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Assignment 3 Chapter 8-Chemical Thermodynamics

1. What is a state function? Give two examples

2. Which state function is given by the heat of reaction at constant volume? Which
state function is given by the heat of reaction at constant pressure? Under what
conditions are these heats of reaction equal?

3. What equation defines ΔH in general terms? How is this expressed when the
system involves a chemical reaction? In general, why are chemists and biologists
more interested in values of ΔH than ΔU?

4. Will the entropy change for each of the following be positive or negative?
a. Moisture condenses on the outside of a cold glass
b. Raindrops form in a cloud.
c. Air is pumped into a tyre
d. Frost forms on the windscreen of your car
e. Sugar dissolves in coffee.

5. At constant pressure, what role does the enthalpy change play in determining the
spontaneity of an event?

6. An instant cold pack purchased in a pharmacy contains a packet of solid


ammonium nitrate, NH4NO3, surrounded by a pouch of water. When the packet of
NH4NO3 is broken, the solid dissolves in water and the mixture cools because the
solution process for NH4NO3 in water is endothermic. Explain, in terms of what
happens to the molecules and ions, why this mixing occurs spontaneously.

7. When glucose is oxidised by the body to generate energy, part of the energy is
used to make molecules of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). However, of the total
energy released in the oxidation of glucose, only 38% actually goes to making
ATP. What happens to the rest of the energy?
8. Toluene, C7H8, is used in the manufacture of explosives such as TNT
(trinitrotoluene). A 1.500 g sample of liquid toluene was placed in a bomb
calorimeter along with excess oxygen. When the combustion of the toluene was
initiated, the temperature of the calorimeter rose from 25.000 °C to 26.413 °C.
The products of the combustion were CO2(g) and H2O(l), and the heat capacity of
the calorimeter was 45.06 kJ K-1. The reaction was:

a) How much heat (in joules) was liberated by the reaction?


b) How much heat (in joules) would be liberated under similar conditions if
1.00 mol of toluene was burned?

9. One thermochemical equation for the reaction of carbon monoxide with oxygen
is:

a) Write the thermochemical equation for the reaction using 2 mol of CO.
b) What is Δ for the formation of 1 mol of CO2 by this reaction?

10. We can generate hydrogen chloride by heating a mixture of sulfuric acid and
potassium chloride according to the equation

Calculate Δ in kilojoules for this reaction from the following thermochemical


equations:
11. Copper metal can be obtained by heating copper oxide, CuO, in the presence of
carbon monoxide, CO, according to the following reaction:

Calculate Δ in kilojoules, using the following thermochemical equations:

12. Use the following thermochemical equations to calculate the standard enthalpy of
formation (in kilojoules per mole) of Mg(NO3)2(S).

13. Nitrogen dioxide, NO2, an air pollutant, dissolves in rainwater to form a dilute
solution of nitric acid. The equation for the reaction is

Calculate ΔS for this reaction in J K-1.

14. Calculate the value of in kJ for the following reactions, using data in
tables 8-2 and 8-5. Assume that Δ and ΔS are independent of temperature

a) C2H4(g) + H2(g) → C2H6(g)


b) 5SO3(g) + 2NH3(g)→ 2NO(g) + 5SO2(g) + 3H2O(g)

15. Ethanol, C2H5OH, has been suggested as an alternative to petrol as a fuel. In


worked example 8.13, we calculated ΔG for combustion of 1 mol of C2H5OH; in
worked example 8.14, we calculated ΔG for combustion of 1 mol of octane. We
will assume that petrol has the same properties as octane (one of its constituents).
The density of C2H5OH is 0.7893 g mL-1; the density of octane, C8H18, is 0.7025 g
mL-1. Calculate the maximum work that could be obtained by burning 1 L each of
C2H5OH and C8H18. On a volume basis, which is a better fuel?