.
To provide, construct and expand Markets.
To carry into effect and scheme or part thereof approved in respect of any Urban Area.
To do all such other things and acts that may appear to the Board necessary for purposes

of its functions.

Sequel to the establishment of the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) by the

Federal Government in 1989 and the subsequent directives to all State Governments to establish

similar bodies that would be responsible for environmental protection and pollution control

activities, Kano State swiftly decided to restructure and enlarge the function and jurisdiction of

the former Urban Development Board. It was against this background that the KANO STATE

ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING AND PROTECTION AGENCY (KASEPPA) was given birth

17
to, vide Edict No.15 of 1990. Apart from continuing with all the functions hitherto undertaken

by the defunct URBAN DEVELOPMENT BOARD, KASEPPA was also given the additional

duties of Environmental Protection which included Refuse Disposal.

Again, following the creation of the Ministry of Environment in 1999, the Environmental

Protection and Pollution Control activities were transferred to the Ministry, returning the Agency

to its former status quo of planning and provision of infrastructures in the designated Urban

Centres of the State. However, the name was retained until its transformation into KNUPDA.

OBJECTIVES AND FUNCTIONS


The primary objectives of KNUPDA in all its stages of development have been to ensure a well-

planned and organized urban development through the control of land-use in all urban centers of

the State.

The functions of the Authority also included provision of Planning Scheme for urban centers,

development control in urban centers, provision of amenities, conveniences and infrastructures,

designing of layouts for various purposes and other functions necessary for healthy and orderly

urban growth.

The above mentioned functions of the Authority cover the forty four Local Government Areas of

the State and included designing of Master Plans for them, granting of Building Permission in

line with the provisions of Building Regulations and Standards, provision of various categories

and types of layouts, designing, construction and maintenance of roads and drainage, building

and development control in all urban Centres. There is also the provision of public convenience

and neighborhood Shopping Centers generally referred to as Corner-shops and such other

services.

18
ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE
At the apex of the Authoritys Organizational hierarchy is the Board of Directors, which is

appointed by the State Government. The role of Board of Directors is policy formulation,

direction and supervision of the Authoritys activities. The composition of the Board is

normally made up of Chairman and part time Members drawn from various spectrum of society.

Under the Board is the Management Committee, which is headed by the Managing Director, who

is also the chief executive officer of the Authority. The Management sees to the day-to-day

running of the Authority and is composed of the Managing Director, the Secretary/Legal Adviser

and all Directors/Heads of Departments.

DEPARTMENTS OF THE AUTHORITY


Presently, the Authority has seven (7) Departments each is headed by a Director. The

departments include:-

Administration
Finance and Supply
Urban Planning
Civil and Mechanical Engineering
Architecture
Development Control; and
Other Urban Centers

URBAN PLANNING DEPARTMENT


This is the Department that deals with Planning Permission and Recommendations. Its functions

include:-

Design of Layouts for Residential, Commercial, Industrial and Public Uses in all Urban

Centres of the State;

19
Processing of files forwarded from the Ministry of Land and Physical Planning for

recommendation.
Securing of sites and design for corner-shops.
Processing of applications for frontage fencing, temporary use of space and public

conveniences.
Survey of sites for layout and provision of levels for drainage and road construction.
Planning clearance for Building Approval and Development Control activities.
Preparation of Master Plan and Administration

1.9 RESEARCH METHODS

1.9.1 RESEARCH DESIGN

The research sourced its required data from both primary and secondary data. The primary data

which includes data about the impact of the plan as well as the factors that aided in the full

implementation of the plan or otherwise which was sourced from the sample of the population

using questionnaire; which is a vital instrument for primary data collection when dealing with

humans. On the other hand, the secondary data which includes both the layout of the study area

sourced from Kano Urban Planning and Development Authority (KNUPDA) as well as the

satellite image of the study area sourced from Google Earth were used. Additionally, related

library and internet literatures were also consulted while writing the review of literature.

1.9.2 RECONNAISSANCE

A reconnaissance survey was taken before writing the next chapter. From this survey, the

researcher was able to take note of key land-uses proposed in the layout of the study area and

compared to see if they are in place as proposed.

20
1.9.3 POPULATION AND SAMPLE

The population of the study comprises of two parties; the planners; that is the staff of the Urban

Planning department of Kano urban planning and development authority. And the second party;

the residents of the Hotoro GRA. Both of these populations were sampled out and given

questionnaires with the following main variables: personal information of both staff and

residents as well as the view of the staff and residents on the issue of planning implementation.

The department of urban planning has 20 staff while the study area has an estimated 336

households.

For a small population, like that of the staff of the department of urban planning, a 50% sample

was taken as a sample. Thus, 50% of the 20 staff is 10 staff.

For a large population, like that of the households of Hotoro GRA, a 30% sample is usually

taken as a sample. Thus, 50% of the 336 households is 100 households.

1.9.4 INSTRUMENTS OF DATA COLLECTION

The instruments utilized are discussion and questionnaire (administered mostly in interview

form). The questionnaire was of two kinds; one focusing on the staff of the urban planning

department of Kano urban planning and development authority and the other focusing on the

residents of the study area. The one for the staff tried to answer the second and third objectives of

the study that is;

Examine the aim of the plan


Examine the factors that aided full implementation or otherwise as the case may be

21
Additionally, the questionnaire tried to find more about the aim and objectives of the plan as

proposed by the planners.

The other questionnaire which was directed towards the residents answered the last objective of

the study; which is assessing the impact of the plan.

1.9.5 METHODS OF ANALYSIS

This talks about the methods used in analyzing the obtained data for the study. The following

methods were used;

a) Questionnaire analysis: which involves the calculation of frequencies and percentages

and presented in tables and charts from the questionnaire to distributed thereby estimating

the general view of the people.


b) Digitization of individual land-uses from both the satellite image of the study area as well

as the layout of the study area using QGIS software gave us the basic view of all

implemented sections of the layout thereby letting us know where and where got

implemented or otherwise.

PLAN ANALYSIS
DIGITIZATION OF INDIVIDUAL LAND-USES USING QGIS
Both the layout of the study area and the most recent satellite image of the study area were

digitized. The aim of the digitization is to put both the layout and the satellite image on the same

scale. Scaling them made it easier for the researcher to digitize individual land-uses from both

images at the same scale. By so doing, it gives a hint of all the areas where the layout tally with

the satellite image of the study area, thus it allowed the researcher to know where the plan has

been distorted or otherwise.

22
QUESTIONNAIRE ANALYSIS
Data analysis means categorizing, ordering, manipulating and summarizing of answers to

research questions. The purpose of analysis is to reduce data into interpretable form so that the

relationship of the research problem can be studied or tested.

The data from the field was analyzed and presented with the aid of simple analytical and

perceptive techniques. This was achieved by the employment of tables and charts to summarize

the result.

23
CHAPTER TWO

DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION

2.1 INTRODUCTION

This chapter discusses the result obtained during the course of this research. The findings are

twofold; those findings obtained through the digitization of both the plan and the satellite image

of the study area will be presented as obtained through QGIS software showing each land use

from both sources (that is; the plan and the satellite image) which will allow for comparison of

the two sources thereby allowing the researcher to be able to see the conformity of the current

land use condition of the study area with the plan of the study area.

Additionally, results obtained through questionnaires administered to staff of KNUPDA as well

as the residents of the study area will be presented in tables as well as charts where necessary

with analysis of each table and chart at the bottom of it.

It should be noted that the questionnaires were rather administered in an interview form

considering the few number of respondents involved with regards to staff of KNUPDA and thus

the availability of time to do so and also the technicality of the questions involved which require

more of discussion than just a direct answer. As a result, the display of result may seem

complicated.

24
2.2 PLAN AND SATELLITE IMAGE PRESENTATION AND

ANALYSIS

An Overview of the plan and the Current situation of Hotoro GRA

Figure 3: Full Hotoro GRA plan


It is clear from figure 3 that the GRA has been well planned for, with well divided plots for

mainly residential purposes, schools for the educational purpose of the residence, a hotel for the

use of visitors of the area, a dispensary for the health purpose of school pupils and a recreational

site where residence can go out to once in a while to enjoy fresh air and be away from their

homes. Despite the occurrence of pits in the area, the planners were able to plan the residential

plots well for the betterment of the residence. The GRA has a well-planned transportation

25
network linking all places. There is a balanced space between the plots and the transport

networks, leaving no room for narrow roads prone to accidents.

Figure 4: Full Hotoro GRA Current Satellite Image


Despite the fact that the plan provided a well arranged environment with all the necessary

landuses put in place for the use of the residence, it is seen on figure 4 showing the current

condition of the GRA with other landuses not proposed on the initial plan and also others

occupying more spaces or less space as planned. For example in the plan, there is well balanced

space between the plots and the transport network, however, on the actual situation, the road

networks are somehow close to the builtup areas.

26
Comparison of Land-uses from both the plan and the Current Situation

Figure 5: Digitized Hotor GRA Plan Showing Transport Land use


Figure 5 is simply showing the planned transportation land use, it is an excerpt from the above

full plan image. It has a very high connectivity network with each place linking to other places

through nodal connections. Clearly, if this plan was to be followed, there will be the availability

of free flow of traffic in this area.

27
Figure 6: Digitized Hotoro GRA Satellite Image Showing Transport Land use
According to some of the staff at KNUPDA who claimed that no plan is ever 100%

implemented, thus they suggested that the Hotoro plan can be said to have been fully

implemented therefore, since most of the road networks planned for have been established only

for a few at the northern and southern edges. At the eastern edges there was supposed to be

another straight road parallel to Kwanar Sabo road, however, it is missing in the actual state of

the GRA.

28
Figure 7: Digitized Hotoro GRA Plan Showing Planned Site for Hotel
The planners arranged for a Hotel to be built at the Junction of Wudil road and Maiduguri road

which will serve as a lodging place for visitors of the area and is sited at a very prominent

location in the area (figure 7). However, it is missing in the current state of the GRA rather, the

area is now surrounded by some commercial landuses such as shops and filling station as well as

a big mosque, right at the center is a large pond which at the time of the research is being filled

up. These few distortions will be seen in the images that follow.

29
Figure 8: Digitized Hotoro GRA Current Satellite Image showing commercial land use
The slimmer arrow above is showing the location of a commercial landuse (a filling station

specifically), this is located around the area where a hotel was planned for at the time of the plan

(figure 8).

30
Figure 9: Digitized Hotoro GRA plan showing planned recreational landuse
As seen in figure 9, the dark shaded portion is the location of a proposed recreational area. It is

sited at a very good location away from the actual GRA.

31
Figure 10: Digitized Hotoro GRA current satellite image showing residences, cemetery and
mosques
Instead of a recreational area as proposed in the plan, the arrow above in figure 10 points to an

area covered with residential buildings. The shorter arrow is also pointing to another supposed

green area but is now part of the commercial land use of the area. This is a major omission from

the original plan.

32
Figure 11: Digitized Hotoro GRA current satellite image showing hotel site
There is a mini hotel as shown in figure 11, also located at the site of the supposed recreational

center.

33
Figure 12: Digitized Hotoro GRA plan showing planned educational land use
The three polygons in the digitized image in figure 12 indicate the location of the educational

land use of Hotoro GRA. The Small box is the location of a nursery school, the true rectangle

shows the location of a primary school and the undistinctive polygon is the location of the

proposed secondary school according to the plan. This shows that, at the time of the plan perhaps

the projection of the population of the GRA was by far below what is currently the case since the

plan proposed only three sites for nursery, primary and secondary schools.

34
Figure 13: Digitized Hotoro GRA current satellite image showing educational landuse
Currently however, as opposed to the plan, there are now more schools in the area and the

primary school is seen to occupy a much bigger space. This is most likely due to the current

population of the area which perhaps calls for an increase in number of schools (figure 13).

35
Figure 14: Digitized Hotoro GRA plan showing planned plots and some builtup areas
Figure 14 shows all the planned plots being well arranged with no encroachment of one land use

into the plots or the plots into other land uses.

36
Figure 15: Digitized Hotoro GRA current satellite image showing residences, cemetery and
mosques
The proposed plots are to some extent highly maintained (figure 15). This means most of the

lands are most likely allocated by the government agency which confirms table 11 below.

Table 1 below categorized all landuses as shown on the plan with a comment on the current

situation of each of the land uses. It is observed thus that the two huge omission from the plan

are the hotel and the recreational center and the two great achievements of the plan are the

transport and all other categorized plots which seem to be well maintained.

37
Table 1: General Comment on the Above Analysis

S/N PROPOSED CURRENT SITUATION REMARK

LANDUSES
1 Plots Mostly builtup. And Plots Still maintained as planned to a beyond

are closer to transport average level.

networks unlike as planned.


2 Transport Mostly as planned Few distortions at the eastern and

southern edges
3 Education All proposed schools are Some new school are currently present

still in place obvious due to increase in number of

students
4 Workers Still in place No distortion

Quarters
5 Hotel Absent in proposed location The area of the proposed hotel is

but a small one seen at the covered in ponds, few places are not

northern extreme of the area where is now a location for a filling

around the proposed station and a big mosque

recreational site
6 Recreation Completely absent One huge omission
7 Dispensary Present Located close to nursery school
8 Cemetery Present at location Bigger than seen on the plan
Source: Field Survey (2014)

2.3 PLAN IMPLEMENTATION

2.3.1 STAFFS PERSONAL DATA

Staffs Gender

All the respondents who were randomly given the questionnaires were males. None of them was

a female probably due to the work involved in the urban planning section of KNUPDA.
38
In table 2 the staff didnt reveal their actual position rather identified themselves as junior and

senior staff. Thus, the chart above shows that majority of the respondents were junior staff

however, the differences isnt much between the two staff category. This will let the research

contain results from experienced staff.

Table 2: Staffs office position

Position Frequency Percentage (%)


Senior staff 4 40
Junior staff 6 60
Total 10 100
Source: field survey (2014)

In table 3 most of the staff given the questionnaires were either first degree or second degree

holders. The director himself is an Architect who has ample knowledge about planning. The

deputy director is also ample in knowledge of urban planning who during the course of an

interview claimed that the plan of the study area has never been evaluated for distortion and thus

this is a very good research and a needed one since there is a presence of land uses which were

initially not in the plan.

Table 3: Educational Qualification

Qualification Frequency Percentage (%)


Msc 4 40
Bsc 4 40
Diploma 2 20
Total 10 100
Source: field survey (2014)

39
2.3.1 STAFFS VIEW ON PLANNING IMPLEMENTATION OF

HOTORO GRA

Table 4: Staffs Experience In Planning and Implementation

Experience in planning Number of Percentages (%)

respondents
Have experience in planning and participated in 5 50

several planning implementations evaluation


Have experience in planning but havent participated 5 50

in any planning implementation evaluation


Total 10 100
Source: field survey (2014)

It is expected of staff of any urban planning authority to be experienced in planning operations.

Thus, table 4 shows that all the staff questioned had experience in planning. However, even

though all the staff have experience, 50% of them have no experience in the evaluation of

implementation. Majority of those experienced in evaluation are the senior staff.

Staffs Knowledge of the Existence of the GRA Plan


The question of staff knowledge of the existence of the plan may not seem relevant but it

actually is just to make sure that the staff themselves are aware of the plan of the study area and

the condition it is in since it will be unfitting to discuss about something with someone who has

no knowledge of it. Therefore as expected, all the staff who were interviewed using questions

from the questionnaire are aware of the plan (table 4).

Table 5 shows that some of the staff opined that the major objective of the plan is to provide a

healthy environment. However, majority of them ventured that the major objective of the plan is

40
to provide a well arranged GRA adding that a well arranged GRA will open a way to having a

GRA without distortion and absence of land-use crises.

Table 5 Objectives of the plan

Objectives Frequency Percentage (%)


Healthy Environment 2 20
A Well-Arranged GRA Without Distortion 8 80

and Absence of Land-Uses Crises


Total 10 100
Source: field survey (2014)

With regards to level of implementation of the plan, 40% of the staff specifically the senior staff

claimed that the plan can be said to be fully implemented since no plan ever achieves hundred

percent implementation. However, another 40% of the didnt give a full yes rather a partial

yes adding that the plan has only been implemented to some extent that not all the land uses

proposed in the plan have been put in place (see table 6).

Table 6: Level of Implementation of the Plan

Responses Frequency Percentage (%)


Fully Implemented 4 40
Implemented to some extent 4 40
Not fully implemented 2 20
Total 10 100
Source: field survey (2014)

Table 7 displays the responses obtained from the question of what aided the full implementation,

40% of the respondents that is; those who gave a straight yes claimed that all the option given

which include; strict bylaws, unbiased development control staff, corporative residents and

rigidity of the plan are responsible for the achievement of full implementation. On the other

hand, those who gave a partial yes said corporative residents and the unbiased attitude of the

41
development control staff are the two major reasons for the achievement of the current level of

implementation.

Table 7: Reason for Achievement of Full Implementation

Responses Frequency Percentage (%)


Strict bylaws and rigidity of the plan 4 40
Strict bylaws, rigidity of the plan, corporative attitude of 4 40

residents and the unbiased development control staff


None 2 20
Total 10 100
Source: Field survey (2014)\

Table 8 summarized the responses for the reason behind lack of full implementation, those who

answered no to the question of full implementation (i.e. 20% of the staff) claimed that the

biased development control staff and incorporative residents are the major problems hindering

full implementation of the plan. While those who gave a partial yes (i.e. 40% of the staff) for the

preceding question of full implementation opined that the flexibility of the plan is another reason

for the lack of full implementation saying that the plan is so flexible that it allows for changes

that are uncalled for.

Table 8: Reason for the Lack of Full Implementation

Responses Frequency Percentage (%)


Unbiased development control staff and uncooperative residents 2 20
Flexibility of the plan 4 40
None 4 40
Total 10 100
Source: Field Survey (2014)

2.3.3 HOW THE DEPARTMENT MAKES SURE IT ACHIEVE FULL

IMPLEMENTATION

42
Because the questionnaire was administered inform of an interview due to the technical nature of

the questionnaires and because of the few number of respondents involved, on the question of

how the department makes sure it achieves full implementation all the respondents agreed on

some three points;

By making sure the plan is followed at all times


By following the plan at all cost
By complying to the plan no matter who is affected

Adding that the end result of the plan is the general good of all.

87% of the respondents were male this is most likely because the questionnaire was administered

on a weekend and most of the male members of the population were at home (see Table 10).

Table 9: Personal Data of the Residents

Gender Frequency Percentage (%)


Male 87 87
Female 13 13
Total 100 100
Source: Field Survey (2014)

Most of the respondents (i.e. 87% of the respondents) have been living in the study area for more

than 10 years. With this, it can be said for the general population that majority of them have been

residents of the GRA for more than 10 years (see table 9). This gives them enough time to learn

about the study area and also the activities of the planning authority in the study area.

Table 10: Length of time spent in the GRA

Length of time spent in Hotoro GRA Frequency Percentage (%)


Less than 10 years 16 16
More than 10 years 84 16
Total 100 100
Source: Field Survey (2014)

43
Majority of the respondents (i.e. 40% of the respondents) are diploma holders as seen above with

another majority having a Bsc and a few having either an SSCE or no qualification at all (see

table 11).

Table 11: Educational Qualification of residents

Education qualification Frequency Percentage (%)


SSCE 20 20
DIPLOMA 40 40
BSC 22 22
NONE 18 18
Total 100 100
Source: field survey (2014)

Civil service is the main occupation of 30% of the respondents. However, some per take in other

trading and farming activities despite being in civil service. A few of the respondents are

practitioners of artisanship (see, table 12).

Table 12: Main Occupation of residents

Major occupations Frequency Percentage (%)


CIVIL SERVICE 30 30
TRADING 22 22
FARMING 20 20
ARTISANSHIP 15 15
Total 100 100
Source: Field Survey (2014)

2.3.4 RESIDENTS VIEW ON THE PLANNING AND

IMPLEMENTATION OF HOTORO GRA

The question of land ownership is somehow problematic since it excludes those who are

temporary owners that is who are renting the land for a certain specified time since they cannot

44
put the land into another land use except that which it has already been developed into. However,

most of the respondents (72% of the residents) happen to be land owners (see table 13).

Table 13: Land Ownership

Land ownership Frequency Percentage (%)


Own a land 72 72
do not own a land 28 28
Total 100 100
Source: Field Survey (2014)

49% of the land owners as shown in the above table obtained their lands through government

allocation. This means there is a high chance that majority of the land uses are approved by the

government. Even though a few percentage obtained their lands from other non-governmental

allocation (see table 14).

45
Table 14: Means of Obtaining Land

Means Frequency Percentage (%)


Government allocation 49 68
Purchase from someone 23 32
Inherited 0 0
Total 72 100
Source: Field Survey (2014)

68% of the obtained lands are used for residential purposes (that is; for building houses) some

are developed into shops while a few are yet to be developed according to the respondents (see

table 15).

Table 15: Types of land use developed with land

Land use Frequency Percentage (%)


House 52 72.22
Shop 12 16.66
Not yet developed 8 11.11
Total 72 100
Source: Field Survey (2014)

As far as table 16 is concerned, 88.8% of the land uses developed are approved by the

government agency in charge except for the few land uses yet to be developed.

46
Table 16: Government Approval on Land Development

Status of approval Frequency Percentage%


Approved by government 64 88.8
No approval from government 8 11.2
Total 72 100
Source: Field Survey (2014)

Some 40% majority of the respondents claimed to have never been prevented by the government

for putting their lands to a certain land use thus asserting that they always try to follow the plan

(see table 17). However, some 32% of them still ventured that they have at some time ever been

prevented by the government agency. This perhaps can serve as a pointer, showing how effective

the agency is in making sure it follows the plan.

Table 17: Government Prevention on Some Development

Government prevention Frequency Percentage%


Yes ever prevented 32 44
Never prevented 40 56
Total 72 100
Source: Field Survey (2014)

As shown by table 18, 93.75% of those who claimed to have been prevented said they had at

some time wanted to build shops at certain locations of the study area but their plan was rather

debunked by the agency in charge.

47
Table 18: Types of Land Use Ever Prevented By the Agency

Land use ever prevented Frequency Percentage (%)


Shop 30 93.75
School 2 6.25
Total 32 100
Source: Field Survey (2014)

While some of the residents (i.e. 93.75% of those prevented) decided they cant explain the

effect, some of them said they had to change their plans totally while others had to move the land

use to other more fitting areas where their developments are not considered as distortions (see

table 19).

Table 19: Effect of Prevention

Effect of prevention Frequency Percentage (%)


Cant say exactly 13 43
change of plan 11 32
moving land use to different area 7 22
changing development according to plan 1 3
Total 32 100
Source: Field Survey (2014)

48
CHAPTER THREE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

3.1 SUMMARY

The findings of this research can be summarized below;

The research has found that Hotoro GRA has been well planned for and the GRA is currently

almost as planned. This is evident from transportation which is well maintained to a beyond

average level as planned.

Recreation and Hotel is part of the consideration of the plan where residence will go to have a

time out and for the lodging purpose of visitors respectively, although both the hotel and

recreation center are at this very moment absent and replaced with residential buildings.

Education is another priority of the plan, with three school proposed and given space at the time

of the plan; Nursery, Primary and Secondary Schools. However, currently, there are more schools

seen in the area. This might be as a result of poor projection of the population of the student at

the time of the plan. As far as KNUPDA is concerned, there are three broad objectives the GRA

plan tries to achieve; healthy environment, well arranged, without distortion or landuse crises.

Some of the staff of KNUPDA claimed that the plan has been fully implemented because as far

as they are concerned no plan is ever 100% implemented. However, some claimed that it is only

partially implemented. Those who claimed full implementation believed that it was possible due

to combined efforts of the corporative residents, unbiased KNUPDA workers, flexibility of the

plan and strictness of the byelaws. Those staff who claimed work still need to be done towards

49
the achievement of full implementation claimed the hindrance include the incorporative and

biased attitude of the residents and control workers respectively and also the flexibility of the

plan to accommodate other landuses. This shows that KNUPDA is very much concerned about

full implementation which they make sure they achieve through making sure the plan is followed

at all times, no matter the cost or the persons involved. To confirm the above, most lands in the

GRA are obtained directly from the government and most of the lands bought are for residential

purposes, some developed as shops others are yet to be developed.

Residents usually request for permission from the authority before developing their lands. This is

because the residents believe the authority is actually functional. Thus, in case of a development

being against the master plan, the concerned resident has to either change is development plan,

or take the plan to another location where it seems appropriate.

3.2 CONCLUSION

To conclude this study, there is a need to bring down the questions of this research and try to see

if the research was able to answer them.

The questions are as follows;

To what extent has the plan been implemented?

Answer

The result shows that to a very high extent, the plan has been implemented, though not fully but

well maintained. Infact, if we are to consider the suggestion that no plan is ever achieved fully

then we can assume that the master plan of the study area has been implemented fully. However,

50
for the fact that some land uses are still not in place, we should maintain that the plan has

achieved a high degree of implementation and full implementation is on the way.

What are the procedures taken by the authority involved for plan implementation?

Answer

To achieve full implementation, the study shows that the development control make sure they go

with the plan at all times. That is, what ever be the condition, the plan remains the framework

upon which every development is done.

Also, no matter the cost, the control workers make sure what is proposed in the plan is put into

practice. For example, there is the presence of pits in the study area, if for example there is a

proposal for a land use which has its area covering a large pit, the authority has to make sure that

proposed landuse is put in place no matter what it will cost to cover up the pit.

Additionally, regardless of who is involved, every development should be in accordance with the

original plan. That is, no preferential treatment of any resident over another.

What impact has the plan made since it was adopted?

Answer

The impact of the plan can be summed up in the below itemization;

Hotoro GRA is a healthy environment


Hotoro GRA has well-arranged residences although with few haphazardness
There is less distortion in Hotoro GRA and as a result land uses barely collide in space
Residents have to comply with the plan in every development and as a result
Some developments when proposed by the residents get rejected by the authority and

those incorporative residents who tend to go against the plan put their properties at risk.

51
3.3 RECOMMENDATIONS

The researcher, viewing the result came up with the following recommendations;

The authority should make planning evaluation as part of their routine activities, because

evaluation is the only way through which the achievements of a plan can be assessed

without which the planners can only keep on planning and shelving the plans to gather

dust.
Plans should be adjusted because the projected population at the time of planning may

not turn out to be the same with the actual population after a certain period of time, as a

result, plans should be flexible enough to be adjusted where necessary.


The planners when planning should not confined there planning to themselves and the

government alone, they should also include the peoples suggestion in order to make

every planning for and by the people, thus reducing the chance of distortion.
To achieve actual full implementation, the authority should emphasize the establishment

of all land uses as proposed.


Even though staff of KNUPDA claimed that the agency tries its possible best in making

sure the plan is followed at all time, at all cost and no matter who is involved or affect, it

is recommended that it should be made sure that this is just not said but done.

52
REFERENCES

Abdulaziz, M. (2013). ACTIVITIES OF M.L.P&P and KNUPDA. Kano.

Alexander, E., & Flaudi, A. (1989). Planning and Plan Implementation: Notes on Evaluation

Criteria. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 16, 127-140.

Alterman, R., & Hill, M. (1978). Implementation of Urban Land Use Plans. Journal of the

American Planning Association, 44, 4.

Barrett, & Fudge. (1981). policy and action: essays on the implementation of public policy.

routledge publishing.

Berke, P., Backhurst, M., Day, M., Ericksen, N., Laurian, L., Crawford, J., & Dixon, J. (2006).

What makes plan implementation successful? An evaluation of local plans and

implementation practices in New Zealand. Environment and Planning B: Planning and

Design, 33(4) 581600.

Bramley, G., & Leishman, C. (2005). Modelling Local Housing Market Adjustment in England.

In A. D, Planning, Public Policy & Property Market (pp. 79-104). Blackwell Publishing.

Calkins, H. (1979). The Planning Monitor: An Accountability Theory of Plan Evaluation.

Environment and Planning A, 11(7), 745-758.

Dawani, P. (1982). Implementing an urban master plan in a developing country: A case study of

the implementation of the greater Jos area masterplan" Unpublished M. Phil thesis

presented to the Barlett school of Architecture and Planning. London: University of

College London.

53
Gray, B. (1989). Collaborating: Finding common ground for multiparty problems. San

Fransisco: Calif: Jossey-Bass.

Henneberry, J., T, M., & Mouzakis, F. (2005). Estimating the Impact of Planning on Commercial

Property Markets. In A. D, Planning, Public Policy & Property Market (pp. 105-127).

Blackwell Publishing.

Koenigsberger, O. (1977). Planning legislation in developing countries: Town and Country

planning summer school report of proceedings.

Laurian, L., Day, M., Backhurst, M., Berke, E. P., Crawford, N., J, . . . Chapman, S. (2004). What

drives plan implementation? Plans, planning agencies and developers. Journal of

Environmental Planning and Management, 47(4), 555 577.

Laurian, L., Day, M., Backhurst, M., Berke, Ericksen, P., & Crawford. (2004). Evaluation Plan

Implementation: A Conformance-based Methodology. Journal of the American Planning

Association, 70, 471-48.

litchfield, N., & Darin-Dabkin, H. (1980). Land policy in planning. London: George Allen and

Unwin.

Mazmanian, D. A., & P, A. S. (1989). Implementation and public policy. Lanham MD:

University Press of America.

McGough, T., & Tsoloacos, S. (1994). Forecasting Office Rental Values Using Vector

Autoregressive Models. Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors.

Mcloghlin, M. (1969). Urban and Regional planning. New York: Pergamon.

54
Morah, E. U. (1990). Why policies have problems: Achieving optimal results: A review of the

literature on policy implementation. Vancouver: B.C school of community and regional

planning, University of British Columbia.

Neuman, M. (1998). Does Planning Need the Plan? . Journal of the American Planning

Association, V. 64(2).

Olofin, E. A. (1987). Some aspect of the physical geography of Kano region and related Human

responses. Kano: Debri standard printers.

Onokerhoray, A., & Omuta, G. (1984). Urban Systems and Planning, Geography and Planning

Series. Benin: University of benin.

Onokerhoraye, A. (n.d.). An Outline of Human Geography. Benin, Nigeria.

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university of california press.

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55
Vedung, E. (1997). Public policy and program evaluation. New Brunswick, New Jersey:

Transaction Publisher.

56
APPENDIX I

QUESTIONNAIRE I

BAYERO UNIVERSITY, KANO

DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY

Dear respondent,

This questionnaire aims to source required data for the following topic: An evaluation of plan

implementation of Hotoro GRA, Kano Metropolis. Your assistance is needed in answering the

questions that follow. The researcher will try his best in keeping your response as confidential as

possible.

Please answer appropriately;

SECTION A: Respondents Personal Information

1) Sex
a. Male
b. Female
2) Office position

3) Educational qualification:

4) Experience in project planning and implementation

SECTION B: Respondents view on planning implementation of Hotoro GRA

57
1) In your own opinion and experience, what do you think are the objectives all plans try to

achieve in general?



2) Do you know about the existence of the Hotoro GRA plan?
a. Yes
b. No
3) What do you think are the objectives of the Hotoro GRA plan?



4) To the best of your knowledge, has the plan been fully implemented?
a. Yes
b. No
5) If yes, what do you suggest is or are the factor(s) that facilitated the achievement of full

implementation?
a. Strict bylaws
b. Unbiased development control staff
c. Corporative residents
d. A very flexible plan
e. Others (specify).
6) If no, what do you suggest is or are the factor(s) that hinders the achievement of full

implementation?
a. Flexible bylaws
b. Biased development control staff
c. Incorporative residents
d. A very rigid plan
e. Others (specify).
7) Does your department care about full implementation?
a. Yes
b. No
8) If yes, how do you make sure you achieve that?

58
QUESTIONNAIRE II

BAYERO UNIVERSITY, KANO

DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY

Dear respondent,

This questionnaire aims to source required data for the following topic: An evaluation of plan

implementation of Hotoro GRA, Kano Metropolis. Your assistance is needed in answering the

questions that follow. The researcher will try his best in keeping your response as confidential as

possible.

Please answer appropriately;

SECTION A: Respondents Personal Information

1) Sex
a. Male
b. Female
2) How long have you been living in this area?
a. Less than 10 years
b. More than 10 years
3) Education qualification

4) What is your main occupation?


a. Civil service
b. Trading
c. Farming
d. Artisanship
e. None

59
SECTION B: Respondents view on planning implementation of Hotoro GRA

1) Do you own a land in this area?


a. Yes
b. No
2) How did you obtain the land?
a. Government allocation
b. Purchase from someone
c. Inherited
d. Others (specify).
3) What did you develop your land into?
a. A house
b. A shop
c. A school
d. Others (specify).
4) Did the government agency approve your development?
a. Yes
b. No
5) Has the government agency ever prevented you from putting your land into a certain land

use?
a. Yes
b. No
6) If yes, what sort of development is that?
a. Shop
b. School
c. House
d. Others (specify)
7) How did it affect you?
....

....
....

60
APPENDIX II

Original Google Map

Original Satellite Image Obtained From Google Earth

61
62
Original Plan Obtained From KNUPDA

63