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1. Calculate the total time required to transfer a 1,000-KB file in the following cases, assuming an RTT
of 100 ms, a packet size of 1-KB data, and an initial 2RTT of handshaking before data is sent.

(a) The bandwidth is 1.5 Mbps, and data packets can be sent continuously.
(b) The bandwidth is 1.5 Mbps, but after we finish sending each data packet we must wait one RTT
before sending the next.
(c) The bandwidth is infinite, meaning that we take transmit time to be zero, and up to 20 packets can
be sent per RTT.
(d) The bandwidth is infinite, and during the first RTT we can send one packet (211), during the second
RTT we can send two packets (221), during the third we can send four (23-1) and so on.

2. Consider a point-to-point link 2km in length. At what bandwidth would propagation delay (at a
speed of 2108m/sec) equal transmit delay for 100-byte packets? What about 512-byte packets?

3. Hosts A and B are each connected to a switch S via 10-Mbps links as shown above. The propagation
delay on each link is 20s. S is a store-and-forward device that can send and receive bits simultaneously;
it begins retransmitting a received packet 35s after it has finished receiving it (if it can). Calculate the
total time in milliseconds required to transmit 12,000 bits from host A to host B, transmitted as a single

4. Calculate the latency (from first bit sent to last bit received) for:

(a) A 1-Gbps Ethernet with a single store-and-forward switch in the path, and a packet size of 5,000 bits.
Assume that each link introduces a propagation delay of 10 s and that the switch begins retransmitting
immediately after it has finished receiving the packet.

(b) Same as (a) but with three switches.

(c) Same as (b) but assume the switch implements cut-through switching: it is able to begin
retransmitting the packet after the first 128 bits have been received.

5. Suppose a 100-Mbps point-to-point link is being set up between Earth and a new lunar colony. The
distance from the moon to Earth is approximately 385,000 km, and data travels over the link at the
speed of light3108 m/s.

(a) Calculate the minimum RTT for the link.

(b) Using the RTT as the delay, calculate the delay bandwidth product for the link.
(c) What is the significance of the delay bandwidth product computed in (b)?
(d) A camera on the lunar base takes pictures of Earth and saves them in digital format to disk. Suppose
Mission Control on Earth wishes to download the most current image, which is 25 MB. What is the
minimum amount of time that will elapse between when the request for the data goes out and the
transfer is finished?
6. Ipv6 configured nodes perform end-to-end fragmentation and holds the fragmentation details in
fragment extension header, which is having the folowing format.

a) what is the significance of fragment offset field? In IPv4 header, the flag bits are placed to the
left of fragment offset field; but in IPv6, fragment offset field is shifted to the left and M flag is
moved to right leaving two reserved bits in between them. Show with an example how this
design improves the interpretation of fragment offset bits?
b) A router receives an IPv6 datagram with payload length = 1500. The router decides that it must
forward this datagram through an interface with an MTU of 512 bytes. To do that, the router
must fragment the datagram. How many fragments will be there and explain how the router
does that. Assume that no extension header other than fragment header is used. Show the
values of all fields in the fragment header for each fragmented packets.

7. In IPv6, if the hop-by-hop extension header needs a padding of 4 bytes of data, which option should
we use? In that case, what will be the type, length and variable values in option TLV?

8. What is Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) and how it reduces the overhead of routing? Explain
the following terms based on MPLS:
a) Forwarding Equivalence Class (FEC)
b) Label Edge Router (LER)
c) Label Switching Router(LSR)
d) Label Forwarding Information Base (LFIB)