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Look and analyze carefully each picture.

Contextualize all the pictures.

Avoid using spanish.


When we want to give extra information
about the subject or the object of a
sentence we need to add extra clauses.
These clauses are often added on, or put
inside a sentence and are introduced by
relative pronouns. These relative pronouns
help to make clear exactly what, where or
who the extra information is referring to.
If you want to give more information about the subject -
or object - of a sentence
You can use a relative pronoun to
introduce the extra information

For example:

She was the woman who had stolen my

The cream, which was already six days old,
had gone completely sour.
We searched even in places where wed
already looked.


Who (that) People

Which (that) Things & Ideas
When Time
Where Place
Whose Possession
Why reason
The relative pronoun allows you neatly to insert
information inside the same sentence.
you can use relative pronouns, in some
cases, to join two sentence strings
Like this:
She was the woman. She had stolen my purse.
She was the woman who had stolen my purse.

Join sentences using a relative pronoun:

Thats the product. I told you about it.

We visited the city. I was born there.

I dont like that man. He works in the marketing

Complete with a relative pronoun

The waiting outside says he has an

The womenjob you took has left her new job
and wants to come back here.
The file ..I left on your desk has disappeared
The reason .. I cant come is because Im
working that day.
Defining relative clauses
non defining relative clauses ?

The extra information which is introduced by the

relative pronoun is necessary to the meaning of
the sentence . Defining relative clause

The extra information is not necessary and can

simply give extra, non essential information.
Non-defining relative clause
Defining relative clauses
The defining relative clause identifies and defines
the thing/place/person/reason or time talked about.
It is necessary for the meaning:
- Example: Hes the man (who that) I met on the plane.
Commas are not used
You can omit (who) when the verbs in the main
clause and the relative clause have a different
that (instead of which) can only be used for people
and things in defining relative clauses. (NOT non-
Other examples: Defining

The summer is the time when we sell more of

our products
The weather is (the reason) why I decided to
come home early.
This is the street where I was born.
Thats the boy whose father plays for Real
Its a book which tells you how to do marketing
Complete the sentences with a relative pronoun:
1.An environmentally-friendly product is a product.......will
not harm the environment when you see it.
2.It was in 2005......the Kyoto Agreement on global
warming came into force.
3.Glass........has been recycled can be used again.
4.Deforestation happens in an area ..all the trees have
been cut down. polluted with chemicals from factories is
called acid rain.
6.A farmer farm is organic does not use harmful
chemicals to grow food.
7.The greenhouse effect is something .happens when
the suns heat is trapped close to the Earth by pollution.
8.An ecologist is a scientist studies the environment.
Add a relative pronoun where it is necessary only.

1. Greenfield sites are places nothing has ever been

2. Deforestation is a problem affects the whole world.
3. The bottles we recycled were made of brown glass
4. The green belt is an area of land around a city building
is not allowed.
5. The ecologist we saw on television was worried about
acid rain.
6. I always buy milk has been organically produced.
7. The man factory was polluting the river was fined over
NON-defining relative clauses

The relative pronoun cant be omitted

In these sentences you cant use that instead of
The clause is written inside commas:
Example: The regional sales manager, who is a
close friend of mine, has just been given a salary
rise of 20%.
The information inside commas can be removed
without the sentence losing its meaning. (the
sentence makes sense without it)
Examples of
non-defining relative clauses:
Her husband, who/whom I met for the first time
last night, works for IBM.
The report on the French subsidiary, which I left
on your desk, needs to be rewritten.
This part of the factory, where we make
components for conveyor belts, is the oldest part
of the plant.
Last week I visited my aunt, whos nearly 90
years old.

that is used instead of who and which when we

are speaking or writing informally.

In the past WHOM was often used as the object of

a relative clause, but today WHO is more normally
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