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Science: a process of Study of all human

understanding phenomena beings and culture

trough observation, through its
generalization, verification, and material remains
refutation Anthropological Holism
Scientific Method: Self- o Economics
correcting set of procedures for o Biology
gaining and testing our o Poli sci
knowledge of the world o Literature
o Formulate Question o Religion
o Develop hypothesis o Medicine
o Test hypothesis through o Psychology
analysis of data Material Culture: the physical
o Convert to theory if manifestation of human
verified multiple times activities
Theory vs Belief: theory can
be tested and belief can not Time:
Truth Vs Fact: truths are o B.P (1950)
interpreted; facts use the o KY: thousands years
scientific method o B.C.= B.P (B.C. + 2000)
Anthropology: study of human Our notions of the world
kind through scientific method o Hunter gather life
Four subfields of Misery, hunger,
Anthropology hard work
o Cultural Social contract theory: Form
Field work; the society in which they live by
participant forming a contract with ones
observation self
Ethnography: Early views of the world
individual study of o Surplus Leisure time
culture technological and cultural
Enthnology: development better life
analysis of various Film
societies o Workers built pyramids
o Linguistic o They lived in a downtown
o Biological area
Paleoanthro = our o Ate bread and beer
ancestors o Treated well; had own
Primatology= our tombs
cousins Mound Builder
Genetics o Egyptian pyramid in bible
Osteology where Joseph holds
o Archaeological grains
Study of human Arch evidence of hunter
beings through gatherers
their material
o Figurines, hairdos,
textiles, baskets, rope,
portable art Past in the present
o Our past exists in a
Ethnographic evidence for
modern context
hunter-gatherers in
Pseudoarchaeology: uses
o Worked 7 hours 1st day past for benefit; aliens
2nd day worked 3, 3rd day Major goals of archaeology
off o Preserve, prevent,
University of Arizona examination of data,
Garbage project publish, respect
o Studying human through descendants, future
their garbage remains improvements
Ethnocentrism: comparing Knowledge
o Document, publish, and
other cultures to yours
o Racism and romanticism disseminate
Notion of cultural Heritage
o Preservation
superiority: illusion that
o Tensions btwn local,
everyone should think the way
you do; biological explanation national, and world
for superiority heritage identities
Beyond ethnocentrism
o Tourism (pros and cons)
o Slavery and genocide
o Exploitation of women, Looting and destruction
o Illegal; profit; takes away
poor, or weak
o Diversity and context; destruction of
commonality cultural heritage
Reasons for Archaeology Who controls the past?
o Scientific understanding o B
o Critical evaluation of our o Control of past remains?
perceptions Unethical use of
o Who we are and where archaeology
we are going o Gustaf Kossinna:
o Human diversity Ancestral Heritage saying
Temporal extent of Poland was Germanic
Archaeology origin
o 7 million ya o Nazis
Important questions of National and international
Archaeology Laws
o Why and how did we get o UNESCO World Heritage
here (1945) convention on the
Problem of archaeological means of prohibiting the
illicit import, export, and
o Archaeological data are transfer of ownership of
cultural property (1970)
fragmentary multiple
but no mechanism for its
interpretations are often
o UNIDROIT Convention on graves on federal
Stolen or Illegally land
exported Cultural Objects
Return cultural
items to lineal
o National historic descendants and
preservation Act (1966) culturally affiliated
Federally assisted
agencies need to Archaeology and Identities
take into account Construction of the past in the
the effects of their present
own projects on Preservation and conservation
historic properties o Preserve world and local
ad give the heritage
Advisory Council o Disseminate knowledge
on Historic in both academic and
Preservation the public settings
opportunity to Archaeology and the general
comment on them public
o Site documentation
SHIPO: State
o Reconstruction of culture
Preservation office
o Site preservation
Affirmative o Preservation of excavated
management features and materials
programs for the o Archiving of records for
preservation future use (field notes,
maps, forms, etc.)
o NAGPRA o Disseminating information
to the public (publication)
Native American
o Access to these materials
grave protection
and records for future
and repatriation
study (Museum)
Refers to native Institutions that fund or
Americans and conduct arch
native Hawaiian o Private: contract
organizations Archaeology, research
Requires federally o Public: tourist industry,
agencies to consult university, museum
with Native Cultural Resource
American tribes Management (CRM)
prior to the o About 80% of all
excavation of professional
Native American archaeologists
o Identification and Classical
evaluation of Archaeology; the
archaeological sites to classic civilizations
protect them from of Greece and
disturbance or destruction Rome; tend to be
o Investigation of those that historical
cannot be saved Historical
o Work for government Archaeology; more
agencies recent and written
o About less than 10% work documents; King
in Universities Richard III
Synchronic Views Shakespeare
o Focus on short period almost got his
Diachronic Views image correct;
o Stresses social changes WW2 German
or processes over long Trenches; US MIA
period of time Recovery in
Types or Archaeology Vietnam
o Universities in Europe Prehistoric
and Asia Archaeology:
o History orientated societies without
discipline written report; this
o European Archaeology is division b/w
part of history or geology prehistoric and
The Classics historical
Paleolithic archaeologies blur
o Heinrich Schliemann: Underwater
o Japanese Archaeology Archaeology:
Archaeology is a Paleolithic
part of history Archaeology:
o Universities in the Industrial (Urban)
Americas Archaeology:
o Anthropology orientated understand
discipline modern society
o North American; Biblical
Archaeology is part of Archaeology:
anthropology Public Archaeology:
International trying to teach
disjunction archaeology to the
between prehistory general public
and the present Archaeometry;
Indigenous o Archaeology is holistic:
population studies social science, physical
by anthropologists science, humanities, and
Cahokia anthropology
o Sub Disciplines Ancient Cultures
o Thutmose IV
The excavation of John Aubrey
the sphinx o China
Thutmose IV so he Song Dynasty (A.D.
could be the king, 960-1279)
not his brother Collection of
o Nabonidus ancient art,
excavated scholarly studies in
Cuneiform historiography
inscribed clay Shen Kuo
cylinder describing suggested that
repairs on the ancient artifacts
temple of the could be studied
moon-god to for their
exhibit his technology
corrections of Created the first
when the moon known artifact
god was there catalog
o St. Helen Mother of Herculneum and Pompeii
Constantine o The first half of the 18th
Went to Jerusalem century
to excavate and o Under the auspices of
find the true King Charles III of Naples
cross Colonialism and early
Feast day 18th of explorer
August o Napoleons expedition to
Europe in the 17th century Egypt (17th century)
o Stasis (John Ray) never o Found the Rosetta Stone
changing world; god o They didnt know how to
made it before and its read it
exactly the same o Jean Francois
o Young World (Bishop Champollion saw that
James Ussher) calculated there were actually 3
the age of the world at languages in scripted
around 6,000 years Early archaeology in the
placing its inception at Americas
4004 B.C. using lifespans o The United States
of biblical figures Thomas Jefferson
Antiquarians excavated a
o Europe mound and
Antiquarism: concluded that this
backward-looking was not by
curiosity (The European people,
Speculative Era) but Native
Excavation and Americans
collection without The early
control or expeditions to the
documentation Maya Civilization
o John Lloyd Stephens and Important figures in the
Frederick Catherwood early history of modern
Best seller books anthro and arch
1841 incidents of o C.J. Thomson
travel in central Three Age System
America, Chiapas, (Stone, Bronze,
and Yucatan and Iron Age)
1843 incidents of The dawn of
travel in Yucatan typology (I.E. the
The beginning of sequential,
Modern ordered,
Archaeology arrangement of
Rise of Modern Archaeology objects from the
o Industrial revolution past)
(1760-1840) o Elman Service (1915-
Impact of Geology 1996)
o Deep time (how old earth Bands
is geologically) Tribes
o Gradualism everything Chiefdoms
happens slowly States
o Uniformitarianism o Lewis Henry Morgan
(analogical thinking) wrote Ethnocentric
o Natural process today are System Ancient Society
the same as those in the and introduced his
past natural progression of
o Stratigraphy order and human societies
position of layered arch Savagery Barbarianism
remains Civilization
Evolutionary Theory o Edward Taylor wrote
o Charles Darwin Primitive Culture where
o Natural selection societies passed through
o Implication stages of development
Evolution is not over time
process Celtic past in France
Depends on BAE
adaptation to Hyperdiffusionism
environment o the idea that a cultural
Humans are not trait has a common world
above others origin
Unilinear Cultural evolution Analogy
o savages barbarianism o Ethnographic resources
civilization all cultures to interpret the
works this way archaeological record
Multilinear evolution Processualism
o multi same but at o Lack of focusing on
different speeds people
o Lack of multiple point of o Historical materialism
views o Focuses on mode of
o Lack of considering production and class
symbolic behavior struggles
Cultural evolution theory o Infrastructure (mode of
o Unilinear vulture production)
evolution Superstructure (ideology)
o Human societies evolve o Introduced late in the
in linear fashion United States because of
o Notion of progress the conflict of capitalism
o Lewis Henry Morgan: vs communism
Savagery (hunting and Postprocessualism
foraging) Barbarianism o Internal factors of culture
(subsistence farming) change
civilization o Symbolism
o Multilinear cultural o Political factor
evolution o Agency= people are
o Independent agents of culture change
development of human o Change based on human
groups in different parts interaction and culturally
of the world, determined conditioned behaviors
by the success of and beliefs
adaption to natural Trade and
environment exchange
Cultural ecology Gender
o Julian Steward Ideologies and
o All aspects of how human beliefs
societies adapt to and Feminist arch
transform their o Roles of women in the
environment past
o Emphasis on synchronic o Nuanced studies of
view gender
o Proposed Neo o
Evolutionary theory Practice theory
Evolutionary ecology o Pierre Bourdieu
o How interactions between o Peoples everyday
species evolve practices that change
Neo-evolutionary theory social structures which in
o Cultures evolve the same turn constrain peoples
or have similarities w/o subsequent practices
contact o Recursive relation
Evolutionary Arch between action and
Behavioral arch thought
o Formation process o People are not always
o Life history of artifacts rational
and site o Agency: peoples capacity
Marxism of doing things
Phenomenology o Portable objects created
o Use our experiences to or modified by humans
understand the Ecofact
experiences of the past o Unmodified remains of
Cognitive arch biological materials
o Cognitive process and Feature
symbol systems from a o Non-portable arch
more processualist remains that were
position constructed by humans=
Max Weber hearths, burials, storage
o Possessive power pins, roads, and dams
o Power emerges in social Site
relations o A spatial cluster of
o Even rulers cannot artifacts, ecofacts,
escape from this web features and or structures
o Docile body Region
Franz Boas o Beyond the limit of a
o Cultural particularism= single site
cultures are unique o Defines by both natural
o Four unified fields of anth and cultural factors
o Use of scientific method Natural formation
o No link between race and o Organic decay
culture o Animal activities
o Warned against o Volcanic eruption, etc
ethnocentrism Cultural formation
Ian Hodder o Plowing
o Critiqued processualism o Looting
(already wrote what he o Renovation
said) o Destruction
Lewis Binford Life history of artifact and
o Archaeology as anthro architecture
o Use scientific method Provenience vs provenance
o Systems approach o Where things are found
o Adaption to environment (its spatial context)
Christopher Tilley o Where things are made
o Material culture and (origin)
social identity Primary context
Pierre Bourdieu o Undisturbed conditions
o Practice theory Secondary context
Michel Foucault o Disturbed conditions
o Arch of knowledge Matrix
Colin Renfrew o The soil or physical
o f material in which an
Artifact excavation is conducted