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17 Chapter 7

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Chapter-7

Algorithms for Direct Torque Controlled

Induction Motor Drives

7.1 Introduction:

The PWM algorithm requires high speed switching devices like IGBTs to

motor. Because of the transmission line effect in the motor cable, voltage

and current waves propagate at a finite velocity in the cable, and reflect

195

bearing wear in the form of pitting, frosting, and spark tracks at the

surfaces of the bearing balls and races. The bearings may fail

in the bearing.

capacitors between stator windings and a motor frame due to a large step

peak value may reach the rated current in the worst case. It may have an

studies for reducing the common mode voltage have been made. These

using switching devices. Since these methods require extra hardware, the

196

PWM scheme have been proposed in the literature. The PWM schemes

asymmetrical. Moreover, they do not use any zero voltage vectors which

technique the switching number inside the sector is not the same and

have been proposed for direct torque controlled induction motor drives to

reduce the common mode voltage. These PWM algorithms are also known

The common mode voltage is the potential of the star point of the

load with respect to the center of the dc bus of the VSI. Fig 7.1 shows a

197

VSI fed induction motor. A set of phase voltage equations can be written

as given in (7.1).

Van = V so Vao

Vbn = V so Vbo (7.1)

Vcn = V so Vco

where Vao , Vbo , Vco are inverter pole voltages and V so is common mode

voltage.

AC supply Zn

Va

o Vb s

V dc

Vc

V so

Adding the set of equations of (7.1) and sinceVan + Vbn + Vcn = 0 , the

V + Vbo + Vco

Vcom = V so = ao (7.2)

3

Hence, if the drive is fed by balanced three phase supply, the common

mode voltage is zero. But, the common mode voltage exists inevitably

when the drive is fed from an inverter employing PWM technique because

the VSI cannot produce pure sinusoidal voltages and has discrete output

voltages. It can be shown that the switching state and dc bus voltage

198

decides the common mode voltage. There are eight available output

V3 (- + -) V2 (+ + -)

V4 (- ++) V7 (+ ++)

V1 (+ - -)

V0 (- - -)

V5 (- - +) V6 (+ - +)

V V

Vcom = V so = dc (S a + S b + S c ) dc (7.3)

3 2

The common mode voltage for each inverter state is given in Table

7.1, which shows that, if only even or only odd voltage vectors are used,

from an even voltage vector to an odd one (or vice versa), a common

odd (even) voltage vector to the zero (seventh) voltage vector occurs, a

199

switching state

Switching

state Inverter pole voltages

V com

V 0 (0 0 0) V V V V

dc dc dc dc

2 2 2 2

V1 (1 0 0) V dc V dc V dc V dc

2 2 2 6

V 2 (1 1 0) V dc V dc V dc V dc

2 2 2 6

V 3 (0 1 0) V V dc V V

dc dc dc

2 2 2 6

V 4 (0 1 1) V V dc V dc V dc

dc

2 2 2 6

V 5 (0 0 1) V V Vdc V

dc dc dc

2 2 2 6

V 6 (1 0 1) V dc V V dc V dc

dc

2 2 2 6

V 7 (1 1 1) V dc V dc V dc V dc

2 2 2 2

worst case is transition between two zero voltage vectors. For this reason

common mode emissions of the drive, the exploitation of both the null

200

methods, the zero states of the inverter are avoided and results in a

common mode voltage of Vdc/6. All these methods are described using

will be sub grouped in three types, these include active zero state PWM

either two near opposing active vectors or one of the adjacent states and

vector. The RSPWM methods synthesize the output voltage from three

inverter voltage vectors that are 120o apart from each other (most remote

201

voltage vectors are selected such that the voltage vector closest to

reference voltage vector and its two neighbors (to the right and left) are

utilized. But, this thesis mainly deals with only AZSPWM and NSPWM

algorithms.

active and two zero vectors for the inverter, and as shown in Fig. 7.3 (a),

the vectors divide the space into six segments as in SVPWM algorithm.

These regions are utilized in programming the PWM pulses. But, in the

7.3 (b).

In the space vector approach, the duty cycles of the voltage vectors

criterion, the voltage vectors are selected, and their sequences depend on

the region of the reference voltage vectors defined in Fig. 7.3(a) and (b).

The utilized voltage vectors and their sequences for the conventional

202

V3 V2

A2

A3 A1

V4 V7 V1

V0

A4 A6

A5

V5 V6

(a)

V3 V2

B2

B3

V4 B4 V7 B1

V1

V0

B5 B6

V5 V6

(b)

Fig. 7.3 Voltage space vectors and 60o sector definitions

V3 V2

A2

A3 A1

V4 V7 V1

V0

A4 A6

A5

V5 V6

Fig. 7.4 Voltage space vectors and formation of AZSPWM algorithms

203

V3 V2

B2

B3

V4 B4 V7 B1

V1

V0

B5 B6

V5 V6

Fig. 7.5 Voltage space vectors and formation of NSPWM algorithm

techniques

PWM

A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6

Technique

Conventional 0127- 0327- 0347- 0547- 0567- 0167-

SVPWM 7210 7230 7430 7450 7650 7610

3216- 4321- 5432- 6543- 1654- 2165-

AZSPWM1

6123 1234 2345 3456 4561 5612

5122- 6233- 1344- 2455- 3566- 4611-

AZSPWM2

2215 3326 4431 5542 6653 1164

B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6

NSPWM

612 123 234 345 456 561

zero voltage vectors are utilized to program the output voltage. Every 600

degrees the active voltage vectors change, but the zero state locations are

retained. In the AZSPWM methods, the choice and the sequence of active

instead of the real zero voltage vectors (V0 and V7), two active opposite

voltage vectors with equal duration are utilized. Here, three choices exist.

For AZSPWM algorithms, any of the pairs V1-V4, V2-V5, or V3-V6 can be

204

utilized.

obtained. Thus, one of the phases is not switched within each PWM

cycle. The resulting vector sequence is shown in Table 7.2. For example,

for the region between -30o and +30o (sector B1), the applied voltage

vectors are V1, V2, and V6 with the sequence V6-V2-V1-V1-V2-V6. In the

cycle. Hence, it reduces the switching losses of the inverter and switching

For each one of the above described PWM methods and its pulse

conventional SVPWM method has common mode voltage (CMV) that can

have Vdc/6 CMV magnitude value. The frequency and polarity of CMV

205

as given in (7.4)

T T T

Tan s Van ; Tbn s Vbn ; Tcn s Vcn (7.4)

Vdc Vdc Vdc

To calculate the active vector switching times, the maximum, middle and

Tz = Ts T1 T2 (7.9)

Then, the zero voltage vector time is shared equally among the two

206

AZSPWM algorithms for which the sequences are illustrated in Table 7.2.

NSPWM algorithm did not use the zero voltage vectors. These three

voltage vectors are selected such that the voltage vector closest to

reference voltage vector and its two neighbors are utilized in each sector

as shown in Fig 7.5. Hence, the utilized voltage vectors are changed in

every sector. As shown in Fig. 7.5, to apply the method, the voltage

vector space is divided into six sectors. Here also, as all six sectors are

symmetrical, the discussion is limited to the first sector only. For the

required reference voltage vector, the active voltage vectors (V1, V2 and

3 3 3

T1 = 1 + M i cos( + ) + M i sin( + )Ts (7.10)

3 3

3 3

T2 = 1 M i cos( + ) M i sin( + )Ts (7.11)

3 3

T6 = Ts T1 T2 (7.12)

But, in the NSPWM algorithm, the (7.10), (7.11) and (7.12) have a valid

solution when the modulation index is varying between 0.61 and 0.906

207

below:

from (7.4). Then the maximum and minimum values can be calculated

by using (7.5) and (7.7). Then, the effective time during which the

in (7.13).

When the actual gating signals for power devices are generated in

the PWM algorithm, there is one degree of freedom by which the effective

208

Therefore, the actual switching times for each inverter leg can be

procedure is as follows:

(7.17)

if T max + T min 0 T min + Toffset = 0

(7.18)

if T max + T min 0 Toffset = Ts T max

V 2 * T gi

*

Vin = dc 1 i = a , b, c (7.19)

2 Ts

209

exactly the same [93-96] and Fig 7.6 shows the waveforms of offset time,

(a)

(b)

Fig 7.6 waveforms of (a) actual gating time (Tga) and offset time

(Toffset) (b) Modulating wave

210

algorithm. This implies that if one wants to keep the average switching

3

frequency must be increased by times. However, in NSPWM

2

algorithm instead of one carrier wave, two carrier waves (Vtri and Vtri)

(triangular wave), the upper switch associated with the specific phase is

set on. The reference phase voltages are as shown in Fig 7.7 in all the

six sectors.

From Fig 7.7, it can be observed that in the first sector the slope of

phase and b-phase are compared with Vtri and modulating wave of c-

phase is compared with Vtri as shown in Fig 7.8. The possible pulse

211

1 Va Vb

Vc

Voltages 0

-1

0 60 120 180 240 300 360

Angle (degrees)

Fig 7.7 reference phase voltages in all sectors in NSPWM algorithm

Va*

-Vtri

+Vtri

Vb*

Vc*

Sa

Sb

Sc

2 1 6 6 1 2

Drive:

ways. But, to reduce the complexity of the algorithm, in this thesis, the

required reference voltage vector, to control the torque and flux cycle-by-

212

axis and q-axis stator fluxes and d-axis and q-axis estimated stator

fluxes sampled from the previous cycle. The block diagram of the

proposed RCMVPWM based DTC is as shown in Fig. 7.9. From Fig. 7.9, it

is seen that the proposed RCMVPWM based DTC scheme retains all the

generate the pulses for the inverter, therefore the complexity is increased

vector s * is derived by the addition of slip speed and actual rotor speed.

corrected by the error and it tries to attain the reference flux space

The d-axis and q-axis components of the reference voltage vector can be

obtained as follows:

Reference values of the d-axis and q- axis stator fluxes and actual

values of the d-axis and q-axis stator fluxes are compared in the

reference voltage vector calculator block and hence the errors in the d-

213

Vdc

Te sl e e V ds

Reference R

SMC

+

PI

+ Voltage C

Ref M

_ Vector

speed Te r + Calculator

V

P

+ s* W

_ V qs* M

Speed

Vds, Vqs

s Calculation

Adaptive

Motor Model 3

2

IM

ds = ds * ds (7.20)

qs = qs * qs (7.21)

The knowledge of flux error and stator ohmic drop allows the

(7.22)-(7.23).

* = ds

V ds R s i ds + (7.22)

Ts

qs

* = (7.23)

V qs R s i qs +

Ts

period of the switching frequency. This implies that the torque and flux

are controlled twice per switching cycle. Further, these d-q components

214

of the reference voltage vector are fed to the SVPWM block from which,

the actual switching times for each inverter leg are calculated.

have been carried out on a v/f controlled induction motor drive by using

the inverter is taken as 3 kHz. The parameters of the induction motor are

given in Appendix - I.

From Fig.7.10 it can be observed that as the SVPWM algorithm uses two

zero voltage vectors i.e, V 0 (000) and V7 (111) in each sampling time

215

AZSPWM and NSPWM algorithms do not use the zero voltage vectors, the

common mode voltage will vary from + Vdc 6 to Vdc 6 as shown in Fig.

216

controlled induction motor drive are shown in Fig 7.14 - Fig. 7.17. The

harmonic spectra of line currents are also shown in Fig. 7.14 - Fig. 7.17.

and NSPWM) will give reduced common mode voltage variations with

217

(a)

(b)

Fig. 7.14 (a) Steady state plots (b) Harmonic spectra of line current

218

(a)

(b)

Fig. 7.15 (a) Steady state plots (b) Harmonic spectra of line current

219

(a)

(b)

Fig.7.16 (a) Steady state plots (b) Harmonic spectra of line current

220

(a)

(b)

Fig.7.17 (a) Steady state plots (b) Harmonic spectra of line current

221

direct torque controlled induction motor drive are shown from Fig 7.18 to

Fig 7.29. Fig 7.18 shows the starting transients of speed, torque stator

which it can be observed that the AZSPWM1 algorithm gives more ripple

in starting torque when compared with the SVPWM algorithm. Fig 7.18

shows the no-load starting transients of speed, currents, torque and flux.

Fig. 7.19 shows the starting transients in phase and line voltages for

AZSPWM1 algorithm based DTC-IM drive. The no-load steady state plots

of speed, torque, stator currents, flux, phase and line voltages at 1200

rpm are given in Fig 7.20 -Fig. 7.21. The harmonic distortion in the

steady state stator current along with THD value is shown in Fig 7.22.

From Fig 7.20 to Fig 7.22, it can be observed that the steady state ripple

based DTC. The locus of the stator flux is given in Fig 7.23, from which it

The transients in speed, torque, currents and flux during the step

change in load torque and corresponding phase and line voltages are

shown in Fig. 7.24 -Fig. 7.25. Also, the transients in speed, torque,

currents, flux, and voltages during the speed reversals (from +1200 rpm

to -1200 rpm and from -1200 rpm to +1200 rpm) are shown from Fig.

222

transients.

AZSPWM1 algorithm based DTC drive.

223

plots at 1200 rpm.

Fig. 7.21 The phase and line voltages of AZSPWM1 based DTC drive

during the steady state operation.

224

Fig. 7.22 Harmonic Spectrum of stator current along with THD for

AZSPWM1 based DTC-IM drive.

225

load torque is applied at 0.5 s and removed at 0.6s).

Fig. 7.25 The phase and line voltages of AZSPWM1 based DTC during

step change in load torque (a 30 N-m load torque is applied at 0.5 s

and removed at 0.6s).

226

Fig. 7.26 Transients in speed, torque, current and flux during speed

reversal (speed is changed from +1200 rpm to -1200 rpm at 0.7 s).

Fig. 7.27 Transients in phase and line voltages during speed reversal

(speed is changed from +1200 rpm to -1200 rpm at 0.7 s).

227

Fig. 7.28 Transients in speed, torque, current and flux during speed

reversal (speed is changed from -1200 rpm to +1200 rpm at 1.35 s).

Fig. 7.29 Transients in phase and line voltages during speed reversal

(speed is changed from -1200 rpm to 1200 rpm at 1.35 s).

228

in four-quadrants.

transients.

229

torque and flux. Fig. 7.32 shows the starting transients in phase and line

AZSPWM2 algorithm based DTC drive.

flux, phase and line voltages at 1200 rpm are given in Fig 7.33 - Fig.7.34.

The harmonic distortion in the steady state stator current along with

THD value is shown in Fig 7.35. From Fig 7.31 to Fig 7.35, it can be

observed that the steady state ripple in torque, flux and current is more

when compared with SVPWM based DTC. The locus of the stator flux is

given in Fig 7.36, from which it can be observed that the locus is almost

230

plots at 1200 rpm.

Fig. 7.34 the phase and line voltages of AZSPWM2 based DTC drive

during the steady state operation.

231

Fig. 7.35 Harmonic Spectrum of stator current along with THD for

AZSPWM2 based DTC-IM drive.

The transients in speed, torque, currents and flux during the step

change in load torque and corresponding phase and line voltages are

shown in Fig. 7.37 - Fig. 7.38. Also, the transients in speed, torque,

currents, flux, and voltages during the speed reversals (from +1200 rpm

232

load torque is applied at 0.5 s and removed at 0.6s).

Fig. 7.38 The phase and line voltages of AZSPWM1 based DTC during

step change in load torque (a 30 N-m load torque is applied at 0.5 s

and removed at 0.6s).

233

Fig. 7.39 Transients in speed, torque, current and flux during speed

reversal (speed is changed from +1200 rpm to -1200 rpm at 0.7 s).

Fig. 7.40 Transients in phase and line voltages during speed reversal

(speed is changed from +1200 rpm to -1200 rpm at 0.7 s).

234

Fig. 7.41 Transients in speed, torque, current and flux during speed

reversal (speed is changed from -1200 rpm to +1200 rpm at 1.35 s).

Fig. 7.42 Transients in phase and line voltages during speed reversal

(speed is changed from -1200 rpm to 1200 rpm at 1.35 s).

235

in four-quadrants.

to -1200 rpm and from -1200 rpm to +1200 rpm) are shown from Fig.

torque and flux. Fig. 7.45 shows the starting transients in phase and line

voltages for NSPWM algorithm based DTC-IM drive. The no-load steady

state plots of speed, torque, stator currents, flux, phase and line voltages

at 1200 rpm are given in Fig. 7.46 - Fig. 7.47. The harmonic distortion in

the steady state stator current along with THD value is shown in Fig

7.48. From Fig 7.44 to Fig 7.48, it can be observed that the steady state

ripple in torque, flux and current is less compared with AZSPWM based

DTC and slightly more when compare with the SVPWM based DTC.

236

transients.

Fig. 7.45 starting transients in phase and line voltages for NSPWM

algorithm based DTC drive.

237

at 1200 rpm.

Fig. 7.47 the phase and line voltages of NSPWM based DTC drive

during the steady state operation.

238

Fig. 7.48 Harmonic Spectrum of stator current along with THD for

NSPWM based DTC-IM drive.

The locus of the stator flux is given in Fig 7.49, from which it can be

transients in speed, torque, currents and flux during the step change in

load torque and corresponding phase and line voltages are shown in Fig.

239

7.50 - Fig. 7.51. Also, the transients in speed, torque, currents, flux, and

voltages during the speed reversals (from +1200 rpm to -1200 rpm and

from -1200 rpm to +1200 rpm) are shown from Fig. 7.52 to Fig. 7.55. The

in Fig. 7.56.

load torque is applied at 0.5 s and removed at 0.6s).

240

Fig. 7.51 The phase and line voltages of NSPWM based DTC during

step change in load torque (a 30 N-m load torque is applied at 0.5 s

and removed at 0.6s).

Fig. 7.52 Transients in speed, torque, current and flux during speed

reversal (speed is changed from +1200 rpm to -1200 rpm at 0.7 s).

241

Fig. 7.53 Transients in phase and line voltages during speed reversal

(speed is changed from +1200 rpm to -1200 rpm at 0.7 s).

Fig. 7.54 Transients in speed, torque, current and flux during speed

reversal (speed is changed from -1200 rpm to +1200 rpm at 1.35 s).

242

Fig. 7.55 Transients in phase and line voltages during speed reversal

(speed is changed from -1200 rpm to 1200 rpm at 1.35 s).

four-quadrants.

243

NSPWM base DTC are shown in Fig. 7.57- Fig. 7.60, from which it can be

drive

drive

244

drive

drive

245

7.6 Summary:

Though the SVPWM based DTC gives less harmonic distortion and

steady state ripple, it gives large common mode voltage variations. This

will cause EMI problems in the drive systems. Hence, to reduce the EMI

RCMVPWM algorithms.

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