Worksheet 5 – Rate of Change 201 0

Objective: To use derivative in solving rate of change problems.
1 2 r θ where 2

1.

The area of a sector in a circle is given by the formula A = the radius and θ is the central angle measured in radians.

r is

a. Find the rate of change of A with respect to θ if r remains constant. b. Find the rate of change of A with respect to r if θ remains constant. c. Find the rate of change of θ with respect to r if A remains constant. 2. As air is pumped into a spherical balloon, the radius increases at the constant rate of 2 centimeters per second. What is the rate of change of the balloon’s volume when the radius is 10 centimeters? (The volume V of a sphere of radius 3.

r is

4 π 3 .) r 3

An equilateral triangle of side length
A=

x and altitude

h has area A given by

3 2 2 3 x where x = h. 4 3

Find the rate of change of A with respect to h and determine this rate of change when h = 2 3 . 4. An object moves along the x-axis, its position at each time t ≥ 0 is given by x(t ) = t 4 − 4t 3 + 4t 2 + 2 . Determine the times, if any, at which a. the velocity is zero, b. the acceleration is zero. 5. If a stone is thrown vertically upward from the surface of the moon with a velocity of 10 m/s, its height (in meters) after t seconds is h = 10 t − 0.83t 2 . a. What is the velocity of the stone after 3 s? b. What is the velocity of the stone after it has risen 25 m? Find equations for the lines that are tangent and normal to the curve x 3 y 3 + y 2 = x + y at the points (1,1) and (1,-1). Find equations for the lines that are tangent and normal to the curve f ( x ) = sin 2 x 1 + x 2 at the points (0,0).

6. 7.

1 FAM 0035 January 2010

Worksheet 5 – Rate of Change 201 0
8. 9. 10. Find equation for all tangents to the curve y = x 3 − x that passes through the point (-2,2). Find the equation of the tangent line to the curve ( xy 3 + y ) 2 = 4 x at the point (1,1). Given the curve x 2 y + 3x 2 y 3 = 4 a. Find
dy . dx

b. Find the equation of the normal line at the point (-1, 1). 11. The position of an object is given by the function s (t ) = 36 t − t 3 , for
0 ≤ t ≤10 ,

where s (t ) is measured in meters and t

1 3

is measured in

seconds. a. Find the acceleration when the velocity is zero. b. What does negative acceleration mean? c. Find the instantaneous velocity of the object when t = 5 seconds. 12. A particle moves on a vertical line so that its coordinate at time t is y = t 3 −12 t + 3, t ≥ 0. a. b. c. d. 13. Find the velocity and acceleration functions. When the particle moving upward and when is it moving downward? Find the distance that the particle travel in the time interval 0 ≤ t ≤ 3. When is the particle speeding up? When is it slowing down?

After an advertising campaign, the sales of a product often increase and then decrease. Suppose that t days after the end of the advertising, the daily sales are f (t ) = −3t 2 + 32 t +100 units. What is the average rate of growth in sales during the fourth day? What is the instantaneous rate of growth in sales when
t = 2?

14.

A helicopter is rising at a rate of 32 feet per second. At the height of 128 feet the pilot drops a pair of binoculars. After t seconds, the binoculars have height s (t ) = −16 t 2 + 32 t +128 feet from the ground. How fast will they be falling when they hit the ground?

2 FAM 0035 January 2010

Worksheet 5 – Rate of Change 201 0
Answer 1. b. c. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. a. a. a.
dA 1 2 = r dθ 2

dA = rθ dr

dθ 4A =− 3 dr r
800 π cm3/s

4 unit2/time
t = 0,1,2

b. b.

2 3 3

5.02 s

t=

10 ± 17 1.66

At (1,1): Equation of tangent line y −1 = − ( x −1) Equation of normal line y −1 = 2( x −1)

1 2

At (1, -1): Equation of tangent line x = 1 1 Equation of normal line y = − 7. At (0,0): Equation of tangent line y = 2 x
1 2 y − 2 = −1( x + 2) Equation of tangent line:

Equation of normal line y = − x

8.

y − 2 = 2( x + 2)

9. 10. b.

Equation of tangent line y = 2 a.
dy − 6 xy 3 − 2 xy = 2 dx x + 9x 2 y 2

At (-1, 1): Equation of normal line y −1 = − ( x +1)

5 4

3 FAM 0035 January 2010

Worksheet 5 – Rate of Change 201 0
11. b. c. 12. b. c. d.
t = 6 ⇒ a (6) = −12 m2/s a. Slowing down t = 5 ⇒ v (5) = 11 m/s

a. v = 3t 2 − 12 and a = 6t Moving upward t > 2 and moving downward 0 ≤ t < 22 23
t > 0 speeding up and t = 0 slowing down

13. The average rate of growth in sales during the fourth day = 20 The instantaneous rate of growth in sales when t = 2 is 20 14. -96

4 FAM 0035 January 2010

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