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Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia BDA 3043

Tutorial 3 Solution

Reciprocating Compressor

Winardi Sani

1. Air is compressed in a single-stage reciprocating compressor from 1.013 bar and

15 C to 7 bar. Calculate the indicated power required for a free air delivery of

0.3 m3 /min, when the compression process is as follows:

(a) isentropic

(b) reversible isothermal

(c) polytropic, with n = 1.25

What is the delivery temperature at each case?

3 2

p

2

FAD, V = 0.3 m3 /min

At state 1:

p p1 = 1.013 bar, T1 = 15C = 15 + 273.15 = 288.15 K

this area

= At state 2:

indicated work

p 4 1 p2 = 7 bar.

1

Isentropic index = 1.4

V

Temperature, T2 :

1

T2 p2

= (1)

T1 p1

1 1.4 1

= = 0.286

1.4

p2 7

= = 6.9102

p1 1.013

1

p2

= 1.737 (2)

p1

T2 = 288.15 1.737 = 500.58 K

= 227.43C (3)

Indicated power:

T2

wisen. = RT1 ( 1)

1 T1

wisen.

Wisen. = m

T2

= mRT

1( 1)

1 T1

1.4

= = 3.5

1 1.4 1

1

Solution Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif

Tutorial 3/ ws Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan

BDA 3043 Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

mRT

1 = p1 V1

= 1.013 bar 0.3

min 1 bar 1 Pa 60 sec

= 506.5 W

isen. = 3.5 506.5 W (1.737 1) = 1.306 kW

W (4)

Indicated work:

p2

wisoth. = RT1 ln

p1

isoth. = m

W wisoth.

p2

= mRT

1 ln

p1

p2

ln = ln 6.9102 = 1.93

p1

isoth. = 506.5 1.93 = 0.979kW

W (5)

Temperature, T2 = T1 = 15C:

(c) Polytropic compression, n = 1.25

Temperature, T2 :

n1

T2 p2 n

= (6)

T1 p1

n1 1.25 1

= = 0.20

n 1.25

p2 7

= = 6.9102

p1 1.013

n1

p2 n

= 1.4720 (7)

p1

T2 = 288.15 1.4720 = 424.15 K

= 151C (8)

Indicated power:

n T2

wpoly. = RT1 ( 1)

n1 T1

wpoly

Wpoly = m

n T2

= mRT

1( 1)

n1 T1

n 1.25

= =5

n1 1.25 1

2

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Solution

Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Tutorial 3/ ws

Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia BDA 3043

mRT

1 = p1 V1 = 506.5 W (remains unchanged.)

W ploy = 5 506.5 W (1.4720 1) = 1.195 kW (9)

isoth. < W

From the answers in (a), (b), and (c), we see W ploy < W

isen. . The

minimum work is achieved by the isothermal compression.

acting and has a stroke/bore ratio of 1.2/1, calculate the bore size required.

(Answer: 68.3 mm)

swept volume Without clearance, V = 0.3 m3 /min

rod shaft

d

N = 1000 rev/min

l motor

l/d = 1.2

Swept Volume = induced volume:

d2 d2

V = l = 1.2d (10)

4 4

V = 0.3d3

V

V =

N

0.3

= = 3 104 m3

1000

d2

1.2d = 3 104 m3

4

d = 0.683 m = 68.3 mm (11)

3

Solution Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif

Tutorial 3/ ws Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan

BDA 3043 Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

at 25 bar. For this purpose the induction and free air conditions can be taken as

1.013 bar and 15 C, and the FAD as 0.25 m3 /min. The clearance volume is 3%

of the swept volume and the stroke/bore ratio is 1.2/1.

p 3 T2 2

2

delivery

N = 1000 rev/min

expansion

p2 = 25 bar

p

Induction and FAD are of the same conditions.

on

si

es

pr

pin = 1.013 bar; Tin = 15C = 288.15 K

V in = 0.25 m3 /min

m

suction T1 co

1

p

1 4

induced volume

swept volume l/d = 1.2

p V3 V4 V2 V V1

clearance

1

volume Clearance volume:V3 = 0.03 Vs

p

2 swept volume

Swept volume per cycle:

d2

Vs = l = 0.3 d3 (12)

4

V1 = Vs + V3 = (1 + 0.03)Vs = 1.03Vs (13)

Polytropic expansion:

1 1 1

V4 p3 n p2 n 25 1.3

= = = = 11.777

V3 p4 p1 1.013

V4 = V3 11.777

V4 = 0.03 11.777 Vs = 0.353 Vs (14)

V in 0.25

Vin = = = 0.25 103 m3 (15)

N 1000

Vin = V1 V4 (16)

= (1.03 0.353)Vs = 0.677 Vs (17)

Vs = 0.3693 103 m3 (18)

4

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Solution

Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Tutorial 3/ ws

Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia BDA 3043

d = 0.7319 101 m = 0.0732 m

d = 73.2 mm (19)

atmosphere

p (p,V,T)induced Vin

a T

a

v =

Va m m Vs

1/n

V3 p2

=1 1 (21)

Vs p1

From the previous calculations:

V3

= 0.03

Vs

1/n

p2

1 = 11.777

p1

v = 67.7% (22)

n T2

w= RT1 ( 1)

n1 T1

W =m w

n T2

= mRT

1( 1)

n1 T1

n 1.3

= = 4.333

n1 1.3 1

n1 1.31

T2 p2 n 25 1.3

= = = 2.096

T1 p1 1.013

mRT

1 = p1 V1

= 1.013 bar 0.25

min 1 bar 1 Pa 60 sec

= 422.083 W

= 4.333 422.083 W (2.096 1) = 2, 004. W

W

= 2.0. kW

W (23)

5

Solution Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif

Tutorial 3/ ws Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan

BDA 3043 Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

isoth

W

isoth = (24)

W

Isothermal power:

isoth. = mRT p2

W 1 ln

p1

p2 25

ln = ln = 3.21

p1 1.013

isoth. = 422.083 3.21 = 1.355kW

W (25)

1.355

isoth = = 67.5% (26)

2.0

4. The compressor of Question 3 has actual induction conditions of 1 bar and 40

C, and the delivery pressure is 25 bar. Taking the bore as calculated in Question

3, calculate the FAD referred to 1.013 bar and 15 C, and the indicated power

required. Calculate also the volumetric efficiency and compare it with that of

Question 3.

3 2

atmosphere

p = 1.013 bar

a

(p = 1bar ,T = 40 oC)

Vin m induced p

T a = 15 o C 1

cylinder 4

Va m

m

V

(a) FAD, see eq. (22) in the lecture note:

pa Va p4 Vin

m

= =

RTa RT4

Ta p4

FAD = Va = Vin (27)

T4 pa

T4 = 40 + 273.15 = 313.15 K p4 = 1 bar

Ta p4 288.15 1

= = 0.9084

T4 pa 313.15 1.013

6

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Solution

Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Tutorial 3/ ws

Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia BDA 3043

= n T2

W mRT

1( 1)

n1 T1

n 1.3

= = 4.333

n1 1.3 1

n1 1.31

T2 p2 n 25 1.3

= = = 2.10

T1 p1 1

mRT

1 = p1 V1

= 1 bar 0.25

min 1 bar 1 Pa 60 sec

= 416.667 W

W = 4.333 416.667 W (2.10 1) = 1985.96. W

W = 1.986 kW (29)

Va V a

v = =

Vs V s

V s = Vs N = 0.3693 103 1000 = 0.3693 m3 /min

0.227

v = = 61.4% (30)

0.3693

7

Solution Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif

Tutorial 3/ ws Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan

BDA 3043 Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

pressure of 1 bar, at the rate of 2.4 m3 /min measured at free air conditions of

1.013 bar and 15 C. The compression is carried out in two-stages with an ideal

intermediate pressure and complete intercooling. The clearance volume is 3 %

of the swept volume in each cylinder and the compressor speed is 750 rev/min.

The index of compression and re-expansion is 1.25 for both cylinders and the

temperature at the end of the induction stroke in each cylinder is 32 C. The

mechanical efficiency of the compressor is 85 %. (Answers: 22.74 kW; 5.98 kW;

0.00396 m3 ; 0.000474 m3 ; 26.75 kW)

3 2

p

2 70 bar

p p=p

2 i 2 p

1

p 3 4 1 T

2 2

p

32 oC

1

p 1 bar

1

4

Vs,HP V s

Vs,LP

pi (n1)/n

c =2 n

W mRT

1 1

n1

p1

For ideal intermediate pressure: pi = p1 p2

(n1)/2n

n p2

Wc = 2 mRT

1 1 (31)

n1 p1

n1 1.25 1

= = 0.1

2n 2 1.25

n 1.25

= =5

n1 1.25 1

(n1)/2n 0.1

p2 70

= = 1.5294

p1 1

m

= =

RTa 0.287 kJ/kg K 288.15 K 60 s 1 bar 1 Pa

3

mRT

1 = 48.997 10 kg/s 0.287 kJ/kg K 305.15 K = 4.291 kW

Wc = 2 5 4.291 (1.5294 1)

c = 22.72 kW

= W (32)

8

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Solution

Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Tutorial 3/ ws

Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia BDA 3043

(b) the saving in power over single-stage compression between the same pres-

sure

(n1)/n

c,single = n p2

W mRT

1 1

n1 p1

n1 1.25 1 n 1.25

= = 0.2, = =5

n 1.25 n1 1.25 1

(n1)/n 0.2

p2 70

= = 2.339

p1 1

mRT

1 = 4.291 kW

c,single = 5 4.291 (2.339 1) = 28.727 kW

W

(33)

Power saving:

saved = W

W c,single W

c (34)

saved = 28.727 22.72 = 6.0 kW

W (35)

LP compressor:

pa V a p1 V in

m

= =

RTa RT1

m R T1

V in,LP =

p1

48.997 103 kg/s 0.287 kJ/kg K 305.15 K 1 bar 1000

= 5

1 bar 10 Pa 1 k

V in,LP = 4.29 102 m3 /s

V in 4.29 102

Vin,LP = = 60 = 3.43 102 m3 (36)

N 750

Vin = V1 V4

1 1

V4 p3 n pi n

= =

V3 p4 p1

9

Solution Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif

Tutorial 3/ ws Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan

BDA 3043 Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

p

with pi = p1 p2 = 70/1 = 8.367

1

8.367 1.25

= 5.471

1

V1 V4 = (1.03 0.1641) Vs

Vin 3.43 102

Vs,LP = = = 3.96 103 m3 (38)

0.8659 0.8659

HP compressor:

Vs,LP

Vs,HP = (39)

pi

3.96 103

Vs,HP = = 0.47 103 m3 (40)

8.367

Power transmission

shaft joint

W

mech =

shaft

W

shaft = 22.72 kW/0.85

W

shaft = 26.73 kW

= W (41)

10

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Solution

Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Tutorial 3/ ws

Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia BDA 3043

sor is given by:

1/n

V3 p2

vol =1 1 (42)

Vs p1

p 3 T2 2

2

delivery

expansion

n

io

ss e

pr

m

suction T1 co

1

p

1 4

induced volume

swept volume

p V3 V4 V2 V V1

1 clearance

volume

p

2 swept volume

Vin

vol = (43)

Vs

volume as follows:

Vs = V1 V3 (44)

Vin = V1 V4 (45)

V1 V4

vol = (46)

V1 V3

V3 V3

Let define the clearance ratio: c = Vs = V1 V3

V3 V1 1+c

V1 V3 = or = 1 + 1/c = (47)

c V3 c

V1 V4

vol = c (48)

V

3

V1 V4

=c (49)

V3 V3

1/n

V4 p3

= (50)

V3 p4

11

Solution Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif

Tutorial 3/ ws Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan

BDA 3043 Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

1/n

1+c p3

vol = c (51)

c p4

1/n

p3

=1+c 1 (52)

p4

V3

with p3 = p2 , p4 = p1 and c = Vs

1/n

V3 p2

vol =1 1 (53)

Vs p1

12

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