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Waste to Energy: Technology options

Management of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is considered as a very complex subject and poses a major problem
worldwide.It involves a range of activities that include collection, transportation, disposal and treatment in the
most efficient and environmentally accepted manner.Changing life style, increasing population, urbanization is
generating more and more waste and the scarcity of open lands in cities is creating huge problems.To address the
land issues as well as deriving benefit from such disposals, several waste to energy (WtE) technologies are adopted

This paper will discuss about various WtE technologies (Incineration, Gasification, Pyrolysis, RDF, Bio-
methanation) that are primarily driven byconsiderations of reducing volume of waste and recovery of energy
through better environmental compliances. There are ample opportunities of reaping benefits from scientific waste
management technique. Till now, WtE and other waste management projects in India have not tasted success as
desired. Practically, all the emerging WtE technologies are considered to be in development phases and are
perceived to be financially unviable.

High efficiency WtE technologies provide better option for achieving multiple objectives of volume reduction, better
environmental compliances and maximum energy recovery. Also, considering the large diversity in the culture and
living styles of Indians, choice of right technologies that suit the local requirements is highly inevitable. Costs of
projects vary widely depending upon project location, technology, size of individual project, etc. The authors will
evaluate all these issues from various engineering aspects of WtE technologies such as Mechanical Engineering,
Chemical Engineering, Environment Engineering, and Macroeconomics & Financial modeling concepts.The paper
will also talk about existing policy and regulatory framework in India with respect to WtE project development and
future roadmap.

Authors will use the data in the public domain and elaborate the same with case studies.

Authors: Rangaraj Rajmohan, Harish Kumar, Rajesh Kumar, Amit Seth


DESL (formerly Dalkia Energy Services Ltd.) is a member of the Paris based Veolia,
one of the worlds largest environment and energy services business. Since its
inception in 1999, DESL has continuously re-invented itself as a differentiated
service provider through introduction of new technologies, innovative business
processes and development of sustainable market for energy efficiency and
renewable energy services.
DESL provides consulting & engineering services for development of renewable
energy systems, including biomass, waste-to-energy, solar and small hydro projects.
DESL has contributed to development of over 550 MW of power projects based on
different renewable energy resources globally.