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High-Efficiency RB-IGBT Based Low-Voltage PWM Current-Source

Converter for PMSG Wind Energy Conversion Systems

Jianwen Zhang(I), (2) Peiyuan Li(2) Jiacheng Wang(l) Xu Cai(2)

(I) School of Mechatronic Systems Engineering, Simon Fraser University, Surrey, Canada
(2) Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China

Abstract-A low-voltage (LV) pulse-width modulated cur reverse blocking power devices which would traditionally
rent-source converter (CSC) using reverse-blocking insulated need the series connection of a normal insulated-gate bipolar
gate bipolar transistor (RB-IGBT) devices is proposed in this transistor (IGBT) and a diode, a combination that introduces
paper for megawatt wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) extra conduction and switching power losses. However, with
with a permanent magnet synchronous generator. Benefiting
recent technology advancement of power semiconductors
from using the latest generation of reverse-blocking power
semiconductors, the presented configuration is able to push the
showing significant improvements in reverse-blocking IGBT
switching frequency to a higher range and overcome the tradi (RB-IGBT), there is now a strong opportunity for CSC to
tional drawback of low efficiency in LV CSCs. Design of the emerge as a competitive candidate for low-voltage
configuration, switching scheme, and system control are briefly high-power wind energy conversion systems (WECSs). In
introduced. Semiconductor and converter loss models are de
this paper, a low-voltage PWM CSC using the latest genera
veloped for detailed efficiency study of the proposed system. The
tion RB-IGBT devices is proposed for megawatt WECSs
overall high-efficiency performance of the LV CSC based
WECS is verified by simulation results and comparison with the
using a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG).
state-of-the-art solution using voltage-source converters. Design and analysis of the system configuration is introduced.
Detailed loss analysis based on the device characteristics
I. INTRODUCTION reveals that the proposed solution is able to achieve high
s one of the most promising forms of renewable energy, efficiency over the entire range of operation.
Awind power has grown dramatically worldwide over the II. PROPOSED SYSTEM CONFIGURATION
past two decades. The industry has seen significant technol
ogy developments, where the state-of-the-art in terms of Fig. 1 shows the proposed solution of a high-power
turbine generator/power converter combination is to use low-voltage PMSG WECS using a PWM CSC with
variable-speed full-converter based solutions [1]. While the RB-IGBT devices. Similar to the medium-voltage CSC
once dominant solution of doubly-fed induction generator WECS presented in [J], the system employs a back-to-back
(DFIG) with partial-converter is still very popular, configuration consisting of a generator-side rectifier and a
full-converter based configurations that possess many ad grid-side inverter. The converters are designed to use the
vantages by comparison are increasingly chosen for new latest generation RB-IGBT device with a rating of 1700V and
installations. In this category, although medium-voltage so 1600A [f1, [2]. To share the large rated load current each
lutions have been developed and are now available from a switch in the figure is realized by putting two devices / sem
few manufacturers, the most popular choices are by far the iconductor chips in parallel. A low-voltage multi-pole PMSG
highly mature low-voltage two-level voltage-source con is chosen to interface with the wind turbine and the rectifier to
verters (VSCs) with either induction or synchronous gener form a direct drive configuration. Filter capacitors are needed
ators. Such configurations normally require putting power on both ac sides of the converter to assist commutation and
semiconductors or converters in parallel to share the large filter out high order harmonic currents.
load current in a megawatt design []. Current source con Unlike a medium-voltage CSC employing SGCT devices
verters (CSCs), on the other hand, have been proposed and which can be switched at a maximum frequency of several
studied as possible medium-voltage solutions where sym hundred hertz, the RB-IGBT devices are capable of much
metrical gate-commutated thyristor (SGCT) devices are em higher switching frequencies. A PWM sampling frequency of
ployed [JJ They never made a potentially competitive can 3 kHz is employed here for both the generator- and grid-side
didate in the low-voltage category though, mainly due to lack converters and, when a typical space vector modulation
of power semiconductors with suitable ratings and limitations (SVM) strategy is adopted, the actual device switching fre
on efficiency. Pulse-width modulated (PWM) CSCs require quency is around 1.5 kHz considering the tri-Iogic nature of
such modulation schemes for CSC. Fig. 3 shows the SVM
This research work is sponsored in part by NSERC Canada, National Natural diagram and a few possible switching sequences for the CSC
Science Foundation of China (5150710 I), and Shanghai Science and Tech operation [6]. It has been revealed in [7] that the 3SVM
nology Committee Fund (15ZR1424000).
scheme is superior to the other modulation schemes when

978-1-4673-8617-3/16/$31.00 (C) 2016 IEEE

Rectifier ide Inverter
+ +



Fig. 1. PMSG wind energy conversion system using RB-IGBT based PWM CSC.

Rectifier Side

.". _--I
.:t Rectifier '---,'---1---1 Inverter 1-+--t'+-..rn'Y"'---i___'i'--+I Grid
icr ieo
Cr C

Inverter Side

Fig. 2. Overall control scheme for the proposed WECS.

f3 I,(S"S,)
3SVM1(FSM1) I 10 I I" I 1""1 I [0 I
3SVM2(FSM2) I 10 I 1""1 I I" I 10 I
5SVM1(HSM1) I I" 110 11M IMl l lo I I" I
5SVM2(HSM2) I IMl l lo I I" I" 110 11""11 Id, Ie, V" M at rated power and
5SYM3(HSM3) I I" 11""1110 10 I IMI I I" I unit power factor

5SVM4(HSM4) 11""11 I" 110 10 I I" I IMI I

5SYM5(HSM5) I I" 11""11 IOJ IOJ I IMI I I" I Calculate Calculate

5SYM6(HSM6) 11""11 I" 1102 1021 I" I IMI I Vc,,, fL."
using (1) using (2)
Fig. 3. SVM scheme and switching sequences for PWM CSC.

switching losses are used as a main performance criterion,

Therefore, 3SVM scheme is chosen in this application, In
terms of system control, the zero d-axis current control for the
PMSG is used on the generator side while the grid side em
ploys a voltage oriented decoupled control for active (P) and
reactive (Q) components. Since both the rectifier and inverter
use hard switched RB-IGBT devices operated by SVM, full Calculate power factor angle of converter:
cjv _ iLmJj )
control freedom is provided to achieve all the control objec Ow Ig-l(pf ) Ig-1r. mO g I_tg l(
lL(1-m), jcj) Vg
= =

tives of both sides, The overall control scheme diagram is Reducing pf of the converter's output by
given in Fig, 2 Q.], optimizing filter parameters

A esc generates three-phase PWM current waveforms

Fig. 4. Flowchart for ac filter design in a PWM CSC
from a constant dc current source, The PWM current
waveforms are discontinuous and contain harmonic compo
nents at the multiples of the sampling frequency. Filter ca System Ratings
pacitors must be tied to the ac terminals of a CSC to guarantee 2MW non-salient pole permanent magnet SG
proper commutation of the switching devices. These capaci Power 2 MW
tors together with ac side inductances form CL filters which Voltage 690 Vac, line-to-line
Current 1867.76 A
can minimize the unwanted high-frequency harmonic com
Frequency 9.75 Hz
ponents. The grid-side CL filter is designed such that the Generator Parameters
RMS of the ripple component of the grid current must be Synchronous Inductance 0.4538 pu
within a limit in order to maintain a particular THD. Ac Stator Resistance 0.00387 pu
cording to IEEE 519, THD in the grid current must be less PM Flux 0.896 pu
Pole Pairs 26
than 5% of the fundamental current. For the proper operation
Current Source Converter Parameters
of the CSR, the input voltage of the CSR must have a limited Rectifier Input Capacitance 0.4492 pu
amount of higher harmonic ripples. To facilitate the design of Inverter Output Capacitance 0.0440 pu
ac filters, the values of the capacitor's harmonic voltage and Output Line Inductance 0.0163 pu
the inductor's harmonic current under 3SVM modulation DC Link Choke 0.0908 pu
RB-IGBT MT5F31814 (1700
scheme are evaluated analytically with the capacitor and Device Type
V,1600 A)
inductor decoupling method presented in[8]. Device Number 2
The RMS value of the capacitor voltage harmonics is Device Switching Frequency 1.5 kHz
Modulation Mothed 3SVM
V = Id M, Voltage Souree Converter Parameters (For Comparison)
3.CI.1s (1) Gen-Side dv/dt inductance 0.0077 pu
Inverter Output Inductance 0.0385 pu
1 Inverter Output Capacitance 0.0065 pu
__[480n - 2864M, + (360n+135.J3)M,2 + 64M;]
1440n Output Line Inductance 0.0096 pu
DC Link Capacitance 1.0304 pu
The RMS value of the inductor current harmonics is IGBT IMB11600VC-170E
Device Type
(1700 V,1600 A)
j = ld M, Device Number 2
3. Lf Cf . J1'2
s Device Switching Frequency 3 kHz
(2) Modulation Mothed SVPWM
[40320n -(100800n + 37800.J3)M; Base Value
806400n Base Flux Linkage 5.8624 Wb
Base Impedance 0.2124 Q
+291728M: -(8400ff+ 4725.J3)M: + 9888M;] Base Inductance 3.4666 mH
Base Capacitance 76864.87uF
where Id is the dc-link current; M, is the modulation index; Lf
and Cf represent the inductance and capacitance of the CL generator's rated stator current; and Vs designates the gener
filter, respectively; andls designates the sampling frequency. ator's rated stator voltage.
The filter design is verified by analyzing the model at the The main advantage of increasing the switching frequency
fundamental frequency. In general, the grid current is con is to reduce the size and weight of the passive components.
trolled to achieve unity power factor operation, and it is The dc-link inductor is the most significant passive compo
necessary to optimize the CL filter to reduce current stress on nent. The design approach is to limit the dc-link current ripple
the converter. The flowchart of the entire design procedure is to 10% 20% of the nominal dc-link current. This is a rea

shown in Fig. 4. sonable value in terms of dynamic performance [10] and

Considering the existence of the synchronous inductance typical magnetic core ac losses. The apparent dc-link ripple
of the generator, the generator-side filter consists only of the can be derived based on the equations for the modulation
capacitors to guarantee proper commutation of the switching scheme as a function of the dc-link inductance Lde, the mod
devices and filter out high-order harmonic currents to mini ulation index Mj, the switching frequency Is, the voltages Vcm,
mize power loss and torque vibration in the generator. Input and the power factor angles :
power factor of the generator-side converter can be kept at (4 )
Mdc(M"m,,fs)1 max
unity to reduce the current stress of the converter via an op
Since the 3SVM is chosen as the modulation scheme, and
timal design of the filter capacitors[9]. To ensure the input
assuming Mj 1 under unit power factor operation, the
power factor of the generator-side converter is unity at rated

maximum dc current ripple can be derived as

power condition, the value of the filter capacitance is
3(2 )V
L 2 Mdc' max= -.J3' , clII (5 )
C= i (3) 4 . JI'.L
.5 de
Vs from which the dc-link inductance of the back to back CSC
where Ls is the generator's synchronous inductance; Is is the can be calculated
that the power losses in the converter basically depends on
Lde -2 X
3(2-J3)'m (6) the operating current and voltage of the devices. Assuming
4 Is . Mde, max
the converter is modulated by the 3-segment SVM scheme
The detailed parameters of the whole system are then (3SVMl as shown in Fig. 3), only two devices in the
calculated with the above described method and given in three-phase full bridge (either rectifIer or inverter) are car
Table I. rying current at any instant of time. Therefore, the conduction
loss in each CSC is
In order to analyze the system efficiency under different
= 2(Aeondie +Ccondide)[1 +TCeon(Ti -T,e/)]
operating conditions, detailed loss model and analysis are
The switching losses in the CSCs are closely related to the
needed to provide an accurate enough estimation. Distribu
tion of power semiconductor losses in CSC is to a large de chosen modulation scheme. For 3SVMl, assuming 8E[-rr/6,
gree different from that in a VSC due to their different natures rr/6) and the current reference vector stays in Sector I, the
of operation. In the RB-IGBT based PWM CSC, the loss vector sequence in any sampling period is (S\,S4)
model of the RB-IGBT devices is established fIrst by apply (S6,SI)-(S6,SI)-(SJ,S2)-(SJ,S2)-(SJ,S4) and the switching ac
ing curve fItting techniques to device information from the tions take place as (S4-S6-S2-S4), leading to a commutation
manufacturer's datasheet. Among all the available techniques, voltage sequence of (Vab-Vbc-Vac), If (8-)E [0, rr/3), the rela
power curve fitting provides the highest accuracy and there tion among the voltages is Va>Vb>Vc; the switching loss in
fore is used to develop the loss model for simulation. It is not volves S4(Toff)S6(Don)-S6(Toff)S2(Don)-S2(Doff)S4(Ton) and
feasible, however, for analytical study, which can benefIt is derived as:
from using a linear curve fitting with slightly less accuracy, P,,, = (EPon +EPoJ! +E Non +E NoJ!)' I V I oe
especially when the load current is lower. The loss model of Applying the same derivation to the other fIve sectors and
the RB-IGBT devices using both power curve fItting and after some simplifIcation, the total switching loss is
linear curve fItting are given in (7) and (8), respectively.
Esw/Of_csc = (Eon +EoJJ +Err)' max(I Vab I , I Vbc I ,I Vael) . ide
vT(t,Ti) = (AcondiT(t/'OOd +Ccond)[I+TCcon( -7;.e/)] 'W,lot_csc = IE5W,IOI_CSC(t5W,j)

3 n

= Is -;; So) (Eon +Eat! + Err )lVab lided(wt)

= Is (Eon +EoJJ', + Err )ideVm

VT (I, Tj) = (AeondiT (I) +Ceond)[1 +TCeon(Tj -Tre/)] J[

I To
ond(T) = T. L' vT(t,T)iT(t)dt where V is the maximum line-to-line voltage, and Ide is the
1 (8) m
magnitude of the dc-link current. It can be seen the switching
Em,x = :
vT t
",,) (A)T(tsw[1 +TCx(Tj -Tre/)] = ExvT(t".,)iT(tsw)
losses in the CSC depends on a number of factors, including
the switching frequency, device characteristics, dc-link cur
rent and the magnitude of the maximum ac voltage.
In contrast, to estimate switching losses in a VSC with
where VT, iT are the instantaneous voltage and current of the
sinusoidal ac line current and linearly fItted loss model for
device as a function of time, t; 1j is the junction temperature,
IGBTs the following formula from [11] can be used
Peond represents the conduction loss and E slI' designates the
switching losses, including turning On and Off losses of both
the transistor (Ton, To}J) and the equivalent diode (mainly the
P'11',IOI_VSC = Is .; (Eon + EO)] + Err) 1m Vdc (12)

reverse recovery loss, DO}J), Acond, Bcond, Ccond are the fitting Device characteristics of the 1700VI1600A RB-IGBT
constants for conduction loss of a given RB-IGBT and IGBT, from Fuji Electric, assembled with the 1700V150A RB-IGBT
Ax, Bx are the fItting coefficients for each switching loss type chips [3], [4], indicates that the RB-IGBT has 120% Eon,
(turning-On loss on, turning-off loss off, and reverse recov 100% E off, and 115% Err of their counterparts for the V-series
ery loss rr) . TCcond, TCx are the temperature coefficients for 1700VI1600A IGBT module, IMBI1600VC-170E. Accord
conduction loss and each switching loss type. Vrejand Trejare ing to (11) and (12), it is not difficult to conclude that a CSC
the reference voltage and temperature for which the datasheet constructed with the new RB-IGBT devices produces less
loss function measure. switching loss than a VSC with the latest generation IGBT
Using the linearly fItted loss model, loss analysis for the device operating under the same modulation index and sam
PWM CSC can be derived. It can be seen from the equations pling frequency.
Besides power semiconductors, inductors are the most
significant source of power loss in the system since capacitors IGBT
RB-IGBT (1700V/1600A
normally produce minimwn loss. Acccording to [12] and [13], (1700V/1600A) 1MBI1600VC
the inductor power losses can be estimated with -170E)

"= 0.67x()075x0.45% (13) Acond 0.03272 0.01548

Bcond 0.5859 0.6589
where L represents the per unit value of a 3-phase inductance.
For the inductors in the CSC's ac filter, the power loss is Ccond 0.5859 0.556
-[ =0.67x( -_ )075x0.45%=0.230% (14) 0.04122 0.03435
Loss on the dc-link inductor is Bon 1.313 1.313
PL =2x 0.67x (
) 075 x 0.45%= 0.435% (15) Aoff 0.3032 0.3032
Therefore, the total inductor loss in the CSC is Boff 1.029 1.029
P - esc = P + P = 0.665% (16)
L Lf L
Arr 9.7497 8.478
whereas for the VSC system, the total inductor loss is:
PLJSC 0.67 X[
(0.0385)0.75 +(0.0096)075 Brr 0.5394 0.5394
0.0234 0.0234
whole converter in Fig. 5(g), (h) and (i). It can be seen that the
+(0.0077)075]X0.45% (17)
system exhibits a high overall efficiency over the entire range
of operation. The conduction losses are dominant in the loss

distribution, which is mainly due to the relatively high

It is worth noting that one of the major limitations of an
saturation voltage of the RB-IGBT devices. The switching
SGCT based CSC is relatively higher losses in the dc-link due
losses, on the other hand, are much less in contrast thanks to
to the bulky inductor; however, (16) and (17) reveals that, due
the switching nature of CSC as well as improvement in the
to the higher switching frequency enabled by the RB-IGBT
device switching characteristics. As seen from Fig. 5 (j), (k),
devices, the CSC filter inductors are much reduced and their
power losses can be even lower than those from the filter
(I) and (m), the CSC solution with RB-IGBTs has higher
conduction loss and lower swiching loss comparing to the
inductors in a comparable VSc. From the perspective of the
equally-rated VSC with normal IGBT devices. It is also
whole WECS, the CSC solution possesses superior efficiency
shown that the CSC with RB-IGBTs has a superior overall
performance over the equally rated VSC solution.
efficiency performance over the VSC solution.

This paper proposes an LV PWM CSC using RB-IGBT

The power losses and efficiency of the proposed system are
further studied in simulation with the developed loss model of devices for wind energy conversion systems. The overall
system and control are discussed. Detailed loss model and
the CSC using R B-IGBT devices. In order to provide more
accurate estimation, the power curve fitting loss model is efficiency calculation are developed analytically and in sim
ulation to examine the efficiency performance of the pro
chosen in the simulation, where the curve fitting coefficients
for the latest 1700VI1600A RB-IGBT device and V-series posed solution. The simulation results demonstrated that the
topology features full-range high-efficiency operation while
170011600A IGBT device (1MBI l600VC-170E) by Fuji
Electric listed in Table II are adopted. The detailed converter maintaining high-frequency high-dynamic performance of
the converter system. It is shown that with the advancement
parameters of the CSC and the VSC for comparison, as well
as the system and generator parameters for the WECS are in power semiconductor technology, RB-IGBT based CSC
presents a very competitive solution for LV WECS applica
listed in Table I.
Fig. 5 illustrates a few simulation results of the proposed tions.
WECS operated by the above-described modulation and
control strategies, as well as loss and efficiency comparison
between the proposed CSC solution and an equally-rated The authors would like to thank the Semiconductor Divi
VSC solution. The losses on the generator-side rectifier and sion Device Application Technology Department of Fuji
distribution are plotted in Fig. 5(a) while comparison on the Electric Co. Ltd. for their supports in this work.
converter power loss and efficiency is given in Fig. 5(b) and
(c), as functions of the wind speed. Results for the grid-side
converter are illustrated in Fig. 5(d), (e) and (t) and for the
(a) (d) (g)
Loss Distibution Of Generator Side CSC Loss Distibution Of Line Side CSC Loss Distibution Of Wind Power CSC
25 25 45
Conductor Loss Conductor Loss Conductor Loss
Turn on Loss Turn on Loss 40 Turn on Loss
Turn Off Loss Turn Off Loss Turn Off Loss
20 Reverse Recovery Loss 20 Reverse Recovery Loss Reverse Recovery Loss

15 15



10 10

5 10

0 0 0
0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1
Wind Speed(pu) Wind Speed(pu) Wind Speed(pu)
(b) Total Loss Of Gen-Side CSC and VSC (e) Total Loss Of Line-Side CSC and VSC (h) Total Loss Of CSC and VSC
30 30 60
CSC-Total Loss CSC-Total Loss CSC-Total Loss
VSC-Total Loss VSC-Total Loss VSC-Total Loss
25 25 50

20 20 40


15 15 30

10 10 20

5 5 10

0 0 0
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1
Wind Speed(pu) Wind Speed(pu) Wind Speed(pu)
(c) (i)
Efficiency Of Gen-Side CSC and VSC (f) Efficiency Of Line-Side CSC and VSC Efficiency Of CSC and VSC
0.99 0.99 0.98

0.985 0.97
0.975 0.97
0.97 CSC-Efficiency CSC-Efficiency CSC-Efficiency
VSC-Efficiency 0.96 0.94
VSC-Efficiency VSC-Efficiency
0.96 0.95

0.955 0.92
0.95 0.91

0.945 0.93 0.9

0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Wind Speed(pu) Wind Speed(pu) Wind Speed(pu)
(j) (k)
Conducting Loss Of Gen Side CSC and VSC Switching On Loss Of Gen Side CSC and VSC
14 6
CSC-Conducting Loss CSC-Ton Loss
12 VSC-Conducting Loss 5 VSC-Ton Loss




2 1

0 0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
(l) Switching Off Loss Of Gen Side CSC and VSC (m) Reverse Recovery Loss Of Gen Side CSC and VSC
7 7
CSC-Toff Loss CSC-Drr Loss
6 VSC-Toff Loss 6 VSC-Drr Loss

5 5


4 4

3 3

2 2

1 1

0 0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
Wind Speed(pu) Wind Speed(pu)
Fig. 5. Simulated loss and efficiency of the proposed CSC and VSC WECS.

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