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History of Architecture


Prepared By :Tesfu G.
Historians often divide the Renaissance in Italy into
three phases.
They often use the following designations:
Renaissance (ca. 14001500); also known as
the Quattrocento and sometimes known as
Early Renaissance in which they include
developments in 14th-century painting and
sculpture, this is usually not the case in
architectural history.
High Renaissance (ca.15001525)
Mannerism (ca. 15201600).
In the Quattrocento, concepts of architectural order were explored and
rules were formulated.
he study of classical antiquity led in particular to the adoption of Classical
detail and Ornamentation
High Renaissance

Donato Bramante (1444 11

March 1514) was an Italian
architect, who introduced
Renaissance architecture
to Milan and the High
Renaissance style to
High Renaissance

During the High Renaissance, concepts derived from

classical antiquity were developed and used with
greater surety.
The most representative architect is Bramante (1444
1514) who expanded the applicability of classical
architecture to contemporary buildings.
His San Pietro in Montorio (1503) was directly inspired
by circular Roman temples.
He was, however, hardly a slave to the classical forms
and it was his style that was to dominate Italian
architecture in the 16th century.
Leonardo da Vinci the Renaissance Man

Leonardo da Vinci was the

quintessential renaissance
man. He was a painter,
sculptor, inventor, architect,
musician, engineer, and
He is widely recognized as a
genius of the highest level.
he was not only intellectually
gifted, but he was noble in
appearance and manners as
Leonardo da Vinci The Last Supper

monastery of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan, Italy

It is one of the world's most famous paintings

Christ is depicted here with his disciples at the last meal he shared with
them before his crucifixion. We are shown the moment after Jesus has
announced that one of the disciples will betray him.
Leonardo da Vinci Mona Lisa
Mona was an abbreviation of
madonna, meaning my lady, the
equivalent of Madame, or Signora.
So the title means Madame Lisa.
The portrait is a prototype of the
Renaissance portrait. In other
words, Da Vinci introduced a new
way of painting portraits.
He used both linear and aerial
perspective in the background
He used a technique known as
sfumato, (smoke) building the
painting with layers of semi-
transparent glazes, so the
expression on the models face,
especially her smile, is softly
ambiguous, or mysterious
Leonardo da Vinci Vitruvian Man 1487

Vitruvian Man is a world-

renowned drawing created
by Leonardo da Vinci
around the year 1487.
It is accompanied by notes
based on the work of the
famed classical architect,
Vitruvius, for which it is
The drawing and text are
sometimes called the Canon
of Proportions or, less often,
Proportions of Man
reproduced artistic images in the world today
According to Leonardo's notes, (written in mirror writing),
it was made as a study of the proportions of the (male)
human body as described in Vitruvius. For example:
the length of a man's outspread arms (arm span) is
equal to his height
the distance from the top of the head to the bottom
of the chin is one-eighth of a man's height etc. (ie.
The figure is 8 heads high)
The Renaissance was a period in which the human
form was recognized as noble, made in the image of
God. Mankind was seen as the measure of all
things, and human proportions were thought to
correspond with measurements found in the natural
world and in the structure of the universe
Michelangelo the Renaissance Man
He was an Italian sculptor,
painter, architect, poet, and
Michelangelos- David.

This statue is perhaps the most

iconic image of the
Renaissance period.
Michelangelos statue stands
17 feet high (about 3 metres)
It was sculpted between1501
and 1504.
Michelangelo was only
twenty-six years old, when he
won the commission to
complete the statue from a
block of marble (the giant)
Michelangelo - Moses
Michelangelo Pieta
The Pieta balances the
Renaissance ideals of classical
beauty with naturalism. The
statue is one of the most highly
finished works by Michelangelo

Pieta means Pity, and this is

certainly the emotion that this
magnificent sculpture evokes.
We feel pity for Christs suffering,
but also for his grieving mother,
who holds her sons body in an
attitude of quiet acceptance.
Michelangelo as a Painter:

The Sistine Chapel is located in the Vatican City in

Rome, attached to St. Peters Basilica, the papal
apartments and the vast complex of buildings that
make up the Vatican museums.
Michelangelo was commissioned by Pope Julius II to
paint the ceiling of the chapel. He resisted, as he
preferred sculpture to painting, but had to do as he was
The works are frescoes, (painted into fresh plaster) and
they cover about 4,000 square meters of ceiling.
Michelangelo built scaffolding so that he could work on
his back, and labored over the frescoes from 1508
Michelangelo as a Painter:

Michelangelo The Creation of Adam (The Sistine Chapel)

Michelangelo as a Painter:

The painting depicts the symbolic birth of the human

race, as God reaches out to give the breath of life to
Adam, the first man, reclining on the newly made earth.
Under Gods left arm is Eve, as yet unborn.
Michelangelos fascination with and his familiarity with
human anatomy are in evidence here.
Both of these interpretations suggest the mystery of
creation in the mind, where ideas are born, and in the
womb, where life originates.
Michelangelo as a Painter:

Michelangelo The Sistine Chapel

The Last Judgment

Sistine Chapel The

Temptation of Adam and
Michelangelo as an Architect:
The dome of St. Peters in Rome
The dome of St.
Peters Basilica, Rome
St Peters Square - Rome
Capitoline Hill
Raphael Sanzo the Renaissance Man

8 years younger than

Interested in archeology,
he became an expert in
ancient Roman art.
Commissioned to
decorate the state rooms
in the Vatican at the
same time that
Michelangelo was
working on the Sistine
Chapel frescoes.
Raphael, unlike Michelangelo, was well mannered, well
dressed, well liked.
He always carried around a sketch book in which he
constantly sketched women and children.
These sketches formed the basis of his many Madonnas.
He was influenced by Perugino to use soft colors, simple
circular forms, and gentle landscapes in his paintings.
He is best remembered for his madonnas, his portrayals
of the Virgin with the infant Jesus.
Raphael The Sistine Madonna
(detail of the angels)

The Sistine Madonna

Raphael The School at Athens.
Raphael The School at Athens.
Raphaels famous fresco decorates a wall in the papal palace at
the Vatican, in Rome.
He depicts famous figures from various fields of knowledge, with
the Greek philosophers, Plato and Aristotle at the centre of the
composition. Plato is shown with Leonardo da Vincis features.
Also included in the painting are Socrates (another philosopher),
Alexander the Great (military genius) and Pythagoras and Euclid
Raphael has also paid tribute to his fellow artist, Michelangelo, by
placing him in the foreground.
The work is a brilliant demonstration of the technique of linear
(line) perspective. The architectural space recedes infinitely
through the arches of the marble hall to the open sky beyond.

Giulio Romano (14991546),

was a pupil of Raphael,
assisting him on
various works for the
Vatican. Romano was also
a highly inventive

Renaissance style places emphasis on symmetry,

proportion, geometry and the regularity of parts as they
are demonstrated in the architecture of classical
antiquity and in particular ancient Roman architecture, of
which many examples remained.
Orderly arrangements of columns, pilasters and lintels, as
well as the use of semicircular arches, hemispherical
domes, niches replaced the more complex proportional
systems and irregular profiles of medieval buildings.
Floor Plan

The plans of Renaissance buildings have a square,

symmetrical appearance in which proportions are usually
based on a module within a church the module is often
the width of an aisle.
Columns and pilasters

The Roman orders of columns are used:- Tuscan, Doric,

Ionic, Corinthian and Composite.
The orders can either be structural, supporting an arcade
or architrave, or purely decorative, set against a wall in
the form of pilasters.
During the Renaissance architects aimed to use columns,
pilasters as an integrated system.
Arches are semi-circular or (in the Mannerist style)
segmental. Arches are often used in arcades, supported
on piers or columns with capitals.
Arches and domes were popular. This was again taken
from Roman and Greek architecture.
Vaults do not have ribs. They are semi-circular or
segmental and on a square plan, unlike the Gothic vault
which is frequently rectangular.
The 16th century saw the economic and political
ascendancy of France and Spain, and then later of
Holland, England, Germany and Russia. The result was that
these places began to import the Renaissance style as
of their new cultural position. This also meant that it was not
until about 1500 and later that signs of Renaissance
architectural style began to appear outside Italy.
Mediterranean Sea