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JCS2005-V214

EASTERN JAVA BASEMENT ROCK STUDy:


PRELIMENARY RESULTS OF RECENT FIELD STUDY
IN KARANGSAMBUNG AND BAYAT AREAS

C. Prasetyadi, E.R. Suparka, A.H. Harsolumakso, and B. Sapiie

Department of Geology, ITB

ABSTRACT

Eastern Java has been well known as hydrocarbon producing area but its Early Tertiary producing basins
are still little-studied. Because the Early Tertiary basins is underlain by basement rock, it is important to
study the basement that exposed in Karangsambung and Bayat areas along with the Paleogene rocks as an
analogue to the other Eastern Java basement rocks. The basement rock in Karangsambung is a subduction
complex characterized by a tectonically mixed block-in-matrix structure. The blocks consist of various
rock types (serpentinite, gabbro, basalt, chert, calcilutite, greywacke, sandstone, phyllite, marble, schist,
and eclogite), embedded in a sheared-shale matrix. In Bayat the basement has only few indications of
block-in-matrix structure, consisting dominantly of phyllite and schist. The age of the Luk Ulo complex is
Late Cretaceous-Paleocene determined based on radiolarian fossils found in the matrix and foram in the
sedimentary blocks. The present study confirms this age with the finding of Orbitolina sp. The age of the
Bayat complex remains unknown. Major faults in both basement complexes indicate a similar NE-SW
trend, but their internal structures are different. The present study recognized that mlange accretion in
Karangsambung indicates an overturned trend. Instead of dipping NW as expected from a SE-direction
subduction zone, the mlange structural dips are mostly to the S-SE. This overturning may relate to a later
major deformational event. Eocene strata rest unconformably on top of the Bayat basement. This indicates
that an Eocene basin developed fully in Bayat area. Besides the Eocene rocks, a middle Miocene
limestone is also in direct contact unconformably on top of the basement indicating that Bayat basement
area is a high area at least since that time. In Karangsambung area, the present study found a new type of
Eocene rock unit considered by previous worker as a Mesozoic sedimentary sequence within the
Karangsambung mlange. This internally coherent, relatively unmetamorphosed, and little deformed
sedimentary sequence has a thickness up to 350 meters and consists mostly of shale with thin layer
interbeds of sandstone, sandy limestone and conglomerate lenses. The Eocene age of this sequence is
based on the small-sized (0.2 0.5 cm) Nummulites sp found, for the first time, within the three meters-
thick sandy limestone interbed. This also indicates that Eocene basin also developed in Karangsambung.
Based on field study described above along with analyses of field samples, a model of Paleogene tectonic
and basin evolutions of eastern Java has been constructing indicating that an important deformational
event took place in Karangsambung after the Cretaceous subduction leading to the overturning of
accretion mlange and juxtaposition of mlange and Eocene sedimentary sequence in Karangsambung.
While in Bayat the same deformation did not occur.

INTRODUCTION margin of the Sundaland from a NE-SW trend in


the Cretaceous to Paleocene into an E-W trend in
Paleogene is an important period in the evolution the Tertiary. Until recently this important tectonic
of geology of Southeast Asia region including evolution has not obtained yet an approriate
Java island. Besides highlighted by a period of attention and its examination was generally made
formation of major Tertiary basins, Paleogene was as part of regional studies (Hamilton, 1979; Daly
also marked by a significant geological evolution, et al, 1991; Bransden and Matthew, 1992; Soeria-
mainly in the eastern part of Java, namely the Atmadja et al, 1994; Parkinson et al, 1998; Hall,
shifting of subduction zone in the southeastern 2002; Sribudiyani et al, 2003).
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Eastern part of Java offers a good opportunity to Harsolumakso et al, 1996). The large tectonic
study this important tectonic phenomena in more slabs consisting of dismembered ophiolite
detail. The possibility is supported mainly by the (Suparka, 1988) are dominant in the central part
facts that in the onshore area of Eastern Java there of the complex. Concerning the age of the
are two locations, Karangsambung and Bayat, melange complex, Ketner et al. (1976) reported
where pre-Tertiary basement rocks along with the late Early Cretaceous foraminifer Orbitolina
Paleogene sediments exposed. In addition to these from limestone in the Luk Ulo Melange Complex.
important outcrops, the availability of subsurface Furthermore Wakita et al. (1994) showed that the
data derived from oil and gas exploration wells duration of subduction and accretion in the
that penetrate the basement in off-shore area of complex can be estimated based on the age of the
eastern Java allows to make some corelations to a terrigenous and hemipelagic (siliceous) shales
broader area. along with the associated pillow lava. The age of
pillow lava in Kali Muncar is of Early Cretaceous
Examining geological features associated with (120-130 Myr), while the oldest terrigenous rock
this tectonic evolution will be very meaningful is the shale of middle Cretaceous age (100-110
because it will help in understanding the Myr). The youngest rock is the siliceous shale of
development of hydrocarbon-producing basins in latest Cretaceous age in the Kali Medana. As the
both onshore and offshore areas of eastern Java. terrigenous rocks in the accreted sequences are
In line with this premise, a recent field work has usually as young as or slightly younger than
been conducted in Karangsambung, Banjarnegara hemipelagic siliceous shale, the youngest
and Bayat areas. The field works emphasized terrigenous rocks may be of latest Cretaceous or
mainly on the observations of the contact earliest Paleocene age. These age data suggest that
relationships between pre-Tertiary basement and the accretion of pillow lava and pelagic to
Paleogene rocks. Preliminary results of the field hemipelagic sediments in the Luk Ulo Melange
work, especially concerning with new findings in Complex occurred during middle Cretaceous to
the study area, will be presented and discussed in latest Cretaceous or earliest Paleocene time
this paper. (Wakita et al. 1994). Data from metamorphic
blocks dating indicate ages, ranging from 110-117
GENERAL GEOLOGY Myr (Miyazaki et al. 1998) to 119-124 Myr
(Parkinson et al.1998), which are older than the
In addition to Pre-Tertiary basement rocks, age of the shale matrix. Based on its rock
younger rock units of Eocene to Miocene ages are assemblage, the Luk Ulo Melange Complex has
also exposed in Karangsambung and Bayat areas been considered to be caused by tectonic mixing
(FIGURE 1). In Karangsambung area the during subduction of the Indian oceanic plate
basement rock has been identified as the Luk Ulo under the SE Asia continental plate (Asikin, 1974;
Melange Complex (Asikin, 1974) which is Hamilton, 1979; Parkinson et al. 1998) and
unconformably overlain by Eocene to Oligocene appears to be resemble many other late Mesozoic
Karangsambung-Totogan Formations. Many melange belts around the Pacific rim (Nilsen,
informations have been generated by previous 2002). Unconformably, marked by a tectonic
studies regarding structures, petrology, contact, this melange complex is overlain by
paleontology, age of metamorphism, and rock Tertiary sediments, in an ascending order, the
distributions (Asikin, 1974; Ketner et al, 1976; Karangsambung, Totogan, Waturanda, and
Hamilton, 1979; Suparka, 1988; Wakita et al, Penosogan Formations. Karangsambung and
1994; Harsolumakso et al,1995). This melange Totogan Formations are olistostromal deposits
complex consists of tectonic blocks of various consisting of sedimentary mixture of rocks
rocks embedded in a sheared shale matrix. The fragments and blocks (olistoliths) such as
blocks comprises sandstone, greywacke, chert, sandstone, conglomerate, fossiliferous
limestone, pillow basalt, ultramafics, rhyolite, (Nummulites) limestone in clay matrix. These two
marble, phyllite and schist. Some of the sandstone formations have lateral gradual changes
blocks are interbedded with shale, while cherts are (Harsolumakso et al., 1995). Overlying
in close association with limestones (calcilutites) unconformably on these olistostromal deposits is
and pillow basalts. Long axis of the blocks have the Waturanda Formation that consits of volcanic
general trend of ENE-WSW (Wakita et al, 1994; breccias and sandstones. The Waturanda
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Formation is, in turn, overlain conformably by interpreted based on its relationship with the
Penosogan Formation consisting of alternation of melange rocks.
calcareous sandstone and marl. There are two
major structural trends in Karangsambung. The In the traverse along Kali Poh, one of five
first trends NEE-SWW developed in the pre- traverses made in this area, the present study
Tertiary rocks, and the second has E-W dicovered for the first time fossils of foraminifer
orientation developed in the younger Tertiary Nummulites sp in interbedded limestone
rocks. (FIGURE 3). Unlike in other Eocene areas
(Bayat, Nanggulan, and Karangsambung) where
The geology of Bayat area is simpler compared to Nummulites fossils are abundantly found in white
that of Karangsambung area. As in limestone and have larger size (0.5-1.5 cm), the
Karangsambung area, the pre-Tertiary rocks form Nummulites sp from Kali Poh occur in a 2.5 m
the oldest rocks exposed in Bayat area consisting interbed of black, hard, limestone and smaller in
mainly of phyllite, schist, and few marble and size (0.3-0.5 cm). The species type of this newly
serpentinite. Overlying unconformably the pre- found Nummulites, until the writing of this paper,
Tertiary rock is the Eocene Wungkal-Gamping has not been determined. Compared to
Formation comprising conglomerate, nummulitic Nummulites from other areas (Bayat, Nanggulan,
limestone, quartz sandstone and claystone. Based and Karangsambung), the Nummulites from Kali
on nannoplankton analysis, age of the claystone Poh generally show less rooms (5-6 rooms) in
indicates Late Middle Eocene (Setiawan, 2000). vertical sections suggesting the possiblity they
A number of basaltic dykes and a gabbroic have an older age range of Early to Middle
intrusion (Gunung Pendul intrusion) intruded the Eocene (Lunt, 2005; pers. comm). North-dipping
phyllite and Wungkal-Gamping Formation. K-Ar thrust mark the contact between the lower part of
dating of gabbro and basalt in Bayat area indicates the sequence with the melange. The lower part of
ages of 39.8 31.3 Myr (Eocene to early the sedimentary sequence consists of bedded (5-
Oligocene) (Sutanto et al. 1994). All these 20 cm), grey in color, fine to medium-grained,
igneous rocks have a basaltic composition with sandstones, with interbedded shales, few
calk-alkali affinity indicating a subduction-related calcareous sandstones and limestones. The upper
origin. The youngest formation in Bayat (Jiwo part of the sequence consists mostly of black, non-
Hill) area is the middle Miocene limestone unit calcareous shales containing non-stratified
that consists of interbedded calcarenite, marl, and polimict conglomerate lenses 0.5-5 m in diameter.
reefal limestone. This limestone unit rests Most of the conglomerate components, with 2-12
unconformably ontop of older units, namely cm in size, consist of milky quartz, slate, basalt,
phyllite, gabbro intrusion and Eocene mudstone of sandstone, few schist and chert. Some of the
Wungkal-Gamping Formation. conglomerates are of the pebbly mudstone type in
which pebbles are widely dispersed in a very large
FIELD OBSERVATION: NEW proportion of fine-grained matrix material. Others
DISCOVERIES OF EOCENE ROCK are more ordinary conglomerates in which the
pebbles are densely packed. Like the lower part,
In Bulukuning area, Banjarnegara, in the NW part the upper part of this sequence is also a fault
of the melange complex, a sedimentary sequence contact with the melange unit. Structurally this
is well exposed in an area 3 by 7 km along south sedimentary sequence dips generally to the south
tributaries of Kali Sapi. This sedimentary outcrop with thickness of 350 m.
has a fault contact with the surrounding melange
unit consisting of a chaotic, sheared Another new discovery of Eocene rocks took
agglomeration of sedimentary, metamorphic, and place in Kali Sabeng and Kali Mondo traverses, in
igneous rocks. Ketner et al. (1976) mapped the Larangan area, in the NE part of the Luk Ulo
sedimentary sequence as of Pre-Eocene sediment, Melange Complex, about 10 km to the east of Kali
and Condon et al.(1996) assigned a Cretaceous Poh traverse (FIGURE 4). Rock unit exposed in
age for this sequence (FIGURE 2). Pre-Eocene this area has been mapped as Cretaceous melange
or Cretaceous ages estimated by previous workers rock (Ketner et al. 1976, Condon et al. 1996). The
are not based on fossils. The ages have only been Eocene rocks in this area have been found as
bedded limestone blocks, with long axis size 4 m
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(in Kali Sabeng) and 10 m (in Kali Mondo), limestone, and conglomerate).The presence of
containing abundant foraminifer Discocyclina sp nummulitic limestone as the clast indicate a post-
and Asterocyclina sp. These fossiliferous Eocene origin of this breccia.
limestones along with bedded sandstones,
mudstone, breccia, greywacke, few basalt In Bayat, a breccia containing basement fragments
associated with chert, and dacite are found as occur also in one location, in the SE part of
blocks within black, sheared shale matrix Gunung Pendul (FIGURE 7). Unlike in
(FIGURE 5). Karangsambung where the breccia directly rests
unconformably on top of the basement rocks, in
Foraminifer Orbitolina sp has usually been Bayat the breccia overlies the Eocene rocks,
mentioned by previous studies (Asikin, 1974; poorly sorted, containing fresh basement
Ketner et al. 1976; Hamilton, 1979) as the fragments (phyllite, schist and quart veins) and
Cretaceous guide fossil for the melange complex Eocene fragments (sandstone, nummulitic
but the location of the fossil was not clearly limestone), with calcareous sandy matrix.
reported. The present study has been able to find Nummulitic fragments in the breccia indicate age
the location of the Orbitolina fossils in Kali of post-Eocene. Field observations in Bayat areas
Mondo, about 2 km to the NE of the Discocyclina show that serpentinite can be found not only in the
limestone location (FIGURE 6). These Pagerjurang location but also in the west slope of
Orbitolina fossils were abundantly found in Gunung Cakaran, West Jiwo area. Observations
wackstone-type limestone blocks, 1-5 m in sizes, on the contacts between Miocene limestone unit
embedded in sheared shale matrix along with and the basement indicate that basement
others various blocks such as bedded sandstones, distribution in Bayat area could be more
mudstones, breccia, greywackes, and black extensive than those which are exposed in the East
phyllite.The size of the fossils ranges from 0.3 and West Jiwo areas. The distribution of the
1.0 cm, with characteristic helmet-like form, and metamorphic basement in Bayat may extend to
randomly oriented. the north, to the Rowo Jombor area where the
Miocene limestone overlies unconformably the
Based on traverses along the creek that dissect the metamorphic basement. Besides resting on top of
melange complex, such Kali Sigobang, Kali the basement, the Miocene limestone rests also on
Mondo, Kali Sabeng, Kali Muncar, and Kali top of the other older units. In Bendungan araea,
Loning, an interesting structural feature has been West Jiwo, the limestone overlies non-
documented during the present study. Measuring conformably the Oligosen gabbro intrusion while
structural dip of the components of the melange in Gunung Temas the Eosen mudstone of
along with the shale matrix, the results indicate a Wungkal-Gamping Formation underlies the
general structural dip of the melange components limestone.
to the south and southeast. Similar results have
been recognized by Kamtono et al.(1996) whose DISCUSSION
interpretation based on a gravity measurement.
The new discoveries of Eocene sediments in
One of the characteristic lithology of the Totogan Bulukuning (in Kali Poh) and Larangan (in Kali
Formation is polimict sedimentary breccia Sabeng and Mondo) areas, respectively in the NW
(Asikin, 1974). Breccia of this kind occurs not and NE parts of the Luk Ulo Melange Complex
only in its type locality, in the SE part of the change significantly the geological feature of
melange complex, but also in other locations such Karangsambung and the surrounding areas. These
as along the traverses in Kali Sambeng, Kali new findings also indicate the Eocene strata in
Mondo (Medana), and Kali Loning (FIGURE 4). Karangsambung-Banjarnegara area is more
Overlying unconformably on top of the melange various and complex than those in Bayat and
unit, this poorly-sorted breccia consists of lithic Nanggulan areas. Eocene sediments in Bayat and
fragments, 5 cm to 2 m in size, and angular in Nanggulan areas share similar stratigraphic
shape. The fragments are derived mostly from the features, such as they form upward-deepening,
melange unit (basalt, quartz pebbles, phyllite, transgressive sequence and almost undeformed
schist, graywacke, chert) as well as from the (Smith et al. 2003; Nilsen, 2002). With the new
Eocene section (quartz sandstones, nummulitic findings, the Eocene sediments in Karangsambung
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areas may be distinguished, based on stratigraphic Eocene sections especially because there is still a
and structural features, into three sections: The lack of age constraint. The present study is
Karangsambung, Bulukuning and Larangan currently trying to find out the species type of the
sections. The Karangsambung section is the type Nummulites sp of Kali Poh in order to know the
locality, distributed to the south of the melange age of the associated sedimentary sequence. A
complex. Although showing features of preliminary conclusion can be generated here that
olistostromal deposit, Nilsen (2002) recognized in Karangsambung-Banjarnegara area we can
in general the Eocene strata in the observe the different stages of deformation of the
Karangsambung section appear to form a Eocene deposits starting from the undeformed
transgressive and upward-deepening depositional section found in the NW area (Bulukuning area),
system characterized in upward stratigraphic order the more deformed (sedimentary melange) section
by a relatively thin basal quartz conglomerate, a in the S area (Karangsambung area), and the
relatively thin nummulitic limestone, and a thicker highly deformed (tectonic melange) in the NE
succession of claystone, mudstone, siltstone, area (Larangan area). The Eocene Larangan
sandstone, pebbly mudstone, and conglomerate, melange at least indicates that there is a major
with scattered large and small olistoliths of deformational event in this area during the late
limestones. The upper unit contains abundant Eocene.
synsedimentary slumps and deformed layers that
suggest a basin-margin setting. Channelized The lack of significant amounts of detritus (clasts)
bodies of conglomerate appear to form small from the Luk Ulo Melange Complex within the
gullies or canyons cut into a basin-margin slope. olistoliths, conglomerates clasts, and sandstone
Most of the deposits of the upper unit seam to beds of the Eocene Karangsambung Formation
have accumulated in deep-marine conditions, suggest that the melange had not been
although numerous blocks of sandstone and significantly unroofed at the time of Eocene
fossiliferous limestone suggest derivation of some sedimentation (Nilsen, 2002). Oligocene strata of
of the blocks from upslope shallow-marine the Totogan Formation contrast markedly with the
settings. Based on several detail river sections, Eocene deposits. The Totogan Formation consists
Harsolumakso et al. (1996) suggest that besides of sedimentary breccias deposited mostly as
occurring as olistostromal deposit, the formation coarsed-grained, poorly-sorted debris flows,
has also been undergone severe deformation after mudstone and volcanic tuffs. The deposits of
deposition. The newly found Eocene sediment of mostly similar breccia have been found in some
Bulukuning section shows a sedimentary localities within the basement realm, such as in
sequence of internally coherent, relatively the traverses of Kali Sambeng, Kali Mondo, and
unmetamorphosed, little deformed, consisting Kali Loning. These breccias comprise abundant
mostly of shale with conglomerate lenses in the angular fragments of melange components and
upper part and bedded sandstone and interbedded some pieces of quartz sandstone, conglomerate,
limestones in the lower part. Here the and Eocene limestone, suggesting that the
conglomerates may not be of basal-type melange belt as well as the Eocene strata had been
conglomerate because they are always found as uplifted at this time and were undergoing erosion.
lenses within the shale. The continuous succession A similar features is also shown by the breccia in
indicates the Eocene Bulukuning section may not Bayat that mostly consisits of fragments derived
be a olistostromal deposit like the Karangsambung from the basement and the Eocene strata
section. Another newly found Eocene sediment is indicating that may be the same uplift was
the Eocene Larangan section. Previous workers responsible for the unroofing of the Bayat
have been considered the rocks as Cretaceous basement.
melange. The finding of Middle to Upper Eocene
Discocyclina-Asterocyclina limestone blocks This uplift may also be associated with the
within the melange indicates that the age of the structural features indicated by a general south-
melange is not Cretaceous anymore but younger, dipping of the components of the melange. This
at least as young as or younger than the Middle to structural feature could not be related with the
Upper Eocene limestone block. Up to the writing original structural dip of the accretion wedge of
of this paper, this study still could not obtain a the subduction melange. If it is still in original
conclusive relationship between these three orientation then the structural dip should be to the
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north or northwest following the direction of the comprehensive geological model of the
subducting plate. study area. There are still many works to be
done, especially concerning with the age
CONCLUSION constraints, to meet with the ultimate
objective of this study.
Two discoveries of Eocene sediment in
Bulukuning and Larangan areas show that ACKNOWLEDGMENT
the Eocene strata overlying the Luk Ulo
Melange Complex is more complex than We would like to express our gratitude to Dirjen
those exposed in other areas (Bayat and MIGAS, BP Migas and Kodeco. This study has
Nanggulan areas). been run well with their helps and supports.
Along with the newly found Eocene rocks
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Perbukitan Jiwo, Bayat, Jawa Tengah, tesis Melange Complex in the Karangsambung area,
magister ITB, unpublished. Central Java, Indonesia, J. of SE Asian Earth Sci.,
Vol.9, No.1/2, pp. 29-43.

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PROCEEDINGS JOINT CONVENTION SURABAYA 2005 HAGI-IAGI-PERHAPI
The 30th HAGI, The 34th IAGI, and The 14th PERHAPI Annual Conference and Exhibition

FIGURE 1: Geologic map of Karangsambung (Asikin, 1991) (top), dan Bayat areas (Setiawan, 2000)
(bottom).

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PROCEEDINGS JOINT CONVENTION SURABAYA 2005 HAGI-IAGI-PERHAPI
The 30th HAGI, The 34th IAGI, and The 14th PERHAPI Annual Conference and Exhibition

FIGURE 2: Geologic map of the southern areas of Banjarnegara, Ketner et al, 1976 (top), dan Condon
et al, 1996 (bottom).

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The 30th HAGI, The 34th IAGI, and The 14th PERHAPI Annual Conference and Exhibition

FIGURE 3: Kali Poh traverse.

FIGURE-4: Kali Mondo and Kali Sabeng traverses

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PROCEEDINGS JOINT CONVENTION SURABAYA 2005 HAGI-IAGI-PERHAPI
The 30th HAGI, The 34th IAGI, and The 14th PERHAPI Annual Conference and Exhibition

FIGURE 5: Eocene melange outcrops in Kali Sabeng, (A) a blok of bedded sandstone, (B) disrupted
shale matrix containing pinch and swell structure of mudstone and sandstone fragments, (C) a block of
slump, (D & E) the Discocyclina limestone block embedded within the sheared shale, and (F) the
Discocyclina fossils in thin sections.

FIGURE 6: (A), (B), showing the Orbitolina-bearing limestone blocks, (C) a close up look of the
Orbitolina fossil in the outcrop, (D), (E), & (F) Orbitolina sp in thin sections, in K.Mondo traverse.

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PROCEEDINGS JOINT CONVENTION SURABAYA 2005 HAGI-IAGI-PERHAPI
The 30th HAGI, The 34th IAGI, and The 14th PERHAPI Annual Conference and Exhibition

FIGURE 7: Breccia that most of its fragments consists of material derived from the basement, such
phyllite, schist, and quartz veins, as well as nummulitic limestone. Location: SE part of Gunung Pendul
area.

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