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(I) School of Mechatronic Systems Engineering, Simon Fraser University, Surrey, Canada

(2) Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China

emails:zjianwen@sfu.ca.jsjjlpy@sjtu.edu.cn.jwaI56@sfu.ca.xucai@sjtu.edu.cn

Abstract-A low-voltage (LV) pulse-width modulated cur reverse blocking power devices which would traditionally

rent-source converter (CSC) using reverse-blocking insulated need the series connection of a normal insulated-gate bipolar

gate bipolar transistor (RB-IGBT) devices is proposed in this transistor (IGBT) and a diode, a combination that introduces

paper for megawatt wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) extra conduction and switching power losses. However, with

with a permanent magnet synchronous generator. Benefiting

recent technology advancement of power semiconductors

from using the latest generation of reverse-blocking power

semiconductors, the presented configuration is able to push the

showing significant improvements in reverse-blocking IGBT

switching frequency to a higher range and overcome the tradi (RB-IGBT), there is now a strong opportunity for CSC to

tional drawback of low efficiency in LV CSCs. Design of the emerge as a competitive candidate for low-voltage

configuration, switching scheme, and system control are briefly high-power wind energy conversion systems (WECSs). In

introduced. Semiconductor and converter loss models are de

this paper, a low-voltage PWM CSC using the latest genera

veloped for detailed efficiency study of the proposed system. The

tion RB-IGBT devices is proposed for megawatt WECSs

overall high-efficiency performance of the LV CSC based

WECS is verified by simulation results and comparison with the

using a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG).

state-of-the-art solution using voltage-source converters. Design and analysis of the system configuration is introduced.

Detailed loss analysis based on the device characteristics

I. INTRODUCTION reveals that the proposed solution is able to achieve high

s one of the most promising forms of renewable energy, efficiency over the entire range of operation.

Awind power has grown dramatically worldwide over the II. PROPOSED SYSTEM CONFIGURATION

past two decades. The industry has seen significant technol

ogy developments, where the state-of-the-art in terms of Fig. 1 shows the proposed solution of a high-power

turbine generator/power converter combination is to use low-voltage PMSG WECS using a PWM CSC with

variable-speed full-converter based solutions [1]. While the RB-IGBT devices. Similar to the medium-voltage CSC

once dominant solution of doubly-fed induction generator WECS presented in [J], the system employs a back-to-back

(DFIG) with partial-converter is still very popular, configuration consisting of a generator-side rectifier and a

full-converter based configurations that possess many ad grid-side inverter. The converters are designed to use the

vantages by comparison are increasingly chosen for new latest generation RB-IGBT device with a rating of 1700V and

installations. In this category, although medium-voltage so 1600A [f1, [2]. To share the large rated load current each

lutions have been developed and are now available from a switch in the figure is realized by putting two devices / sem

few manufacturers, the most popular choices are by far the iconductor chips in parallel. A low-voltage multi-pole PMSG

highly mature low-voltage two-level voltage-source con is chosen to interface with the wind turbine and the rectifier to

verters (VSCs) with either induction or synchronous gener form a direct drive configuration. Filter capacitors are needed

ators. Such configurations normally require putting power on both ac sides of the converter to assist commutation and

semiconductors or converters in parallel to share the large filter out high order harmonic currents.

load current in a megawatt design []. Current source con Unlike a medium-voltage CSC employing SGCT devices

verters (CSCs), on the other hand, have been proposed and which can be switched at a maximum frequency of several

studied as possible medium-voltage solutions where sym hundred hertz, the RB-IGBT devices are capable of much

metrical gate-commutated thyristor (SGCT) devices are em higher switching frequencies. A PWM sampling frequency of

ployed [JJ They never made a potentially competitive can 3 kHz is employed here for both the generator- and grid-side

didate in the low-voltage category though, mainly due to lack converters and, when a typical space vector modulation

of power semiconductors with suitable ratings and limitations (SVM) strategy is adopted, the actual device switching fre

on efficiency. Pulse-width modulated (PWM) CSCs require quency is around 1.5 kHz considering the tri-Iogic nature of

such modulation schemes for CSC. Fig. 3 shows the SVM

This research work is sponsored in part by NSERC Canada, National Natural diagram and a few possible switching sequences for the CSC

Science Foundation of China (5150710 I), and Shanghai Science and Tech operation [6]. It has been revealed in [7] that the 3SVM

nology Committee Fund (15ZR1424000).

scheme is superior to the other modulation schemes when

Rectifier ide Inverter

+ +

Lde

-l

Vder

-l

Fig. 1. PMSG wind energy conversion system using RB-IGBT based PWM CSC.

Rectifier Side

Controller

I--_,......

i'----r-....

.". _--I

.:t Rectifier '---,'---1---1 Inverter 1-+--t'+-..rn'Y"'---i___'i'--+I Grid

icr ieo

Cr C

T T

Inverter

Gating

Inverter Side

Controller

f3 I,(S"S,)

3SVM1(FSM1) I 10 I I" I 1""1 I [0 I

3SVM2(FSM2) I 10 I 1""1 I I" I 10 I

5SVM1(HSM1) I I" 110 11M IMl l lo I I" I

Calculate:

5SVM2(HSM2) I IMl l lo I I" I" 110 11""11 Id, Ie, V" M at rated power and

5SYM3(HSM3) I I" 11""1110 10 I IMI I I" I unit power factor

5SYM5(HSM5) I I" 11""11 IOJ IOJ I IMI I I" I Calculate Calculate

I,(S"S,)

5SYM6(HSM6) 11""11 I" 1102 1021 I" I IMI I Vc,,, fL."

using (1) using (2)

Fig. 3. SVM scheme and switching sequences for PWM CSC.

Therefore, 3SVM scheme is chosen in this application, In

terms of system control, the zero d-axis current control for the

PMSG is used on the generator side while the grid side em

ploys a voltage oriented decoupled control for active (P) and

reactive (Q) components. Since both the rectifier and inverter

use hard switched RB-IGBT devices operated by SVM, full Calculate power factor angle of converter:

cjv _ iLmJj )

control freedom is provided to achieve all the control objec Ow Ig-l(pf ) Ig-1r. mO g I_tg l(

lL(1-m), jcj) Vg

= =

tives of both sides, The overall control scheme diagram is Reducing pf of the converter's output by

given in Fig, 2 Q.], optimizing filter parameters

Fig. 4. Flowchart for ac filter design in a PWM CSC

from a constant dc current source, The PWM current

waveforms are discontinuous and contain harmonic compo

TABLE I SYSTEM PARAMETERS OF THE PROPOSED WECS

nents at the multiples of the sampling frequency. Filter ca System Ratings

pacitors must be tied to the ac terminals of a CSC to guarantee 2MW non-salient pole permanent magnet SG

proper commutation of the switching devices. These capaci Power 2 MW

tors together with ac side inductances form CL filters which Voltage 690 Vac, line-to-line

Current 1867.76 A

can minimize the unwanted high-frequency harmonic com

Frequency 9.75 Hz

ponents. The grid-side CL filter is designed such that the Generator Parameters

RMS of the ripple component of the grid current must be Synchronous Inductance 0.4538 pu

within a limit in order to maintain a particular THD. Ac Stator Resistance 0.00387 pu

cording to IEEE 519, THD in the grid current must be less PM Flux 0.896 pu

Pole Pairs 26

than 5% of the fundamental current. For the proper operation

Current Source Converter Parameters

of the CSR, the input voltage of the CSR must have a limited Rectifier Input Capacitance 0.4492 pu

amount of higher harmonic ripples. To facilitate the design of Inverter Output Capacitance 0.0440 pu

ac filters, the values of the capacitor's harmonic voltage and Output Line Inductance 0.0163 pu

the inductor's harmonic current under 3SVM modulation DC Link Choke 0.0908 pu

RB-IGBT MT5F31814 (1700

scheme are evaluated analytically with the capacitor and Device Type

V,1600 A)

inductor decoupling method presented in[8]. Device Number 2

The RMS value of the capacitor voltage harmonics is Device Switching Frequency 1.5 kHz

Modulation Mothed 3SVM

V = Id M, Voltage Souree Converter Parameters (For Comparison)

c.h

3.CI.1s (1) Gen-Side dv/dt inductance 0.0077 pu

Inverter Output Inductance 0.0385 pu

1 Inverter Output Capacitance 0.0065 pu

__[480n - 2864M, + (360n+135.J3)M,2 + 64M;]

1440n Output Line Inductance 0.0096 pu

DC Link Capacitance 1.0304 pu

The RMS value of the inductor current harmonics is IGBT IMB11600VC-170E

Device Type

(1700 V,1600 A)

j = ld M, Device Number 2

L,h

3. Lf Cf . J1'2

s Device Switching Frequency 3 kHz

(2) Modulation Mothed SVPWM

1

[40320n -(100800n + 37800.J3)M; Base Value

806400n Base Flux Linkage 5.8624 Wb

Base Impedance 0.2124 Q

+291728M: -(8400ff+ 4725.J3)M: + 9888M;] Base Inductance 3.4666 mH

Base Capacitance 76864.87uF

where Id is the dc-link current; M, is the modulation index; Lf

and Cf represent the inductance and capacitance of the CL generator's rated stator current; and Vs designates the gener

filter, respectively; andls designates the sampling frequency. ator's rated stator voltage.

The filter design is verified by analyzing the model at the The main advantage of increasing the switching frequency

fundamental frequency. In general, the grid current is con is to reduce the size and weight of the passive components.

trolled to achieve unity power factor operation, and it is The dc-link inductor is the most significant passive compo

necessary to optimize the CL filter to reduce current stress on nent. The design approach is to limit the dc-link current ripple

the converter. The flowchart of the entire design procedure is to 10% 20% of the nominal dc-link current. This is a rea

Considering the existence of the synchronous inductance typical magnetic core ac losses. The apparent dc-link ripple

of the generator, the generator-side filter consists only of the can be derived based on the equations for the modulation

capacitors to guarantee proper commutation of the switching scheme as a function of the dc-link inductance Lde, the mod

devices and filter out high-order harmonic currents to mini ulation index Mj, the switching frequency Is, the voltages Vcm,

mize power loss and torque vibration in the generator. Input and the power factor angles :

power factor of the generator-side converter can be kept at (4 )

Mdc(M"m,,fs)1 max

unity to reduce the current stress of the converter via an op

Since the 3SVM is chosen as the modulation scheme, and

timal design of the filter capacitors[9]. To ensure the input

assuming Mj 1 under unit power factor operation, the

power factor of the generator-side converter is unity at rated

=

power condition, the value of the filter capacitance is

3(2 )V

L 2 Mdc' max= -.J3' , clII (5 )

C= i (3) 4 . JI'.L

.5 de

2

Vs from which the dc-link inductance of the back to back CSC

where Ls is the generator's synchronous inductance; Is is the can be calculated

that the power losses in the converter basically depends on

Lde -2 X

3(2-J3)'m (6) the operating current and voltage of the devices. Assuming

4 Is . Mde, max

the converter is modulated by the 3-segment SVM scheme

The detailed parameters of the whole system are then (3SVMl as shown in Fig. 3), only two devices in the

calculated with the above described method and given in three-phase full bridge (either rectifIer or inverter) are car

Table I. rying current at any instant of time. Therefore, the conduction

loss in each CSC is

III. Loss M ODEL AND ANAL YSIS FOR RB-IGBT BASED

PWM CSC

(9)

In order to analyze the system efficiency under different

= 2(Aeondie +Ccondide)[1 +TCeon(Ti -T,e/)]

operating conditions, detailed loss model and analysis are

The switching losses in the CSCs are closely related to the

needed to provide an accurate enough estimation. Distribu

tion of power semiconductor losses in CSC is to a large de chosen modulation scheme. For 3SVMl, assuming 8E[-rr/6,

gree different from that in a VSC due to their different natures rr/6) and the current reference vector stays in Sector I, the

of operation. In the RB-IGBT based PWM CSC, the loss vector sequence in any sampling period is (S\,S4)

model of the RB-IGBT devices is established fIrst by apply (S6,SI)-(S6,SI)-(SJ,S2)-(SJ,S2)-(SJ,S4) and the switching ac

ing curve fItting techniques to device information from the tions take place as (S4-S6-S2-S4), leading to a commutation

manufacturer's datasheet. Among all the available techniques, voltage sequence of (Vab-Vbc-Vac), If (8-)E [0, rr/3), the rela

power curve fitting provides the highest accuracy and there tion among the voltages is Va>Vb>Vc; the switching loss in

fore is used to develop the loss model for simulation. It is not volves S4(Toff)S6(Don)-S6(Toff)S2(Don)-S2(Doff)S4(Ton) and

feasible, however, for analytical study, which can benefIt is derived as:

from using a linear curve fitting with slightly less accuracy, P,,, = (EPon +EPoJ! +E Non +E NoJ!)' I V I oe

(10)

especially when the load current is lower. The loss model of Applying the same derivation to the other fIve sectors and

the RB-IGBT devices using both power curve fItting and after some simplifIcation, the total switching loss is

linear curve fItting are given in (7) and (8), respectively.

Esw/Of_csc = (Eon +EoJJ +Err)' max(I Vab I , I Vbc I ,I Vael) . ide

vT(t,Ti) = (AcondiT(t/'OOd +Ccond)[I+TCcon( -7;.e/)] 'W,lot_csc = IE5W,IOI_CSC(t5W,j)

}

3 n

VT (I, Tj) = (AeondiT (I) +Ceond)[1 +TCeon(Tj -Tre/)] J[

(11)

I To

ond(T) = T. L' vT(t,T)iT(t)dt where V is the maximum line-to-line voltage, and Ide is the

1 (8) m

magnitude of the dc-link current. It can be seen the switching

Em,x = :

vT t

",,) (A)T(tsw[1 +TCx(Tj -Tre/)] = ExvT(t".,)iT(tsw)

ref

losses in the CSC depends on a number of factors, including

the switching frequency, device characteristics, dc-link cur

rent and the magnitude of the maximum ac voltage.

In contrast, to estimate switching losses in a VSC with

where VT, iT are the instantaneous voltage and current of the

sinusoidal ac line current and linearly fItted loss model for

device as a function of time, t; 1j is the junction temperature,

IGBTs the following formula from [11] can be used

Peond represents the conduction loss and E slI' designates the

switching losses, including turning On and Off losses of both

the transistor (Ton, To}J) and the equivalent diode (mainly the

P'11',IOI_VSC = Is .; (Eon + EO)] + Err) 1m Vdc (12)

reverse recovery loss, DO}J), Acond, Bcond, Ccond are the fitting Device characteristics of the 1700VI1600A RB-IGBT

constants for conduction loss of a given RB-IGBT and IGBT, from Fuji Electric, assembled with the 1700V150A RB-IGBT

Ax, Bx are the fItting coefficients for each switching loss type chips [3], [4], indicates that the RB-IGBT has 120% Eon,

(turning-On loss on, turning-off loss off, and reverse recov 100% E off, and 115% Err of their counterparts for the V-series

ery loss rr) . TCcond, TCx are the temperature coefficients for 1700VI1600A IGBT module, IMBI1600VC-170E. Accord

conduction loss and each switching loss type. Vrejand Trejare ing to (11) and (12), it is not difficult to conclude that a CSC

the reference voltage and temperature for which the datasheet constructed with the new RB-IGBT devices produces less

loss function measure. switching loss than a VSC with the latest generation IGBT

Using the linearly fItted loss model, loss analysis for the device operating under the same modulation index and sam

PWM CSC can be derived. It can be seen from the equations pling frequency.

TABLE II CURVE-FITTING CONSTANTS

FOR RB-IGBT AND IGBT LOSS CALCULATION

Besides power semiconductors, inductors are the most

significant source of power loss in the system since capacitors IGBT

RB-IGBT (1700V/1600A

normally produce minimwn loss. Acccording to [12] and [13], (1700V/1600A) 1MBI1600VC

the inductor power losses can be estimated with -170E)

Lrel

Bcond 0.5859 0.6589

where L represents the per unit value of a 3-phase inductance.

For the inductors in the CSC's ac filter, the power loss is Ccond 0.5859 0.556

0.0163

-[ =0.67x( -_ )075x0.45%=0.230% (14) 0.04122 0.03435

Aon

0.0234

Loss on the dc-link inductor is Bon 1.313 1.313

0.0908/2

PL =2x 0.67x (

de

) 075 x 0.45%= 0.435% (15) Aoff 0.3032 0.3032

0.0234x3

Therefore, the total inductor loss in the CSC is Boff 1.029 1.029

P - esc = P + P = 0.665% (16)

L Lf L

oc

Arr 9.7497 8.478

whereas for the VSC system, the total inductor loss is:

PLJSC 0.67 X[

=

(0.0385)0.75 +(0.0096)075 Brr 0.5394 0.5394

0.0234 0.0234

whole converter in Fig. 5(g), (h) and (i). It can be seen that the

+(0.0077)075]X0.45% (17)

system exhibits a high overall efficiency over the entire range

0.0234

of operation. The conduction losses are dominant in the loss

0.724%

=

It is worth noting that one of the major limitations of an

saturation voltage of the RB-IGBT devices. The switching

SGCT based CSC is relatively higher losses in the dc-link due

losses, on the other hand, are much less in contrast thanks to

to the bulky inductor; however, (16) and (17) reveals that, due

the switching nature of CSC as well as improvement in the

to the higher switching frequency enabled by the RB-IGBT

device switching characteristics. As seen from Fig. 5 (j), (k),

devices, the CSC filter inductors are much reduced and their

power losses can be even lower than those from the filter

(I) and (m), the CSC solution with RB-IGBTs has higher

conduction loss and lower swiching loss comparing to the

inductors in a comparable VSc. From the perspective of the

equally-rated VSC with normal IGBT devices. It is also

whole WECS, the CSC solution possesses superior efficiency

shown that the CSC with RB-IGBTs has a superior overall

performance over the equally rated VSC solution.

efficiency performance over the VSC solution.

IV. SIMULATION STUDY OF POWER Loss AND SYSTEM

EFFICIENCY V. CONCLUSION

The power losses and efficiency of the proposed system are

further studied in simulation with the developed loss model of devices for wind energy conversion systems. The overall

system and control are discussed. Detailed loss model and

the CSC using R B-IGBT devices. In order to provide more

accurate estimation, the power curve fitting loss model is efficiency calculation are developed analytically and in sim

ulation to examine the efficiency performance of the pro

chosen in the simulation, where the curve fitting coefficients

for the latest 1700VI1600A RB-IGBT device and V-series posed solution. The simulation results demonstrated that the

topology features full-range high-efficiency operation while

170011600A IGBT device (1MBI l600VC-170E) by Fuji

Electric listed in Table II are adopted. The detailed converter maintaining high-frequency high-dynamic performance of

the converter system. It is shown that with the advancement

parameters of the CSC and the VSC for comparison, as well

as the system and generator parameters for the WECS are in power semiconductor technology, RB-IGBT based CSC

presents a very competitive solution for LV WECS applica

listed in Table I.

Fig. 5 illustrates a few simulation results of the proposed tions.

WECS operated by the above-described modulation and

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

control strategies, as well as loss and efficiency comparison

between the proposed CSC solution and an equally-rated The authors would like to thank the Semiconductor Divi

VSC solution. The losses on the generator-side rectifier and sion Device Application Technology Department of Fuji

distribution are plotted in Fig. 5(a) while comparison on the Electric Co. Ltd. for their supports in this work.

converter power loss and efficiency is given in Fig. 5(b) and

(c), as functions of the wind speed. Results for the grid-side

converter are illustrated in Fig. 5(d), (e) and (t) and for the

(a) (d) (g)

Loss Distibution Of Generator Side CSC Loss Distibution Of Line Side CSC Loss Distibution Of Wind Power CSC

25 25 45

Conductor Loss Conductor Loss Conductor Loss

Turn on Loss Turn on Loss 40 Turn on Loss

Turn Off Loss Turn Off Loss Turn Off Loss

20 Reverse Recovery Loss 20 Reverse Recovery Loss Reverse Recovery Loss

35

30

15 15

Loss(kw)

Loss(kw)

Loss(kw)

25

20

10 10

15

5 10

5

0 0 0

0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1

Wind Speed(pu) Wind Speed(pu) Wind Speed(pu)

(b) Total Loss Of Gen-Side CSC and VSC (e) Total Loss Of Line-Side CSC and VSC (h) Total Loss Of CSC and VSC

30 30 60

CSC-Total Loss CSC-Total Loss CSC-Total Loss

VSC-Total Loss VSC-Total Loss VSC-Total Loss

25 25 50

20 20 40

Loss(kw)

Loss(kw)

Loss(kw)

Loss(kw)

15 15 30

10 10 20

5 5 10

0 0 0

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1

Wind Speed(pu) Wind Speed(pu) Wind Speed(pu)

(c) (i)

Efficiency Of Gen-Side CSC and VSC (f) Efficiency Of Line-Side CSC and VSC Efficiency Of CSC and VSC

0.99 0.99 0.98

0.985 0.97

0.98

0.98

0.96

0.975 0.97

0.95

0.97 CSC-Efficiency CSC-Efficiency CSC-Efficiency

VSC-Efficiency 0.96 0.94

VSC-Efficiency VSC-Efficiency

0.965

0.93

0.96 0.95

0.955 0.92

0.94

0.95 0.91

0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Wind Speed(pu) Wind Speed(pu) Wind Speed(pu)

(j) (k)

Conducting Loss Of Gen Side CSC and VSC Switching On Loss Of Gen Side CSC and VSC

14 6

CSC-Conducting Loss CSC-Ton Loss

12 VSC-Conducting Loss 5 VSC-Ton Loss

10

4

Loss(kw)

Loss(kw)

8

3

6

2

4

2 1

0 0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2

(l) Switching Off Loss Of Gen Side CSC and VSC (m) Reverse Recovery Loss Of Gen Side CSC and VSC

7 7

CSC-Toff Loss CSC-Drr Loss

6 VSC-Toff Loss 6 VSC-Drr Loss

5 5

Loss(kw)

Loss(kw)

4 4

3 3

2 2

1 1

0 0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2

Wind Speed(pu) Wind Speed(pu)

Fig. 5. Simulated loss and efficiency of the proposed CSC and VSC WECS.

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