in
International Journal Of Engineering And Computer Science ISSN:2319-7242
Volume 6 Issue 5 May 2017, Page No. 21269-21285
Index Copernicus value (2015): 58.10 DOI: 10.18535/ijecs/v6i4.13
ABSTRACT
Practical knowledge is an important and essential skill required by every engineer. For obtaining this skill, an apartment
building is analysed and designed, Located in Latur, Maharastra with (B+G+10) storeys having a car parking facility provided at
basement floor. The building has a shear wall around the lift pit. The modelling and analysis of the structure is done by using
ETABS and the designing was done. Design of slab, stair case and an isolated footing are done manually. The design methods
involves load calculations manually and analysing the whole structure by ETABS. The design methods used in ETABS are limit
state design confirming to IS code of practice.Along with analysing and designing of this building, construction sites were also
visited.
Keywords: Analysis and design, Apartment Building, Lift pit, Shear wall.
1. Introduction structure, the basement floor facilitated for car parking. Shear
Practical knowledge is an essential skill required by an wall is provided around the lift pit, staircase is provided.
engineer. By industrial training, the practical knowledge can be The objectives of industrial training are:
super imposed to technical knowledge. Industrial training is an To get exposure to engineering experience and
essential component in the development of the practical and knowledge, which are required in the industry and not
professional skills required by an engineer. For understanding taught in the lecture rooms.
the engineering practice in general and sense of frequent and To apply the engineering knowledge taught in the
possible problems that may arise during construction and also lecture rooms in real industrial situations.
necessary solution for these problems can be experienced and To share the experience gained from the industrial
understood during industrial training. This exposure to the training in the discussion held in the lecture rooms.
practical world is the main objective of industrial training. To get a feel of the work environment.
2. Training Information To gain exposure on engineering procedural work
flow management and implementation.
The industrial training was done in STRUCTURAL ONE To get responsibilities and ethics of engineers.
consultancy; Latur under the guidance of Mr. Faiz Sagri.
An Apartment building is modelled and analysed using 3. A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF SOFTWARES
AUTOCAD 2016 and ETABS 2015 respectively. Design of USED IN TRAINING
slab, stair case and an isolated footing are done manually, for ETABS 2015:
obtaining precise results. The building is a B+G+10 storey ETABS is an engineering software product that caters
to multi-story building analysis and design. Modeling tools and
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DOI: 10.18535/ijecs/v6i4.13
templates, code-based load prescriptions, analysis methods and primitive entities such as lines, poly-lines, circles, arcs and text
solution techniques, all coordinate with the grid-like geometry as the foundation for more complex objects. AutoCADs native
unique to this class of structure. Basic or advanced systems file format, DWG, and to a lesser extent, its interchange file
under static or dynamic conditions may be evaluated using format, DXF has become the standards for interchange of CAD
ETABS. For a sophisticated assessment of seismic data.
performance, modal and direct-integration time-history
analyses may couple with P-Delta and Large Displacement 4. MODELLING IN ETABS
effects. Nonlinear links and concentrated PMM or fiber hinges Importing of Floor Plan from Auto-cad:
may capture material nonlinearity under monotonic or
hysteretic behavior. Intuitive and integrated features make
applications of any complexity practical to implement.
Interoperability with a series of design and documentation
platforms makes ETABS a coordinated and productive tool for
designs which range from simple 2D frames to elaborate
modern high-rises.
The innovative and revolutionary new ETABS is the
ultimate integrated software package for the structural analysis
and design of buildings. Incorporating 40 years of continuous
research and development, this latest ETABS offers unmatched
3D object based modeling and visualization tools, blazingly
fast linear and nonlinear analytical power, sophisticated and
comprehensive design capabilities for a wide-range of
materials, and insightful graphic displays, reports, and
schematic drawings that allow users to quickly and easily Fig.1 Centre line plan
decipher and understand analysis and design results. Properties
From the start of design conception through the This chapter provides property information for materials, frame
production of schematic drawings, ETABS integrates every sections, shell sections, and links.
aspect of the engineering design process. Creation of models Materials
has never been easier - intuitive drawing commands allow for Table 1 - Material Properties - Summary
the rapid generation of floor and elevation framing. CAD Name Type E Unit Design
drawings can be converted directly into ETABS models or MPa Weight Strengths
used as templates onto which ETABS objects may be overlaid. kN/m
The state-of-the-art SAP Fire 64-bit solver allows extremely
large and complex models to be rapidly analyzed, and supports HYSD415 Rebar 200000 0 76.9729 Fy=415
nonlinear modeling techniques such as construction sequencing MPa,
and time effects (e.g., creep and shrinkage). Fu=485
Design of steel and concrete frames (with automated MPa
optimization), composite beams, composite columns, steel
joists, and concrete and masonry shear walls is included, as is M25 Concrete 25000 0.2 24.9926 Fc=25
the capacity check for steel connections and base plates. MPa
Models may be realistically rendered, and all results can be 0
shown directly on the structure. Comprehensive and Mild250 Rebar 200000 76.9729 Fy=250
customizable reports are available for all analysis and design MPa,
output, and schematic construction drawings of framing plans, Fu=410
schedules, details, and cross-sections may be generated for MPa
concrete and steel structures.
ETABS provides an unequaled suite of tools for Frame Sections
structural engineers designing buildings, whether they are Table 2 - Frame Sections - Summary
working on one-story industrial structures or the tallest Name Material Shape
commercial high-rises. Immensely capable, yet easy-to-use,
Beam230x380 M25 Concrete
has been the hallmark of ETABS since its introduction decades
Rectangular
ago, and this latest release continues that tradition by providing
Beam230x450 M25 Concrete
engineers with the technologically-advanced, yet intuitive,
Rectangular
software they require to be their most productive.
Beam300x450 M25 Concrete
Rectangular
Column300x450 M25 Concrete
Rectangular
AUTO-CAD 2016:
Shell Sections
All the drawing and detailing works for this training were done
by making use of AutoCAD 2007, developed by M/s.
AUTODESK, USA. As such, this is the pioneering software in
CAD. AutoCAD is a vector graphics drawing program. It uses
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Wall load
a) Main wall load
Thickness of wall = 150 mm
= unit weight of brick x thickness of wall x( floor
height beam depth)
=19.1 x 0.150 x (3 -0.45)
= 7.305 kN/m
Dead Dead 1
Live Live 0
Superimpos Superimpose 0
ed Dead d Dead
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Table.7-Live loads
2
Area Live load ( kN/m )
2
All rooms and kitchens
2
Toilet and bathrooms
3
Corridors, Passages,
Staircases
3
Balconies
5
Parking
5
Electrical Room
5
Machine room
Fig.5-Live Load
Earthquake Forces
Earthquakes generate waves which move from the
origin of its location with velocities depending on the intensity
and magnitude of the earthquake. The impact of earthquake on
the structures depends on the stiffness of the structure, stiffness
Fig.4- Floor Finish Load (Super Dead) of the soil media, height and location of the structure, etc. the
Live loads earthquake forces are prescribed in IS 1893:2002 (part-I).
Since the building is located in Latur, Maharastra, it is
They are also known as imposed loads and consist of all loads
included in the zone III. And the seismic base shear calculation
other than the dead loads of the structure. The standard values
and its distribution was done as per IS 1893:2002 (part-I). The
are stipulated in IS875:1987 (part II).The live loads considered
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base shear or total design lateral force along any principle Auto Seismic Loading
direction shall be determined by the following expression: IS1893 2002 Auto Seismic Load Calculation
V =A XW This calculation presents the automatically generated lateral
B h
Where, seismic loads for load pattern EQx according to IS1893 2002,
V = Design base shear as calculated by ETABS.
B Direction and Eccentricity
A = Design horizontal seismic coefficient based on Direction = X
h
fundamental natural period, and type of soil Structural Period
W = Seismic weight of the building Period Calculation Method = User Specified
Time period,
Along x direction,
= 0.850
Along y direction,
= 0.694
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Axial Force
7. Design of RC Building
General
The aim of structural design is to achieve an acceptable
probability that the structure being designed will perform the
Fig.8 Torsion Force Diagram function for which it is created and will safely withstand the
influence that will act on it throughout its useful life. These
influences are primarily the loads and the other forces to which
it will be subjected. The effects of temperature fluctuations,
foundation settlements etc. should be also considered.
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Fig.14
Section Properties
Fig.12
b (mm) h (mm) bf (mm) ds (mm) dct (mm) dcb (mm)
230 450 230 0 30 30
Material Properties
Ec (MPa) fck (MPa) Lt.Wt Factor (Unitless) fy (MPa) fys (MPa)
25000 25 1 415 250
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Flexural Reinforcement for Major Axis Moment, Mu3 Ec (MPa) fck (MPa) Lt.Wt Factor (Unitless) fy (MPa) fys (MPa)
End-I Middle End-J
End-I Middle End-J 25000 25 1 415 250
Rebar Rebar Rebar
Rebar Rebar Rebar
Area Area Area
% % %
mm mm mm Design Code Parameters
Top (+2 C S
212 0.2 212 0.2 212 0.2
Axis)
Bot (-2 1.5 1.15
212 0.2 212 0.2 212 0.2
Axis)
Longitudinal Reinforcement Design for Pu - Mu2 - Mu3 Interaction
Rebar Area Rebar
Flexural Design Moment, Mu3 Column End
mm %
Middl
End-I End-J Top 1080 0.8
End-I Middle e End-J
Statio Statio
Design Mu Design Mu Statio Design Mu Bottom 1080 0.8
n Loc n Loc
kN-m kN-m n Loc kN-m
mm mm
mm Design Axial Force & Biaxial Moment for Pu - Mu2 - Mu3 Interaction
Top Station
(+2 -7.4992 406.7 -2.7195 1626.7 -4.0314 2440 Column Design Pu Design Mu2 Design Mu3 Controlling
Loc
Axis) End kN kN-m kN-m Combo
mm
envelopecomb envelopecomb envelopecomb
Combo kN kN-m kN-m mm
o o o
Bot (-2 Top 852.19 0.1859 -16.2614 2470 envelopecombo
2.9202 406.7 8.4427 1626.7 5.8811 2440
Axis) Bottom 859.6904 -0.0938 10.6284 0 envelopecombo
envelopecomb envelopecomb envelopecomb
Combo
o o o Shear Reinforcement for Major Shear, Vu2
Rebar Asv /s Design Vu2 Station Loc Controlling
Column End
mm/m kN mm Combo
Shear Reinforcement for Major Shear, Vu2 Top 552 10.8866 2470 envelopecombo
End-I Middle End-J Bottom 552 10.8866 0 envelopecombo
Rebar Asv /s Rebar Asv /s Rebar Asv /s
mm/m mm/m mm/m Shear Reinforcement for Minor Shear, Vu3
423.2 423.2 423.2 Rebar Asv /s Design Vu3 Station Loc Controlling
Column End
mm/m kN mm Combo
Design Shear Force for Major Shear, Vu2 Top 828 0.2975 2470 envelopecombo
End-I Middle End-J Bottom 828 0.2975 0 envelopecombo
End-I Middle End-J
Station Station Station
Design Vu Design Vu Design Vu
Loc Loc Loc
kN kN kN
mm mm mm
SHEAR WALL DESIGN (ETABS)
10.5504 406.7 0.0004 1626.7 6.2524 2440
envelopecombo envelopecombo envelopecombo Shear Wall Preferences - IS 456-2000
Item Value
Torsion Reinforcement
Rebar Material HYSD415
Shear Rebar Shear Material Mild250
Rebar Asvt /s
mm/m Phi (Steel) 1.15
Phi (Concrete) 1.5
0
PMax factor 0.8
Design Torsion Force # Interaction Curves 24
# Interaction Points 11
Design Tu Station Loc Design Tu Station Loc
kN-m mm kN-m mm Min Eccentricity Major? No
Min Eccentricity Minor? No
1.3507 1220 1.3507 1220
Edge Design PT-Max 0.06
envelopecombo envelopecombo
Edge Design PC-Max 0.04
Section Design IP-Max 0.04
Column Section Design (ETABS) Section Design IP-Min 0.0025
D/C Ratio Limit 0.95
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Shear Design
Pier Leg Location, Length and Thickness
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Design moments
2 2
M (-ve) = W l = 0.052 9,187 3.211 =4.925kNm
x x x
2 2
M (+ve) = W l = 0.040 9.187 3.211 = 3.788kNm
x x x
2 2
M (-ve) =y W l = 0.032 9.187 3.211 = 3.031kNm
y x
2 2
M (+ve) =y W l = 0.024 9.187 3.211 = 2.598kNm
y x
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=150 mm
3.788kNm 105.71
short span +ve
= 0.58x = 197.53 N/mm =
moment(kNm) s
138.19 = 100 A / bd = (100 182.78) / (1000 101) =0.18
-ve 4.925kNm s
moment(kNm) Modification factor = 2 (IS 456:2000, fig. 4)
72.098 Permissible l/d ratio = 32 2= 64
long span +ve 2.598kNm
moment(kNm) Actual l/d = (4701/101) = 46.54 64
3.031kNm Therefore, deflection is safe with provided depth.
84.28
-ve Check for cracking
moment(kNm) (As per IS 456:2000, Clause 43.1)
1. Steel provided is more than 0.12%
2. Spacing of main steel 3d =
Check for area of steel 3 125 = 375mm
3. Diameter of reinforcement D/8 = 125/8 = 15.62mm
As per IS 456 clause 26.5.2.1
2 Hence it is safe against cracking.
A= 0.12 % of bD = 0.0012x1000x125 = 150 mm
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Reinforcements
= = 0.834
=P
= = 421.75mm
Spacing = = = 268mm
Provide 12 mm bars @ 250 mm c/c spacing
Fig.17
Preliminary dimensioning Check for spacing of main steel
Rise of stair, R = 150mm As per IS 456:2000 Cl. 26.3.3 (b)
Tread of stair, T = 300mm Max spacing = (300 or 3d )whichever is less
Effective span = 3.65+0.175 =, whichever is less
=3.825 m
(As per IS 456:2000, Clause 33.1) = 300 mm
Let thickness of waist slab = 175mm Spacing provided < spacing maximum Safe
Use 12mm dia. bars and clear cover 25mm
Load calculation Check for area of steel
2
Self-weight of landing slab = 0.125 x 25 = 3.125kN/m As per IS 456:2000, Cl. 26.5.2.1,
2
Live load on loading slab = 3kN/m A min = 0.12% cross sectional area
2 st
Finishes = 1 kN/m 2
2 = = 172.8 mm
Total load on the landing slab = 7.125kN/m
2
Factored load = 1.5x 7.125= 10.68kN/m Ast > Ast
provided minimum
Hence ok.
Dead load of waist slab
Distribution reinforcement
= Thickness of waist slab25
0.12% cross sectional area =
= 0.175 25 = 3.439kN/m
2
The self-weight of the steps is calculated by treating the step to = 172.8 mm
be equivalent horizontal slab of thickness equal to half the rise.
Use 8mm bars
Self-weight of step = 0.50.1525 = 1.875kN/m
Floor finish = 1kN/m Spacing = = = 290.88 mm
Live load = 3kN/m
Spacing = 250mm
Total service load= 9.314kN/m Provide 8 mm bars at 250 mm c/c
Consider 1m width of waist slab Check for spacing of distribution steel
Total service load /m run = 9.3141.0 = As per IS 456:2000 Cl: 26.3.3 (b)
9.314kN/m
Total ultimate load = W = 1.59.314 = 13.971kN/m Max spacing = ( 5d or 450mm) whichever is less,
u
= whichever is less
Ultimate design moment
= 450 mm
Maximum bending moment at the centre of the span is given
Spacing < spacing
by, provided maximum
Mu = = = 25.55kNm Safe
d >d = 41.28kN
provided required
As per IS 456:2000, Clause 40.1
Hence the effective depth selected is sufficient to resist the
ultimate moment
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P= = 0.241
t
= = 0.167
As per IS 456: 2000, Table 19, = 0.355N/ mm
c
As per IS 456: 2000, Cl: 40.2
Design shear strength of concrete, (k )
c
= 1.25 0.355= 0.443 N/
mm
As per IS 456: 2000, Table 20
Max. value of shear stress, = 3.1 N/ mm
cmax
< <
Size of footing
Factored axial Load, P = 2505 kN
u
2
Safe Bearing Capacity of soil = 200 kN/m
2
Area of footing = = 12.525 m
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2 2
= 1 1.25 = 1.25N/mm Ast =Pt =0.4 2400 mm
2
Since the punching shear stress (1.107 N/mm ) < allowable Provide 25mm dia. bars at 200mm c/c.
2 2
shear stress (1.25 N/mm ), Therefore, A provided = 1938.95 mm > A required (1363.18
st st
Hence safe. 2
The check for assumed thickness is done and it is safe. mm ). Hence O.K.
Hence, the assumed thickness of footing D = 600 mm is Check for development length
sufficient. Sufficient development length should be available for the
The effective depth for the lower layer of reinforcement, d reinforcement from the critical section.
l Here, the critical section considered for L is that of flexure.
=600-50-12.5=537.5mm, Effective depth for the upper layer of d
= =12.46 > 2
For the cantilever slab, total Shear Force along critical section Permissible bearing stress (22.50N/mm ) according to IS
considering the entire width B is clause34.4 , the design for bearing stress is satisfactory.
V = P B (l d) Reinforcement detail of footing
u u
= 156.56 (1.775 0.5125) = 778.103kN
The nominal shear stress is given by,
2
= = N/mm
v
From Table 61 of SP 16, find the P required to have a
c
2
minimum design shear strength 0.36N/mm ,
2 2
= 0.37 N/ mm f = 30 N/mm .
v t ck
2
For P = 0.26% , the design shear strength , N/mm <
c
2
= 0.37 N/ mm
v
hence from one way shear criterion provide P = 0.4 %, with
ct
2
, 0.45 N/ mm
Comparing P from flexure and one way shear criterion,
t
provide P = 0.4 % (larger of the two values)
t
Hence,
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