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You are on page 1of 17

Midterm Exam 1

October 2, 2012

Name:

Instructions

1. This examination is closed book and closed notes. All your belongings

except a pen or pencil and a calculator should be put away and your

bookbag should be placed on the floor.

2. You will find one page of useful formulae on the last page of the exam.

3. Please show all your work in the space provided on each page. If you

need more space, feel free to use the back side of each page.

4. Academic dishonesty (i.e., copying or cheating in any way) will

result in a zero for the exam, and may cause you to fail the

class.

each solution should have:

1. A labeled picture or diagram, if appropriate.

2. A list of given variables.

3. A list of the unknown quantities (i.e., what you are solving for).

4. Graphical representations of the motion (e.g., position, velocity, acceler-

ation vs. time), if appropriate.

5. A labeled 1D or 2D coordinate axis system, if appropriate.

6. The full equation or equations needed to solve the problem

(e.g., appropriate equations of motion).

7. An algebraic solution of the unknown variables in terms of the

known variables.

8. A final numerical solution, including units, with a box around it.

9. An answer to additional questions posed in the problem, if any.

1

Physics 130 General Physics - McColgan Fall 2012

1. One game at the amusement park has you push a puck up a long, frictionless ramp. You

win a stuffed animal if the puck, at its highest point, comes to within 10 cm of the end

of the ramp without going off. You give the puck a push, releasing it with a speed of

6.0 m{s when it is 9 m from the end of the ramp. The pucks speed after traveling 2.5 m

is 5.0 m{s. Are you a winner?

Solution:

This is a 1D kinematics question. We are given the pucks initial velocity vDi , and

its velocity after it has traveled 2.5 m. We are also given the length of the ramp,

xf , and we are asked to find whether the puck stops within 10 cm of the end of the

ramp. To solve this problem we need the 1D kinematic equation relating velocities,

distance, and acceleration. We need to find the acceleration from the two velocities

and the two speeds at the start of the pucks trip up the slide:

2apxf xi q vi2 vf2 (2)

vi2 vf2

a

2pxf xi q

(3)

a

p6 m{sq2 p5 m{sq2

2p2.5q

(4)

(6)

We can use the same equation again, using the starting and ending velocity and the

acceleration that we just found, where vf 0:

2

Physics 130 General Physics - McColgan Fall 2012

2apxf xi q vi2 (9)

vi2

p xf xi q 2a

(10)

p6 m{sq2

2p2.2 m{s2 q

(11)

8.2 m (12)

(13)

Unfortunately, you do not win! The puck stops well before the winning distance. To

win, the puck has to stop at a distance between 8.9 and 9 m.

3

Physics 130 General Physics - McColgan Fall 2012

2. As a science project, you drop a watermelon off the top of the Empire State Building,

350 m above the sidewalk. It so happens that Superman flies by at the instant you

release the watermelon. Superman is headed straight down with a constant speed of

40 m{s. How fast is the watermelon going when it passes Superman?

Solution:

starting position at 350 m and Supermans constant velocity of 40 m{s. We also

know that the acceleration of gravity is 9.8m{s2 .

To solve this problem we need use the 1D kinematic equations for the watermelon

and Superman:

1

2

aS ptq2 xSi vSi t, (14)

xW f xW i vW i t

1

2

aW ptq2 xW i

1

2

aW ptq2 . (15)

Were trying to find the speed of the watermelon just as it passes Superman, or when

the xSf xW f . Setting these two equations equal to each other, we have:

vSi t xW i aW ptq2

1

xSi (16)

2

(17)

Since the initial positions are the same, xSi xW i, and this equation becomes:

vSi t aW ptq2

1

(18)

2

(19)

4

Physics 130 General Physics - McColgan Fall 2012

vSi 12 gt (20)

(21)

t

2vSi

g

2p40 mq

9.8 m{s2

8.2 sec (22)

(23)

vi at

vf (24)

vf gt (25)

vf 9.8 m{s2 p8.2 secq 80.4 m{s (26)

(27)

5

Physics 130 General Physics - McColgan Fall 2012

3. Let A~ 9 3 ~ 7 5

, B ~ 3A

, and D ~ 2B.

~

(a) Write vector D ~ in component form.

~ B,

(b) Draw a coordinate system and on it show vectors A, ~ and D.

~

~

(c) What are the magnitude and direction of vector D?

Solution:

~ in component form we first multiplyA

(a) To write D ~ by 3 and B

~ by 2.

~ 3 9 3 3

3A 27 9

(28)

~

2B 2 p7q 2 5

14 10

(29)

(30)

~

D 3A~ 2B~ (31)

p27 9q p14 10q (32)

p27 14q p9 10q (33)

41 19. (34)

(b)

~ is given by

(c) The magnitude of the vector D

a

|D~ | 412 p19q2 (35)

45.2, (36)

6

Physics 130 General Physics - McColgan Fall 2012

and the direction (measured positive counter-clockwise from the x-axis) is equal to

Dy 19

(37)

Dx 41

7

Physics 130 General Physics - McColgan Fall 2012

4. The figure shows three ropes tied together in a knot. One of your friends pulls on a

rope with 3.0 units of force and another pulls on a second rope with 5.0 units of force.

How hard and in what direction must you pull on the third rope to keep the knot from

moving?

Solution:

This is a vector problem that uses x- and y- components of vectors. The three vectors

must be balanced. This means that the x- and y - components of the three vectors

must be balanced.

F 0 (38)

x

Fy 0 (39)

(40)

The 3 unit force vector is only in the x-direction. The 5 unit force vector has x-

and y- components. The x-component of the 5 unit force vector is found from SOH-

CAH-TOA:

Fx 5 cos 5 cosp60q 2.5 units (42)

sin

Fy

(43)

5

Fy 5 sin 5 sinp60q 4.33 units (44)

(45)

8

Physics 130 General Physics - McColgan Fall 2012

Fx 2.5 3 0.5 (46)

(47)

For the unknown vector to balance the other forces on the knot,

Fx 0.5 (48)

Fy 4.33 (49)

(50)

a

|D~ | p.5q2 p4.33q2 (51)

4.36 units (52)

and the direction (measured positive counter-clockwise from the x-axis) is equal to

Dy 4.33

(53)

Dx .5

9

Physics 130 General Physics - McColgan Fall 2012

5. A stunt-man drives a car at a speed of 35 m{s off a 25 m high cliff. The road leading to

the cliff is inclined upward at an angle of 15 .

(a) How far from the base of the cliff does the car land?

(b) What is the cars impact speed?

Solution:

This is a 2D projectile motion problem. We are given the initial height of the car

above the ground, yi 25 m, its initial velocity, vi 35.0 m{s, and the angle above

the horizontal with which the car leaves the cliff, 15 . We are asked about the

final distance from the base of the cliff and the cars impact speed.

a) To solve the problem we first determine the initial velocity of the ball in the

horizontal (x) and vertical (y) dimensions:

vyi vi sin p35 m{sq sin p15 q 9.1 m{s. (55)

Next, we use the vertical kinematic equation of projectile motion to find the time it

takes the car to hit the ground, resulting in yf 0:

yf 0 yi vyi t g ptq2 ,

1

2

(56)

g ptq2 vyi t yi 0,

1

(57)

2

4.9t2 9.1t 25 0 (58)

(59)

10

Physics 130 General Physics - McColgan Fall 2012

?2

t

b

b 4ac

(60)

a 2a

9.1 p9.1q 4p4.9qp25q

t

2

2p4.9q

(61)

(63)

Next, we use the horizontal kinematic equation of projectile motion to find the

distance the car lands from the bottom of the cliff:

xf xi vxit (64)

vxit (65)

p33.8 m{sqp3.4 secq (66)

114 m (67)

(68)

b)To find the impact speed, we need to find the final x- and y- components of velocity.

The x-component of the final velocity is:

(70)

24.2 m{s (72)

(73)

a

|~v| p33.8q2 p24.2q2 (74)

41.6 m{s (75)

(76)

11

Physics 130 General Physics - McColgan Fall 2012

6. You are watching an archery tournament when you start wondering how fast an arrow

is shot from the bow. Remembering your physics, you ask one of the archers to shoot

an arrow parallel to the ground. You find the arrow stuck in the ground 50 m away,

making a 2 angle with the ground. How fast was the arrow shot?

Solution:

This is a 2D projectile motion problem. We are told that the arrow is pointed in the

horizontal direction initially, that the range, or horizontal distance the arrow travels

is xf 50 m, and that the angle at which the arrow hits the ground with respect to

the horizontal is 15 . We are asked to find the initial speed of the arrow.

a) To start the problem, lets use the kinematic equation for x where the initial

position, xi 0:

(78)

Then, lets use the kinematic equation for y where the initial velocity viy 0:

vyf vyi gt gt (79)

(80)

Since the velocity in the x-direction is a constant, lets set vix vf x vx.

Now, use the angle at which the arrow hits the ground to relate vx and vy .

x

vx tan

vy

(82)

(83)

12

Physics 130 General Physics - McColgan Fall 2012

vx tan

vy

gt (84)

tan

(85)

xf vxt tan

gt

t (86)

gt

2

(87)

tan

(88)

t2 xf tan

(89)

d d g

t

xf tan

t

p50 mq tanp2q t 0.4 sec

9.8 m{s2

(90)

g

tan

vx

vy

gt

tan

(91)

vx

vy

p 9.8 m{s2 qp0.4 secq

tanp2q

(92)

tan

vx 112 m{s (93)

(94)

Note: We drop the negative sign on g because were keeping track of the positive

and negative values, and we know that vx is positive. The negative in the equation

would result from the fact that the velocity is in the negative y-direction and the

angle is in the 4th quadrant.

13

Physics 130 General Physics - McColgan Fall 2012

7. As the earth rotates, what is the speed of (a) a physics student in Miami, Florida, at

latitude 25 , and (b) a physics student in Fairbanks, Alaska, at latitude 66 ? Ignore the

revolution of the earth around the sun. The radius of the earth is 6390 km.

Solution:

This is a uniform angular acceleration problem in which we are given the radius of

the earth, re 6390 km, and the latitude (angle with respect to the equator) of

each physics student.

(a) From the geometry of the problem, the linear distance of the student from the

rotational axis of the earth is

p6390 kmq sinp65q (96)

5791 km. (97)

The speed of the student in Miami is just equal to the circumference divided by the

period, T , which is just one day:

v 2r

(98)

T

2 5791 km

1 day

24 3600 sec

1 day

(99)

421 m{s. (101)

(b) This solution proceeds just like above but with 66. In this case the radius

is 2600 km, and v 0.189 m{s 189 km s1 .

14

Physics 130 General Physics - McColgan Fall 2012

8. A rock stuck in the tread of a 56.0 cm diameter bicycle wheel has a tangential speed of

2.80 m{s. When the brakes are applied, the rocks tangential deceleration is 1.30 m{s2 .

(a) What are the magnitudes of the rocks angular velocity and angular acceleration at

t 1.70 s?

(b) At what time is the magnitude of the rocks acceleration equal to g?

Solution:

This is a non-uniform angular acceleration problem. We are given the size of the

wheel, r 28 cm 0.28 m, the initial tangential speed of the rock, vi 2.80 m{s, and

the tangential deceleration of the rock when the brakes are applied, aT 1.30 m{s2 .

(a) In order to determine the final angular velocity, f of the rock after t 1.70 sec,

we first have to determine the initial angular velocity:

m{s

wi vri 2.8

0.28 m

10 rad{sec. (102)

1.30 m{s 2

4.64 rad{sec2.

aT

(103)

r 0.28 m

Finally, using the appropriate rotational kinematic equation and substituting, we

obtain

f i t (104)

10 rad{sec p4.64 rad{sec2 q p1.7 secq (105)

2.11 rad{sec. (106)

15

Physics 130 General Physics - McColgan Fall 2012

(b) In order to find the time at which the magnitude of the angular acceleration of

the rock equals g, wea first need to find the linear velocity of the rock at that time.

We want |~a| g a2T a2r , where aT is given in the problem and ar v 2 {r.

Substituting and solving for v we get

d 2

2

g a2T

v

r

(107)

v4

g 2

a2T

r2

(108)

v4 r2pg2 a2Tq (109)

v r1{2pg2 a2Tq1{4 (110)

p0.28 mq1{2 rp9.8 m{s2q2 p1.30 m{s2q2s1{4 (111)

1.65 m{s. (112)

To find the time at which the rock reaches this velocity, we use the 1D kinematic

equation for velocity and solve for the time:

vf vi aT t (113)

vi vf

t aT

(114)

2.80 m{s 1.65 m{s

1.30 m{s2

(115)

16

Physics 130 General Physics - McColgan Fall 2012

xf xi vxit 12 axptq2

vxf vxi ax t

2

vxf vxi2 2axpxf xiq

yf yi vyi t

1 2

ay t

2

vyf vyi ay t

2

vyf vyi2 2ay pyf yiq

f i i t

1

t2

2

f i t

f 2 i 2 2

s r

c 2r

v

2r

T

vt r

v2

ar 2r

r

at r

17

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