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Thinking

outside the box


Creative teaching
methods
TEACHING TECHNIQUES AND
METHODS
Brainstorming
Problem Solving Method
Cooperative Learning Technique
Case Method
Drama Technique
Brainstorming:
OBJECTIVES
Students will be able to say possible problems of
the given case using brainstorming technique.
Students will be able to say the possible
solutions for the problems for the given case
using brainstorming technique.
CASE:
Mrs. Yldz has a very passive character, she
reflects it to the class and it affects her
classroom management in a negative way. Her
students also have realized this situation and it
leads her to come across with some problems in
the class.
What are the possible problems and solutions
for this case?
PROBLEMS:
Lack of student involvement
Noise
Cheating in exams
The students may not attend the class
The students may not listen to the teacher
The students may not do their homeworks or tasks
The students may come to the class on purpose
The students do different kinds of things in the class
such as sleeping or drawing pictures etc.
SOLUTIONS:
The teacher should choose activities which appeal to
the students
The teacher may set some classroom rules with the
students
The teacher should try to keep the students as busy as
possible and should not let them to be interested in
different things
The teacher should attend personal development
courses
The teacher may want one of her collegues to help her
The teacher should take the attendance regularly
to solve the problems about attending the class
The teacher should talk with the students and
decide what to do with the late comers
The teacher may ask for one of her collegues
help in the exams in order to prevent cheating
The teacher may talk to some students
individually, if it is necessary
The teacher should work cooperatively with the
ministry
SUMMARY OF
BRAINSTORMING:
Brainstorming is a group creativity technique that was
designed to generate a large number of ideas for the
solution of a problem.
It is particularly helpful when you need to break out of
stale, established patterns of thinking, so that you can
develop new ways of looking at things. This can be
when you need to develop new opportunities, where
you want to improve the service that you offer, or when
existing approaches just aren't giving you the results you
want.
Used with your team, it helps you bring the
experience of all team members into play during
problem solving
There are four basic rules in
brainstorming.These are intended to reduce the
social inhibitions that occur in groups and
therefore stimulate the generation of new ideas.
The expected result is a dynamic synergy that
will dramatically increase the creativity of the
group.
RULES OF BRAINSTORMING
Focus on quantity: This rule is a means of enhancing
divergent production, aiming to facilitate problem solving
through the maxim, quantity breeds quality. The assumption is
that the greater the number of ideas generated, the greater
the chance of producing a radical and effective solution.
No criticism: It is often emphasized that in group
brainstorming, criticism should be put 'on hold'. Instead of
immediately stating what might be wrong with an idea, the
participants focus on extending or adding to it, reserving
criticism for a later 'critical stage' of the process. By
suspending judgment, one creates a supportive atmosphere
where participants feel free to generate unusual ideas.
Unusual ideas are welcome: To get a good and
long list of ideas, unusual ideas are welcomed. They
may open new ways of thinking and provide better
solutions than regular ideas. They can be generated by
looking from another perspective or setting aside
assumptions.
Combine and improve ideas: Good ideas can be
combined to form a single very good idea, as
suggested by the slogan "1+1=3". This approach is
assumed to lead to better and more complete ideas
than merely generating new ideas alone. It is believed
to stimulate the building of ideas by a process of
association.
OUTLINE OF THE METHOD
Set the problem
One of the most important things to do before
a session is to define the problem. The problem
must be clear, not too big, and captured in a
definite question such as What service for mobile
phones is not available now, but needed?. If the
problem is too big, the chairman should divide it
into smaller components, each with its own
question.
Create a background memo
The background memo is the invitation and
informational letter for the participants,
containing the session name, problem, time,
date, and place. The problem is described in the
form of a question, and some example ideas are
given. The ideas are solutions to the problem,
and used when the session slows down or goes
off-track.
Select participants
The chairman composes the brainstorming
panel, consisting of the participants and an idea
collector. Ten or fewer group members are
generally more productive than larger groups.
Many variations are possible but the following
composition is suggested.
Several core members of the project who have
proved themselves.
Several guests from outside the project, with
affinity to the problem.
One idea collector who records the suggested
ideas.
Create a list of lead questions
During the brainstorm session the creativity may
decrease. At this moment, the chairman should
stimulate creativity by suggesting a lead question
to answer, such as Can we combine these ideas? or
How about a look from another perspective?. It is
advised to prepare a list of such leads before the
session begins.
Session conduct
The chairman leads the brainstorming session
and ensures that the basic rules are followed.
The activities of a typical session are:
A warm-up session, to expose novice
participants to the criticism-free environment. A
simple problem is brainstormed, for example
What should be the next corporate Christmas present?
or What can be improved in Microsoft Windows?.
The chairman presents the problem and gives a
further explanation if needed.
The chairman asks the brainstorming panel for their
ideas.
If no ideas are coming out, the chairman suggests a
lead to encourage creativity.
Every participant presents his or her idea, and the
idea collector records them.
If more than one participant has ideas, the chairman
lets the most associated idea be presented first. This
selection can be done by looking at the body language
of the participants, or just by asking for the most
associated idea.
The participants try to elaborate on the idea, to
improve the quality.
When time is up, the chairman organizes the
ideas based on the topic goal and encourages
discussion. Additional ideas may be generated.
Ideas are categorized.
The whole list is reviewed to ensure that
everyone understands the ideas. Duplicate ideas
and obviously infeasible solutions are removed.
The chairman thanks all participants and gives
each a token of appreciation
The process:
Participants who have an idea but no possibility to
present it are encouraged to write down their idea and
present it later.
The idea collector should number the ideas, so that
the chairman can use the number to encourage
quantitative idea generation, for example: We have 44
ideas now, lets get it to 50!.
The idea collector should repeat the idea in the words
he or she has written it, to confirm that it expresses
the meaning intended by the originator.
When more participants are having ideas, the one
with the most associated idea should have priority.
This to encourage elaboration on previous ideas.
During the brainstorming session the attendance of
managers and superiors is strongly discouraged, as
it may inhibit and reduce the effect of the four
basic rules, especially the generation of unusual
ideas
QUESTIONS:
1. Which one of the followings is not one of the
rules of brainstorming?
combine and improve ideas

no critisism

the chairman selects ideas

focus on quantity
2. Which one of the followings is not one of the
possible compositions for selecting
participants in brainstorming technique?
One idea collector who records the suggested
ideas
Whomever wants can attend
Several core members of the project who have
proved themselves
Several guests from outside the project, with
affinity to the problem
3. What is the role of a chairman in
brainstorming technique?

4. What happens in creating a background memo


step in brainstorming?
Problem-Solving Method:
OBJECTIVES
This method helps students to gain the ability of
scientific problem solving and using it in the
every area of life.
Whit this method,teachers aim is to raise a youth
which can solve problems in scientific way not
just creating problems.
CASE
Mr.Goodluck is a teacher.He teaches English in a high school. He carefully
plans and prepares his lessons the day before.If something lasts longer
than he expected and planned,he feels rather irritated.He likes his students
but he thinks that it is waste of time to chat with students at the
beginning of the lesson.He prefers to start the lesson immediately.During
the lessons,he tells everything in front of the classroom.He asks questions
but does not give any time to students to think on it and answers it
himself.He always implements the lessons in the same way:he is the centre
of the lesson,students just listen to him.He sometimes ask questions but
whenever students give wrong answers,he gets angry.So the student
hesitate to say something.If a problem emerges,he can not solve it,he is so
helpless.He never makes jokes or smiles during the lesson.So the lessons
are boring. Because of this,students get bored and start to talk to each
other and of course this causenoise in the classroom and makes him
angry,too.Sometimes he wants students to form groups and give them
tasks but while students are wrking on it they make noise and he stops the
activity.He turns back his traditional way...
WHAT IS PROBLEM SOLVING
METHOD?
Problem solving is a process to choose and use
the effective and benefical tool and behaviours
among the different potentialities to reach the
target.
It contains scientific method,critical
thinking,taking decision,examining and reflective
thinking.
This method is used in the process of solving a
problem to generalize or to make synthesis.
STEPS OF PROBLEM SOLVING
PROCESS

1-Choosing the topic and emergence of problem.


2-Delimitation of the problem.
3-Planning the application.
4-Preparing the working guide.
5-Providing the sources.
6-Examining the problem.
7-Getting a conclusion.
8-Disputating the topics,views and findings.
ADVANTAGES OF PROBLEM
SOLVING METHOD
It provides the active participation of the students in
teaching-learning activity.
It habituates student to study regularly and organized.
It provides students o gain scientific view and thinking.
It makes students to be interested in learning.
It helps to improve the sense of responsibility of
students.
It provides students to face the problems boldly and to
deal with it in a scientific approach.
It helps students to adopt the view of benefit
from others ideas and to help each other.
It predicates the learning to a more logical and
doughty foundation.
It improves the ability of making proposes and
putting forward the hypothesis.
It helps students to adopt the idea of not to be
hurry to make a decision.
DISADVANTAGES OF PROBLEM
SOLVING METHOD
It takes too much time.
It is not possible to apply this method to all
disciplines.
It can load some worldly burdensomes to
students.
It can be diffucult for students to provide the
materials and sources which is required for
solving the problem.
Evaluating the learning can be difficult.
TECHNIQUES USED IN
PROBLEM SOLVING METHOD
A) INDUCTION
It is like teaching with discovering method.Cases
are observed carefully.The similarities and
dissimilarities are found.Then you can reach the
general rule or law with the techniques
"generalization" or "making abstract" from the
similarities.
B) DEDUCTION
It is reverse of induction technique.Some
general laws and rules which are reached before
are given to the students and want them to apply
this method to different singular case.The
convenience of it to the one of the case is
controlled mentally.
QUESTIONS
1-Which one is wrong about the problem solving
method?
It takes too much time.

It is not possible to apply this method to all


disciplines.
Evaluating the learning is easy.

It has some worldly burdens.


2-Which one is not the step of problem solving
method?
Delimitation of the problem

Planning the application

Preparing the working guide

Deduction
3-Discuss the importance of problem-solving
method.

4-Explain the limitations of the problem solving


method and solutions for them.
Cooperative Learning Technique:
OBJECTIVES
At the end of the lesson students will be able
to
develop positive interdepence
contribute each others learning
take responsibilities in group Works
CASE:
Mr. Tutumlu first used cooperative learning technique. He
wanted students to turn to their friends, who were sitting
behind them to make groups of four. After that he only
said the subject on which we were going to study. Also, he
said that he rewarded the most succesful group. He did not
do responsibility disribution. We did not know what we do.
Furthermore, we only had ten minutes. Then he sat his
table and started to read his newspaper. After two minutes
passed, for all hell to break loose. Everything was so
unsystematic. Nobody listened to each other and everybody
wanted to speak. There was an awfulnoisy in the class so
Mr. Tutumlu got angry, dispelled the groups and he said
that I put forth an effort for you uselessly.
PROBLEMS
1.noisy
2.insufficient time
3.inappropriate classroom setting for the cooperative
learning activity
4.lack of instinct motivation
5.uncertanities of responsibilities
6.lack of communication
7.undetermined, unclearly stated task
8.there is no encouragement and direction from the
teacher
9.competition between the groups
POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS
1.The task can be clearly defined and understood
by all the members of groups.
2.Roles and individual assigments can be clearly
understood, needed sources can be made
available.
3.Realistic time Schedule can be developed with
appropriate progress.
4.Classroom setting can be arranged according to
activity.
5.The teacher can create and maintain a mutual
feeling of resposibility to achieve group goals.
6.Careful encouragement and direction which is
needed constantly can be given to the students.
7.The teacher can observe the group members
studies.
COOPERATIVE LEARNING
TECHNIQUE
Coopeartive learning is asuccesful teaching strategy in
which small teams, each with students of different
levels of ability,use variety of learning activities to
improve their understanding of a subject.Each member
of a team is responsible not only for learning what is
taught buut also for helping teammates learning,thus
creating and atmosphere of achivement.Student work
trough the assignment until all the members succesfuly
understand and complete it.Cooperative efforts result in
participants striving for mutual benefit so that all group
members ;
1.gain confidence from each others effort (yuor
success benefits me and my success benefits
you.)
2.recognize that all group members share a
commen fate ( we all sin kor swim togetherhere.)
3. know that ones performance is mutually caudes
by oneself and ones team members(we can not
do it without you.)
4.feel proud and jointly celebrate when a group
member is recognized for achievement.(we all
congratulate you on your accoplishment.)
WHY WE USE COOPERATIVE
LEARNING?
Research has shown that cooperative learning
techniques;
1.promote sts learning and academic achievement
2.increase sts retention
3.enchance sts satisfaction with learning experience
4.help sts develop skills in oral communication
5.develop sts social skills
6.promete sts self-esteem
7.help to promote positive race relations.
ELEMENTS OF COOPERATIVE
LEARNING
1.Positive interdepence
2.Face to face interaction
3.Individual and group accountability
4.Interpersonal and small-group skilss
5.Group processing
CLASSROOM ACTIVIES THAT
USE COOPERATIVE LEARNING
1.Jigsaw
2.Three-step interview
3.Think-pair-share
4.Round robin brainstorming
5.Three-minute review
6.Numbered heads
7.Team pair solo
8.Circle the sage
9.Partners
ADVANTAGES OF
COOPERATIVE LEARNING
TECHNIQUE
1.The group provides each member with an
oppotunity to participate and thereby
influences decison making.
2.Face to face learning situations promote an
atmosphere of cooperation and empathy
seldom achieved in other learning situations.
3.Personal relationships are usually less
problematic. There is also a greater chance of
different opinions and varied contributions.
4.It encourages broader skills of cooperation and
nagotition.
5.It promotes learner autonomy by allowing sts to
make their own decisions in the group without
being told what to do by the teacher.
6.Although we do not wish any individuals in
groups to be completely passive neverthless
some sts can choose their level of participation
more readily than in a whole-class or pairwork
situation.
DISADVANTAGES OF
COOPERATIVE LEARNING
TECHNIQUE
1.It is likely to be noisy.Some teachers feel that
they lose control., and the whole-class feeling
which has been painstakingly built up may
dissipate when the class is split into smaller
entities.
2.Notall the students enjoy it, since they would
prefer to be the focus of the teachers attention
rather than working with their peers.Sometimes
sts find themselves in uncongenial groups and
wish the could be somewhere else.
WHAT ROLE THE TEACHER
PLAY?
1.The teacher can merelyprovides a setting and
atmosphere in which such attitudes and
behaviours may develop.
2.Careful encouragement and direction is needed
constantly by the teacher.
3.The teacher creates and maintains a mutual
feeling of responsibility to achieve group goals.
4.The teacher is responsible for contributing
specific info when needed.
SUMMARY
Cooperative learning is a succesful teaching strategy in
which small teams, each with students of diffrent
levels of ability, use variety of learning activities to
improve their understanding of a subject. All group
members:
-gain confidence from each others effort.
-all group members share a common fate.
-know that ones performance is mutually caused by
oneself and ones team members.
-feel proud and jointly celebrate when a group member
is recognised for achievement.
QUESTIONS
1.What are the benefits of cooperative learning?

2.What are the elements of cooperative learning


3.Which is the following statements not related to
the cooperative learning?
a-Your success benefits me and my success
benefits you.
b-We all sin kor swim together here.
c-We all congratulate you on your
accomplishment.
d-Every group member is responsible for his\her
own learning.
e-We can not do it without you.
4.Which one of the following activities is not used
in cooperative learning?
a-jigsaw
b-role play
c-think-pair-solo
d-three-step interview
e-circle the sage
Case Method:
OBJECTIVES
Students will be able to explain what the case
method become.
Students will be able to express what the
limitations and values of the case method
Students will be able to express the role of
teacher in the process of the case method.
CASE
He was said that 5/C is the most problem class in the school. When the bell
rang , some teachers looked at him pityingly.
When he entered the class he saw that the students did not realize him.
Everybody was laughing , joking with each other and shouting .He
remembered what other teachers had said and how they had looked at
him. He got angry . He would not permit of teachers making joke with
him.He would deal with these naughty students.He catched the student
who was the nearest to him and shouted at and told them to sit down
.When he saw that the students didnt listened to him , he took the ruler
and hit on the desk angrily.
The students stopped making noise in the class and sat down.They were
anxious about what the teacher would do.The teacher told them not to
talk with each other.f it werent , he would do everything to make them
be silent.
After the lesson , he met a colleague and told what he had done in the class.
He said that the students listened to him during the lesson , they didnt
talk with each other.
And then they walked to the teachers room by going on their talking.
PROBLEMS
Classroom Management
lack of communication
discipline problem in the class
SOLUTIONS
determining some rules with students in the
class
empathy in students
WHAT IS THE CASE METHOD ?
A case is an account of an actual problem or
situation which has been experienced by an
individual or a group.
It includes facts available to those facing the
problem, along with a description of
perceptions and attitudes of those who are
confronted with the problem
HOW IS THE CASE METHODS
ANALYSIS ?
The discussion analysis is initiated when the
teacher asks, in some manner , what is the issue
or the problem in this case ?
The second step is the analysis of the facts in
the situation.Here the emphasis is upon the
what actually happened rather than personal
opinion of the facts. I
A third step in the analysis may be conceived as
sentiments and beliefs .Here expressed feelings
or attitudes are considered.
The strongest proposal is chosen , sometimes it
becomes apparent that more than one decision
is best.
ROLES OF THE TEACHER
Teacher
should be flexible. Accept the fact that this is
necessary in using case materials.
should ask questions when necessary,

should never become emotionally involved in


the case discussion
should summarize at the end and leave time to
pull together the key points of the case
ADVANTAGES
The case method is realistic.
By capturing and analyzing real problems , the
student is able to bridge the gap between school
and real-life experiences.
Case analysis treats feelings as facts
By treating human emotion and feelings, the
case approach captures the interest and
imagination of thr learner.
DISADVANTAGES
Although the case method is realistic it is not
actual reality
The case method tends to collapse time and
space dimensions
If used extensively, it will definitely limit the
content material which can be covered.
Use of already prepared , fictional cases may
limit the realism of case sitiation.
QUESTIONS
What are the roles of the teacher in the case
method ?
Which of them is not between the advantages of
the case method ?
Case method is realistic. Case problems , taken
from real life experiences.
Case analysis treats feelings as facts

Use of already prepared , fictional cases may


limit the realism of case sitiation.
By capturing and analyzing real problems , the
student is able to bridge the gap between school
and real-life experiences.
Drama Technique:
OBJECTIVES
Students will be able to recognise and practice
individual skills
Students will be able to communicate with other
group members,easily
Students will be able to gain an understanding
of the feeling of others
Students will be able to learn to use body
language
DRAMATIZATION
One of the teaching techniques which teach
students how to behave in which situation by
living it
Physical environment/costumes/ accessories are
important,effects the concentration of students
Students use their own imagination thus
improve their creativeness
SOME SUB-TECHNIQUES
ARE USED;
Informal drama: no preparation,no written
material.for ex;traffic accident,
Role playing: students may get preparation for
their role before acting,
Formal drama: completely under the teacher
control. Everybody uses written material
Puppets: students use puppets and say what
they want from behind of the puppets
Pantomime: students use only mime and
gestures, no oral acts,such as washing his
face,eating something..
Finger game: especially for younger students. A
story is given and want students to complete it
by making their fingers talk
ADVANTAGES;
It is fun
Provides direct involvement in learning on the
part of all students
Improves language using
Communicating/speaking and listening skills are
improved
Allows for exploration on solutions
DISADVANTAGES:
Needs too much time
Costumes,decors and preparation of physical
environment may create difficulties
If students be limited, it may be boring
Students may be too self-conscious
Not appropriate for large groups
Students may feel threatened
Summary:
Provides opportunity to recognise and practise
the skills
Improves using language
Allows for exploration of solutions
The more students involve,the more they learn
QUESTIONS:
1. What is the role of the physical environtment
in dramatisation technique?

2. What are the benefits of dramatization?


3.Which is not one of the sub-techniques of
daramatization?
A)Informal drama
B)Pantomime
C)Drawing
D)Puppets
E)Finger game
4.Which one is one of the disadvantages of
dramatization?
A)It is fun
B)Students may feel threatened
C)Students use their imagination
D)Not teacher-centered
E)Helps students concentrating
REFERENCES:

brainstorming, (n. d. ). Retrieved on april, 14, 2007


from http://www.mindtools.com/brainstm.html
brainstorming, (n. d. ). Retrieved on april, 14, 2007
from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brainstorming
http://www.gencbilim.com/odev/odevgoster.php?il=e
skisehir&id=8317
http://www.dersimiz.com/eyazim/yazi.asp?id=59