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Rice Production in One To Five (1-5) Hectare Farm

Scheme of Practice : Traditional


No. of Farmers Interviewed : Three (5)
Farm Location : TRENTo, AGUSAN del Sur

No. of Hours Working (per activity


Operation Number of Human/Animals Energy Input (MJ) Amount/Cost Remarks Energy Equivalen
and total)

I. Direct Inputs:
A. Land Preparation
1 man hours 46.0 4 days operation (5 hrs. per day) at 2.3
(1) Primary Tillage 20 1,200.00 300.00 per day
1 animal (bullock) 202.4 10.12
1 man 23.0 2 days operation (5 hrs. per day) at 2.3
(2) Secondary Tillage 10 hours 900.00 300.00 per day
1 animal (bullock) 101.2 10.12
3 PLAINING
B. Crop Establishment
1 day operation (5 hrs. per day) at
1 Direct Seeding 5 men 5 hours 57.5 750.00 150.00 per day
2.3

2 INDirect Seeding
C. Crop Care and Maintenance

1 day operation (twice per cropping


(1) Weeding (manual) 8 men 10 hours 184.0 1,200.00 season) (5 hrs. per day) at 150.00 2.3
per day

(2) Pest Control


(3) Irrigation Rainfed
(4) Cultivation
2 men 5 hours 23.0 1 day operation (5 hrs. per day) at
a. Off-barring 600.00 300.00 per day
2 animals (bullock) 5 hours 101.2
1 day operation (twice per cropping
(5) Fertilization 4 men 10 hours 92.0 800.00 seson) (5 hrs. per day) at 200.00 per
day
1 day operation (6 hrs. per day) at
D. Harvesting 10 men 6 hours 138.0 1,500.00 150.00 per day

E. THRESHING
F. Hauling
(1) Labor 3 men 2 hours 13.8
710.00 12km per liter (Isuzo elf - 2006
(2) Diesel Fuel 1 unit 6 km 23.9 model)
47.8

F. DRYING
5 days operation (6 hrs. per day) at
G. Milling 10 men 30 hours 690.0 150.00 per day
2.3

Total Energy Used for Direct Inputs 1,696.0

Energy Input
Operation Equipment/Tools Used Number of Hours Utilized Amount/Cost Remarks Energy Equivalen
(MJ)

II. Indirect Inputs:


A. Land Preparation
Animal Drawn Weight of Moldboard Plow (32
(1) Primary Tillage 1 20 hrs 3,488.0 - 109
Moldboard Plow kg)
32 kilogram
Animal Drawn DISC Weight of Moldboard Plow (32
(2) Secondary Tillage 1 10 hrs 3,488.0 -
HARROW kg)
32 kilogram
B. Crop Establishment
1 Corn seeds 264.6 14.7
Direct Seeding
18 kilogram

INDirect Seeding
C. Crop Ca
6 Nitrogen Source 18,459.0 6,000.00 61.53
Fertilization
300 kg
(1) Weeding
(1)Pest Control
(1)Irrigation

Harvesting

Threshing
Weight of Vehicle (Net Weight
D. Hauling 1 Elf 261,600.0 109
- 2,400 kg)

2,400 kilogram
DRYING

E. MILLING 5 units 6,812.5


12.5 kilogram
Total Energy Used for Indirect Inputs 294,112.1
Total Energy Used for Direct and Indirect Inputs 295,808.1 13,660.00
Corn Yield
White Corn 1.66 MT/ha. 1,660 kg/ha 24,402.00 14.7
Yellow Corn 4.09 MT/ha. 4,090 kg/ha 60,123.00

23240 2395
57260 10900
Energy Equivalent Used Reference

MJ per hr. Yaldiz et al, 1990


MJ per hr. Rehman, 2003
MJ per hr. Yaldiz et al, 1990
MJ per hr. Rehman, 2003

MJ per hr. Yaldiz et al, 1990

MJ per hr. Yaldiz et al, 1990

MJ per liter Safa et al., 2002


MJ per hr. Yaldiz et al, 1990

Energy Equivalent Used Reference

MJ per kg Pimentel, 1992

MJ per kg Panesar, B.S. 2002

MJ per kg Pimental, 1979

MJ per kg Pimentel, 1992


MJ per kg Panesar, B.S. 2002
Direct/ Number of
Indirect Operations Human/Animals/ No. of Hours/liters/kg working (per activity and total) Energy Equivalent Used
Energy Equipment/tools
Total Amount/ Cost Value (MJ/hr
Notes/Remarks (Hours/ Sub-Total Total Reference
Liters/kg)
(Php) or MJ/li)

A. Land Preparation

8 hr/day for 3 days operation 24 hr 1,200.00 Yaldiz, et al,1990 2.3 MJ/hr


1 manpower
(1) Primary Tillage P400/pass/Ha for 3 passing

7 L/pass/Ha @P28.00/L 21 Liters 588.00 Safa, et al, 2002 47.8 MJ/L


Fuel
8 hr/day for 0.67ha/day @ 5.36 hrs 450.00 Yaldiz, et al,1990 2.3MJ/hr
Direct 1 Manpower
3,006.00
Energy
(2) Secondary Tillage P450.00/ha

6 L/ha @ P28.00/L 6 Liters 168.00 Safa, et al, 2002 47.8 MJ/L


Fuel
4,206.00
600.00 Yaldiz, et al,1990 2.3 MJ/hr
1 manpower 4 hrs/ ha @ P600/ha 4 hrs
3 Plaining Rehman,2003 10.12 MJ/hr
1 Animal 4 hrs

Indirect
1 Primary Tillage m=250 kg @ 1200/ha (rental) 24 hrs
Energy
Floating-type Power Tiller
1200.00
1200.00 Pimentel, 1992 109 MJ/kg
2 Secondary Tillage m= 250 kg 5.36 hrs
Floating-type Power Tiller
3 Plaining m = 32 kg 4 hrs
wooden Planer
B. Crop Establishment

Seed Soaking 1 manpower 4 hours/ha 4 hrs 125.00


1
Direct
Seedling Pulling 8 manpower 3.5 hours/ha 3.5 hrs 1500.00 4725.00 Yaldiz, et al,1990 2.3 MJ/hr
Energy 2
10545.00
Planting 15 manpower 6 hrs/ha 5 hrs 3100.00
3
Indirect
Planting Seeds 6 packs/ha @ 3 kg/pack 18 kg 5820.00 5820.00 Rutger, etal 1980 16.74 MJ/kg
Energy 1
C. Crop Care and Maintenance
Direct
1 Weeding (manual) 1 Manpower 1hr/wk 12 hrs 375.00
Energy
2 Pest Control 1 Manpower 23.5 hrs 735.00 1,360 Yaldiz, et al,1990 2.3 MJ/hr

3 Fertilization 1 Manpower 8 hrs 250.00


Indirect
1 Weeding (manual) 1 Scythe 0.35 kg Pimentel, 1992 109 MJ/kg
Energy
10 sachet/ ha @ 250 g/s @
Molluscide 0.25 kg 8,000 97 MJ/kg
800/ sachet

Herbicide 1 li / ha 1 kg 580 255 MJ/kg


Anon, 2004
Insecticide 5 li / ha (5 application@ 1li/ha) 5 li 2,500 20,840.00 185 MJ/kg
2 Pest Control
Pesticide 12 kg / ha for 2 applications 24 kg 2,000 97 MJ/kg
19,480.00

10 li capacity (LOKS:not to exceed


Knapsack sPrayer 22 kg when fully loaded) PAES 12 kg Pimentel, 1992 109 MJ/kg
112:2000

2 bags/ ha @ 50 kg/bag @
Complete
1100/bag
100 kg 2,200 80.79 MJ/kg

3 Fertilization Urea (Nitrogen) 4 bags/ ha @ 1100/ bag 200 kg 3,300 Pimentel, 1979 61.53 MJ/kg

Potash (Potassium) 1bag/ ha @ 900/ bag 50 kg 900 6.70 MJ/kg

D. Harvesting

Direct
Labor 14 manpowers 1 day/ha @ 8 hrs/day 8 hrs 11255.00 11255.00 Yaldiz, et al,1990 2.3 MJ/hr
Energy
11255.00
Indirect
Material 14 sickles 0.35 kg/ unit 4.2 kg Pimentel, 1992 109 MJ/kg
Energy

E. THRESHING

1 Labor 7 man power 6 hrs/ha 6 hrs 3,751.00 Yaldiz, et al,1990 2.3 MJ/hr
Direct
3,751.00
Energy 2.18 li/hr x 8hrs (c/o thresher
2 Fuel 17.44 li Safa, et al, 2002 47.8 MJ/L
8%) 11,254.00
1 unit thresher = 500kg
Indirect Threshing
Thresher Engine(12 Hp) = 80kg (0.048 580 kg 7,503.00 Pimentel, 1992 109 MJ/kg
Energy equipment
gal/hp-hr
F. Hauling

5 Manpowers Yaldiz, et al,1990 2.3 MJ/hr


Direct
Labor P 20.00/sack @ 117 sacks/ha 4 hrs 2,340.00 2,340.00
Energy
5 Animal (Carabao) 2,340 Rehman,2003 10.12 MJ/hr
Indirect
NONE
Energy

Direct Cost 26,437.00 Energy Used for Direct Inputs


Grand Total 60,440.00
Indirect Cost 34003.00 Energy Used for Indirect Inputs

gross income 140,692.50

net income 80,252.50

wear-out life (WM) = no. of years x service area X # of times used X hours/day

Indirect Energy = Energy Equivalent Used X WM X hours/ha


Energy Input

(MJ) Sub-Total Total

55.20

1,003.80

12.33
1,407.81

286.80
1,514.79
9.20

40.48

81.75

106.98
18.26

6.98

9.20

8.05 28.75
330.07
11.50

301.32 301.32
27.60

54.05 97.75

16.10

43.60

24.25

255.00

925.00 25701.60

2,328.00
25,603.85

1,308.00

8,079.00

12,306.00

335.00

18.40 18.40
553.3
534.90 534.90

16.10
849.73
833.63
64,069.73

63,220.00 63,220.00
9.20
49.68
40.48 49.68

2,452.12
92,219.17
89767.0535
Corn Production in One (1) Hectare Farm
Scheme of Practice : Traditional
No. of Farmers Interviewed :
Farm Location : Agusan del Sur

Direct/
Number of No. of Hours Working (per activity
Indirect Operation Energy Equivalent Used
Human/Animals and total)
Energy
Notes Total Hours Reference Value (MJ/hr)
A. Land Preparation
1 man
(1) Primary Tillage
1 animal (bullock)
1 man
(2) Secondary Tillage
1 animal (bullock)

Indirect Energy

B. Crop Establishment
Direct Seeding 5 men 5 hours
Direct Energy

Indirect Energy

C. Crop Care and Maintenance

(1) Weeding (manual) 8 men 10 hours

(2) Pest Control


Direct Energy (3) Irrigation Rainfed
(4) Cultivation
2 men 5 hours
a. Off-barring
2 animals (bullock) 5 hours

(5) Fertilization 4 men 10 hours


Indirect Energy

D. Harvesting

10 men 6 hours
Direct Energy

Indirect Energy

E. Hauling
(1) Labor 3 men 2 hours
Direct Energy
(2) Diesel Fuel 1 unit 6 km

Indirect Energy

F. Shelling/ 10 men 30 hours

Direct Energy

Indirect Energy

Total Energy Used for Direct Inputs

Operation Equipment/Tools Used Number of Hours Utilized

II. Indirect Inputs:


A. Land Preparation
Animal Drawn
(1) Primary Tillage 1 20 hrs
Moldboard Plow
32 kilogram
Animal Drawn
(2) Secondary Tillage 1 10 hrs
Moldboard Plow
32 kilogram
B. Crop Establishment
1 Corn seeds
Direct Seeding
18 kilogram
C. Crop Care and Maintenance
6 Nitrogen Source
Fertilization
300 kg

D. Hauling 1 Elf

2,400 kilogram
E. Shelling 5 units
12.5 kilogram
Total Energy Used for Indirect Inputs
Total Energy Used for Direct and Indirect Inputs
Corn Yield
White Corn 1.66 MT/ha. 1,660 kg/ha
Yellow Corn 4.09 MT/ha. 4,090 kg/ha

23240 2770
57260 11275
Energy Equivalent
Energy Input Amount/Cost Remarks Reference Sub Total Total
Used
(MJ) Php

0.0 4 days operation (5 hrs. per day) at 2.3 MJ per hr. Yaldiz et al, 1990
1,200.00 300.00 per day
0.0 10.12 MJ per hr. Rehman, 2003
23.0 2 days operation (5 hrs. per day) at 2.3 MJ per hr. Yaldiz et al, 1990
900.00 300.00 per day
101.2 10.12 MJ per hr. Rehman, 2003

1 day operation (5 hrs. per day) at


57.5 750.00 150.00 per day
2.3 MJ per hr. Yaldiz et al, 1990

1 day operation (twice per cropping


184.0 1,200.00 season) (5 hrs. per day) at 150.00 2.3 MJ per hr. Yaldiz et al, 1990
per day

23.0 1 day operation (5 hrs. per day) at


600.00 300.00 per day
101.2
1 day operation (twice per cropping
92.0 800.00 seson) (5 hrs. per day) at 200.00 per
day
13.8
710.00 12km per liter (Isuzo elf - 2006
23.9 model) 47.8 MJ per liter Safa et al., 2002

5 days operation (6 hrs. per day) at


690.0 150.00 per day
2.3 MJ per hr. Yaldiz et al, 1990

Tota Energy used for Direct Inputs

Tota Energy used for Indirect Inputs

1,309.6

Energy Input
Amount/Cost Remarks Energy Equivalent Used Reference
(MJ)
Weight of Moldboard Plow (32
3,488.0 - 109 MJ per kg Pimentel, 1992
kg)

Weight of Moldboard Plow (32


3,488.0 -
kg)

264.6 14.7 MJ per kg Panesar, B.S. 2002

18,459.0 6,000.00 61.53 MJ per kg Pimental, 1979

Weight of Vehicle (Net Weight


261,600.0 109 MJ per kg Pimentel, 1992
- 2,400 kg)

6,812.5

294,112.1
295,421.7 12,160.00

24,402.00 14.7 MJ per kg Panesar, B.S. 2002


60,123.00
Rice Production in One To Five (1-5) Hectare Farm
Scheme of Practice : SEMIMECHANIZE
No. of Farmers Interviewed : Three (5)
Farm Location : TRENTO, AGUSAN del Sur

No. of Hours Working (per activity


Operation Number of Human/Animals
and total)
I. Direct Inputs:
A. Land Preparation
1 man
(1) Primary Tillage 20
1 animal (bullock)
1 man
(2) Secondary Tillage 10
1 animal (bullock)
3 PLAINING
B. Crop Establishment

Direct Seeding 5 men 5


1
2 INDirect Seeding
C. Crop Care and Maintenance

(1) Weeding (manual) 8 men 10

(2) Pest Control


(3) Irrigation Rainfed
(4) Cultivation
2 men 5
a. Off-barring
2 animals (bullock) 5

(5) Fertilization 4 men 10

D. Harvesting 10 men 6

E. THRESHING
F. Hauling
(1) Labor 3 men 2

(2) Diesel Fuel 1 unit 6

F. DRYING

G. Milling 10 men 30

Total Energy Used for Direct Inputs

Operation Equipment/Tools Used Number of Hours Utilized


II. Indirect Inputs:
A. Land Preparation
Animal Drawn
(1) Primary Tillage 1 20
Moldboard Plow
32 kilogram
Animal Drawn DISC
(2) Secondary Tillage 1 10
HARROW
32 kilogram
B. Crop Establishment
1 Corn seeds
Direct Seeding
18 kilogram
Indirect Seeding

C. Crop Care and Maintenance


6 Nitrogen Source
Fertilization
300 kg
(1) Weeding
(1)Pest Control
(1)Irrigation
Harvesting
Threshing

D. Hauling 1 Elf

2,400 kilogram
DRYING

E. MILLING 5 units
12.5 kilogram
Total Energy Used for Indirect Inputs
Total Energy Used for Direct and Indirect Inputs
RICE Yield
White Corn 1.66 MT/ha.
Yellow Corn 4.09 MT/ha.

23240
57260
No. of Hours Working (per activity
Energy Input (MJ) Amount/Cost Remarks
and total)

hours 46.0 4 days operation (5 hrs. per day) at


1,200.00 300.00 per day
202.4
23.0 2 days operation (5 hrs. per day) at
hours 900.00 300.00 per day
101.2

1 day operation (5 hrs. per day) at


hours 57.5 750.00 150.00 per day

1 day operation (twice per cropping


hours 184.0 1,200.00 season) (5 hrs. per day) at 150.00
per day

Rainfed

hours 23.0 1 day operation (5 hrs. per day) at


600.00 300.00 per day
hours 101.2
1 day operation (twice per cropping
hours 92.0 800.00 seson) (5 hrs. per day) at 200.00 per
day
1 day operation (6 hrs. per day) at
hours 138.0 1,500.00 150.00 per day

hours 13.8
710.00 12km per liter (Isuzo elf - 2006
km 23.9 model)

5 days operation (6 hrs. per day) at


hours 690.0 150.00 per day

puts 1,696.0

Energy Input
Number of Hours Utilized Amount/Cost Remarks
(MJ)
Weight of Moldboard Plow (32
hrs 3,488.0 -
kg)

Weight of Moldboard Plow (32


hrs 3,488.0 -
kg)

264.6

18,459.0 6,000.00

Weight of Vehicle (Net Weight


261,600.0
- 2,400 kg)

6,812.5

nputs 294,112.1
rect Inputs 295,808.1 13,660.00

1,660 kg/ha 24,402.00


4,090 kg/ha 60,123.00

2395
10900
Energy Equivalent Used Reference

2.3 MJ per hr. Yaldiz et al, 1990


10.12 MJ per hr. Rehman, 2003
2.3 MJ per hr. Yaldiz et al, 1990
10.12 MJ per hr. Rehman, 2003

2.3 MJ per hr. Yaldiz et al, 1990

2.3 MJ per hr. Yaldiz et al, 1990

47.8 MJ per liter Safa et al., 2002

2.3 MJ per hr. Yaldiz et al, 1990

Energy Equivalent Used Reference


109 MJ per kg Pimentel, 1992

14.7 MJ per kg Panesar, B.S. 2002

61.53 MJ per kg Pimental, 1979

109 MJ per kg Pimentel, 1992

14.7 MJ per kg Panesar, B.S. 2002