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Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Solution

Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Tutorial 3/ ws


Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia BDA 3043

Tutorial 3 Solution
Reciprocating Compressor
Winardi Sani
1. Air is compressed in a single-stage reciprocating compressor from 1.013 bar and
15 C to 7 bar. Calculate the indicated power required for a free air delivery of
0.3 m3 /min, when the compression process is as follows:
(a) isentropic
(b) reversible isothermal
(c) polytropic, with n = 1.25
What is the delivery temperature at each case?
3 2
p
2
FAD, V = 0.3 m3 /min

At state 1:
p p1 = 1.013 bar, T1 = 15C = 15 + 273.15 = 288.15 K
this area
= At state 2:
indicated work
p 4 1 p2 = 7 bar.
1
Isentropic index = 1.4
V

(a) Isentropic compression, s1 = s2


Temperature, T2 :
  1
T2 p2
= (1)
T1 p1
1 1.4 1
= = 0.286
1.4
p2 7
= = 6.9102
p1 1.013
  1
p2
= 1.737 (2)
p1
T2 = 288.15 1.737 = 500.58 K
= 227.43C (3)

Indicated power:

T2
wisen. = RT1 ( 1)
1 T1
wisen.
Wisen. = m
T2
= mRT
1( 1)
1 T1
1.4
= = 3.5
1 1.4 1

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Solution Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif
Tutorial 3/ ws Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan
BDA 3043 Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

From the ideal gas equation:

mRT

1 = p1 V1

m3 105 Pa N/m2 1 min


= 1.013 bar 0.3
min 1 bar 1 Pa 60 sec
= 506.5 W
isen. = 3.5 506.5 W (1.737 1) = 1.306 kW
W (4)

(b) Reversible, isothermal compression, T1 = T2


Indicated work:
p2
wisoth. = RT1 ln
p1
isoth. = m
W wisoth.
p2
= mRT
1 ln
p1
p2
ln = ln 6.9102 = 1.93
p1
isoth. = 506.5 1.93 = 0.979kW
W (5)

Temperature, T2 = T1 = 15C:
(c) Polytropic compression, n = 1.25
Temperature, T2 :
  n1
T2 p2 n
= (6)
T1 p1
n1 1.25 1
= = 0.20
n 1.25
p2 7
= = 6.9102
p1 1.013
  n1
p2 n
= 1.4720 (7)
p1
T2 = 288.15 1.4720 = 424.15 K
= 151C (8)

Indicated power:

n T2
wpoly. = RT1 ( 1)
n1 T1
wpoly
Wpoly = m
n T2
= mRT
1( 1)
n1 T1
n 1.25
= =5
n1 1.25 1

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Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Solution
Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Tutorial 3/ ws
Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia BDA 3043

From the ideal gas equation:

mRT

1 = p1 V1 = 506.5 W (remains unchanged.)
W ploy = 5 506.5 W (1.4720 1) = 1.195 kW (9)

isoth. < W
From the answers in (a), (b), and (c), we see W ploy < W
isen. . The
minimum work is achieved by the isothermal compression.

2. The compressor of Question 1 is to run at 1000 rev/min. If the compressor is single-


acting and has a stroke/bore ratio of 1.2/1, calculate the bore size required.
(Answer: 68.3 mm)
swept volume Without clearance, V = 0.3 m3 /min
rod shaft
d
N = 1000 rev/min
l motor
l/d = 1.2
Swept Volume = induced volume:

d2 d2
V = l = 1.2d (10)
4 4
V = 0.3d3

V
V =
N
0.3
= = 3 104 m3
1000
d2
1.2d = 3 104 m3
4
d = 0.683 m = 68.3 mm (11)

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Solution Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif
Tutorial 3/ ws Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan
BDA 3043 Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

3. A single-stage, single-acting air compressor running at 1000 rev/min delivers air


at 25 bar. For this purpose the induction and free air conditions can be taken as
1.013 bar and 15 C, and the FAD as 0.25 m3 /min. The clearance volume is 3%
of the swept volume and the stroke/bore ratio is 1.2/1.

p 3 T2 2
2
delivery
N = 1000 rev/min
expansion

p2 = 25 bar
p
Induction and FAD are of the same conditions.
on
si
es
pr
pin = 1.013 bar; Tin = 15C = 288.15 K
V in = 0.25 m3 /min
m
suction T1 co
1
p
1 4
induced volume
swept volume l/d = 1.2
p V3 V4 V2 V V1
clearance
1
volume Clearance volume:V3 = 0.03 Vs

Polytropic coeff.: n = 1.3.


p
2 swept volume

(a) Bore and stroke


Swept volume per cycle:

d2
Vs = l = 0.3 d3 (12)
4
V1 = Vs + V3 = (1 + 0.03)Vs = 1.03Vs (13)

Polytropic expansion:
 1  1  1
V4 p3 n p2 n 25 1.3
= = = = 11.777
V3 p4 p1 1.013

V4 = V3 11.777
V4 = 0.03 11.777 Vs = 0.353 Vs (14)

Induced Air per cycle:

V in 0.25
Vin = = = 0.25 103 m3 (15)
N 1000
Vin = V1 V4 (16)
= (1.03 0.353)Vs = 0.677 Vs (17)

Equating eq. (17) and eq. (16):

0.25 103 m3 = 0.677 Vs


Vs = 0.3693 103 m3 (18)

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Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Solution
Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Tutorial 3/ ws
Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia BDA 3043

The bore and the stroke of the cylinder:

0.3 d3 = 0.3693 103 m3


d = 0.7319 101 m = 0.0732 m
d = 73.2 mm (19)

l = 1.2 73.2 mm = 87.84 mm (20)

(b) Volumetric efficiency:


atmosphere

p (p,V,T)induced Vin
a T
a
v =
Va m m Vs
 1/n 
V3 p2
=1 1 (21)
Vs p1
From the previous calculations:

V3
= 0.03
Vs
 1/n 
p2
1 = 11.777
p1

v = 1 0.03 (11.777 1) = 0.6767


v = 67.7% (22)

(c) Indicated power:

n T2
w= RT1 ( 1)
n1 T1

W =m w
n T2
= mRT
1( 1)
n1 T1
n 1.3
= = 4.333
n1 1.3 1
  n1   1.31
T2 p2 n 25 1.3
= = = 2.096
T1 p1 1.013

From the ideal gas equation:

mRT

1 = p1 V1

m3 105 Pa N/m2 1 min


= 1.013 bar 0.25
min 1 bar 1 Pa 60 sec
= 422.083 W
= 4.333 422.083 W (2.096 1) = 2, 004. W
W
= 2.0. kW
W (23)

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Solution Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif
Tutorial 3/ ws Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan
BDA 3043 Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

(d) Isothermal efficiency:


isoth
W
isoth = (24)
W
Isothermal power:
isoth. = mRT p2
W 1 ln
p1
p2 25
ln = ln = 3.21
p1 1.013
isoth. = 422.083 3.21 = 1.355kW
W (25)
1.355
isoth = = 67.5% (26)
2.0
4. The compressor of Question 3 has actual induction conditions of 1 bar and 40
C, and the delivery pressure is 25 bar. Taking the bore as calculated in Question
3, calculate the FAD referred to 1.013 bar and 15 C, and the indicated power
required. Calculate also the volumetric efficiency and compare it with that of
Question 3.

3 2
atmosphere

p = 1.013 bar
a
(p = 1bar ,T = 40 oC)
Vin m induced p
T a = 15 o C 1
cylinder 4
Va m
m

V
(a) FAD, see eq. (22) in the lecture note:
pa Va p4 Vin
m
= =
RTa RT4
Ta p4
FAD = Va = Vin (27)
T4 pa

where Vin = 0.25 m3 /min

Ta = 15 + 273.15 = 288.15 K pa = 1.013 bar


T4 = 40 + 273.15 = 313.15 K p4 = 1 bar
Ta p4 288.15 1
= = 0.9084
T4 pa 313.15 1.013

FAD = V a = 0.25 0.9084 = 0.227 m3 /min (28)

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Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Solution
Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Tutorial 3/ ws
Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia BDA 3043

(b) Indicated power:

= n T2
W mRT
1( 1)
n1 T1
n 1.3
= = 4.333
n1 1.3 1
  n1   1.31
T2 p2 n 25 1.3
= = = 2.10
T1 p1 1

From the ideal gas equation:

mRT

1 = p1 V1

m3 105 Pa N/m2 1 min


= 1 bar 0.25
min 1 bar 1 Pa 60 sec
= 416.667 W

W = 4.333 416.667 W (2.10 1) = 1985.96. W
W = 1.986 kW (29)

(c) Volumetric efficiency, see eq. (19) in lecture note::

Va V a
v = =
Vs V s
V s = Vs N = 0.3693 103 1000 = 0.3693 m3 /min
0.227
v = = 61.4% (30)
0.3693

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Solution Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif
Tutorial 3/ ws Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan
BDA 3043 Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

5. A single-acting compressor is required to deliver air at 70 bar from an induction


pressure of 1 bar, at the rate of 2.4 m3 /min measured at free air conditions of
1.013 bar and 15 C. The compression is carried out in two-stages with an ideal
intermediate pressure and complete intercooling. The clearance volume is 3 %
of the swept volume in each cylinder and the compressor speed is 750 rev/min.
The index of compression and re-expansion is 1.25 for both cylinders and the
temperature at the end of the induction stroke in each cylinder is 32 C. The
mechanical efficiency of the compressor is 85 %. (Answers: 22.74 kW; 5.98 kW;
0.00396 m3 ; 0.000474 m3 ; 26.75 kW)

3 2
p
2 70 bar
p p=p
2 i 2 p
1
p 3 4 1 T
2 2

p
32 oC
1
p 1 bar
1
4
Vs,HP V s

Vs,LP

(a) the indicated power required

pi (n1)/n
 
c =2 n
W mRT
1 1
n1
p1

For ideal intermediate pressure: pi = p1 p2
 (n1)/2n 
n p2
Wc = 2 mRT
1 1 (31)
n1 p1
n1 1.25 1
= = 0.1
2n 2 1.25
n 1.25
= =5
n1 1.25 1
 (n1)/2n  0.1
p2 70
= = 1.5294
p1 1

pa V a 1.013 bar 2.4 m3 /min 1 min 105 Pa N/m2


m
= =
RTa 0.287 kJ/kg K 288.15 K 60 s 1 bar 1 Pa

= 48.997 103 kg/s


3
mRT
1 = 48.997 10 kg/s 0.287 kJ/kg K 305.15 K = 4.291 kW

Wc = 2 5 4.291 (1.5294 1)
c = 22.72 kW
= W (32)

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Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Solution
Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Tutorial 3/ ws
Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia BDA 3043

(b) the saving in power over single-stage compression between the same pres-
sure

 (n1)/n 
c,single = n p2
W mRT
1 1
n1 p1
n1 1.25 1 n 1.25
= = 0.2, = =5
n 1.25 n1 1.25 1
 (n1)/n  0.2
p2 70
= = 2.339
p1 1

mRT
1 = 4.291 kW
c,single = 5 4.291 (2.339 1) = 28.727 kW
W
(33)

Power saving:

saved = W
W c,single W
c (34)
saved = 28.727 22.72 = 6.0 kW
W (35)

(c) the swept volume of each cylinder

LP compressor:

pa V a p1 V in
m
= =
RTa RT1
m R T1
V in,LP =
p1
48.997 103 kg/s 0.287 kJ/kg K 305.15 K 1 bar 1000
= 5
1 bar 10 Pa 1 k
V in,LP = 4.29 102 m3 /s
V in 4.29 102
Vin,LP = = 60 = 3.43 102 m3 (36)
N 750

From the p V diagram, we see:

Vin = V1 V4

V1 = Vs + V3 = 1.03 Vs , with V3 = 0.03Vs (37)

The polytropic expansion from 3 4:

 1  1
V4 p3 n pi n
= =
V3 p4 p1

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Solution Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif
Tutorial 3/ ws Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan
BDA 3043 Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

p
with pi = p1 p2 = 70/1 = 8.367

  1
8.367 1.25
= 5.471
1

V4 = 5.471 V3 = 5.471 0.03 Vs = 0.1641 Vs


V1 V4 = (1.03 0.1641) Vs
Vin 3.43 102
Vs,LP = = = 3.96 103 m3 (38)
0.8659 0.8659

HP compressor:
Vs,LP
Vs,HP = (39)
pi
3.96 103
Vs,HP = = 0.47 103 m3 (40)
8.367

(d) the required power output of the drive motor.

Power transmission

motor rod piston


shaft joint

W
mech =
shaft
W
shaft = 22.72 kW/0.85
W
shaft = 26.73 kW
= W (41)

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Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Solution
Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Tutorial 3/ ws
Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia BDA 3043

6. Show the volumetric efficiency of an ideal single-stage reciprocating compres-


sor is given by:
 1/n 
V3 p2
vol =1 1 (42)
Vs p1

where V3 and Vs are the clearance and swept volume, respectively.

p 3 T2 2
2
delivery

expansion

n
io
ss e
pr
m
suction T1 co
1
p
1 4
induced volume
swept volume

p V3 V4 V2 V V1
1 clearance
volume

p
2 swept volume

The definition of the volumetric efficiency is:

Vin
vol = (43)
Vs

Referring to p V diagram, the relationship between the swept and induced


volume as follows:

Vs = V1 V3 (44)
Vin = V1 V4 (45)

V1 V4
vol = (46)
V1 V3

V3 V3
Let define the clearance ratio: c = Vs = V1 V3

V3 V1 1+c
V1 V3 = or = 1 + 1/c = (47)
c V3 c
V1 V4
vol = c (48)
V
 3 
V1 V4
=c (49)
V3 V3
 1/n
V4 p3
= (50)
V3 p4

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Solution Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif
Tutorial 3/ ws Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan
BDA 3043 Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

  1/n 
1+c p3
vol = c (51)
c p4
  1/n 
p3
=1+c 1 (52)
p4

V3
with p3 = p2 , p4 = p1 and c = Vs

 1/n 
V3 p2
vol =1 1 (53)
Vs p1

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