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# Mechanical Vibrations

Chapter 5:
Design of Vibration Control

## Dr. Azma Putra

Department of Structure and Materials
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Semester II/2013-2014
Introduction

## General vibration problem:

Vibration
source Transmission
path

## To reduce vibration at receiver:

1. Control vibration at source
Best solution, but difficult. Possible at early design stage.
2. Modify the transmission path
Isolator: optimum stiffness and damping
3. Control vibration at receiver

## Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra

Case of vibration transmission CASE 1

## How much force is transmitted to surrounding structure?

(example: chiller on the roof, machine on flexible floor)

fe

Source
(machine,
engine)
m

x
Isolator k c
(support)

(floor, roof) ft
Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra
Case of vibration transmission CASE 2

## How much displacement is transmitted from surrounding structure?

(example: earthquake protection, road input to missile)

(building,
sensitive object)
m y

Isolator k c
(support)
x

Source

## Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra

Force transmissibility

## For the exciting force:

fe (t) = Fe e j!t
Fe e j!t = m
x + c x + kx
Source

m
For the transmitted force:

j!t
x(t) Ft e = c x + kx
Isolator

k c
j!t
Substituting x(t) = Xe

T = =
Fe k m! 2 + j!c

## Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014

2
with !n = k/m and c = 2m!n

v
u 2
u !
u 1 + 4 2 2
u !n
T =u
u" 2 # 2
u ! ! 2
t 1 2
+ 4 2
!n !n

Low frequency: ! !n ) T = 1
Resonance: ! = !n ) T = 1/(2)
High frequency: ! !n ) T = 2!n /!

## Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra

Transmissibility graph

2
10

=0.01
=0.04
1 =0.1
10
increasing =0.2
damping
T
Transmissibility,

1
0
10
T

1
10 increasing
damping
p
!= 2!n
2
10

amplification isolation

3
10 1
10 !=
10 !
n
0

./n
1
10 frequency, !

## Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra

Assume small damping, !0
q
2
1+ 4 2 (!/! n) 1
T = rh i2 = 2
2 2 (!/!n ) 1
1 (!/!n ) + 4 2 (!/!n )

## To have small T at given !:

r
2 k small
(!/!n ) large !n small !n =
m

## Lowering the natural frequency

Small stiffness flexible support
(springs, rubber mounts, pads)

## Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra

Displacement transmissibility

Equation of motion:

m
xt + c(x t x e ) + k(xt xe ) = 0

## m xt (t) = Xt e j!t Re-arranging then gives:

x(t)
Xt k + j!c
T = =
Xe k m! 2 + j!c
Isolator

k c
j!t
xe (t) = Xe e
Source

Xt Ft
T = =
Displacement transmissibility Xe Fe
=
Force transmissibility
Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014
Illustration of base excitation

2
10

=0.01
=0.04
1 =0.1
10
=0.2
T
Transmissibility,

1
0
10
T

1
10

2
10

amplification isolation

3
10 1 0 1
10 10
./n
10 frequency, !

## Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra

Application of complete isolation from base excitation

## Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra

Types of isolator

E = 2(1 + )G
= Poissons ratio

E = Youngs modulus
G = Shear modulus

EA GA
k= k=
I h

## Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra

Examples of isolator in practice

## Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra

Examples in practice

## Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra

Example design problem

## Design an isolator to hold a 3 kg electronic module

to have less than 2 mm displacement.

## Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra

X 0.002
Required transmissibility: T = = 0.2
Y 0.01
1
10

r
0.01 2.42 ,T

0.1 2.58 0
T ity

10
Transmissibil

0.2 2.91

0.5 5.13

= 0.2 = 0.5
1
10
= 0.01
= 0.1
2 4 6 8 10 12
./n
r = !/!n

## Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra

From the transmissibility curve, lets choose:

## = 0.01 ) r 2.42 Known:

m = 3 kg
! ! = 35 rad/s
r= 2.42 ) k 627.5 N/m
!n
p
c = 2 km 0.87 kg/s

## 1. We can now choose the isolator with these parameter values.

2. If not available, try another damping loss factor.
3. Compromise in case of resonance!!

## Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra

The choice of k and c must be reasonable for application.

It has to consider:

## 1. The strength of the isolator to support weight

(static deflection).

## 2. The force transmitted from the base to the structure.

fT = ma = m
xt
m xt (t)
|fT | = ! 2 m|Xt |

## fT (t) k |fT | = k|Xe |r 2 T

c
xe (t)
From example: |fT | = 7.35 N

## Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra

Graph of force from base excitation
m xt

fT k c
xe
2
10

increasing increasing
1 damping damping
10
|fT /kXe |

0
10 1
T

1
10
r =1 r = !/!n
2
10

## Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra

Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra
Shock isolation

## In some cases, design of an isolator should anticipate

the shock input, i.e. a transient force with a very short duration of time.

## Assuming an idealized model of a shock as a half-sine shock pulse.

y (t)

8
>
<Y sin !p t if 0 t t1 ,
y (t) =
>
:
t1 t 0 if t > t1
!p is the excitation frequency t1 = /!p is the pulse duration

|
x| !n ! n t1
Plot against =
|
y| !p

x(t)

y (t)

## Large damping is desirable for shock attenuation

Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra
Shock isolation:
|
x |max
<1
|
y |max

! n t1 0.1225m 2
< 0.35 ) k<
t12

## The isolator can therefore be designed so that it is good for

both vibration and shock isolation.

## lower limit for shock lower limit for vibration

desired stiffness
ks kv
Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra
Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra
Dynamic vibration absorber

ma xa
Absorber
ka ca
Main target m
structure x
Main target m
structure x
Isolator k c

y k c

## Block vibration to Absorb vibration from

the main structure the main structure

## Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra

Equation of motion:

m
x + c x + kx + ca (x x a ) + ka (x xa ) = f (t) (1a)

ma xa + ca (x a x)
+ ka (xa x) = 0 (2a)

## For harmonic motion: ma xa

2
ka ca
k + ka ! m + j!(c + ca ) X
(ka + j!ca )Xa = F (1b) m x

2
(ka ! ma + j!ca )Xa
k c
(ka + j!ca )X = 0 (2b)

(ka + j!ca )X
From (2b) : Xa =
ka ! 2 ma + j!ca

## Substitute to 1(b), we obtain the motion of the main structure:

(ka ! 2 ma + j!ca )F
X =
[k + ka ! 2 m + j!(c + ca )] (ka ! 2 ma + j!ca ) (ka + j!ca )2

## Assuming the absorber has no damping, ca =0

(ka ! 2 ma )F
X =
[k + ka ! 2 m + j!c] (ka ! 2 ma ) ka2

## Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra

To eliminate the vibration of the main structure:

2
X =0 ka ! ma = 0

r
ka
!=
ma

## 1. The properties of the absorber, ka and ma should be chosen

so that its natural frequency matches the excitation frequency of
the main structure.

## 2. Only effective for machine operating at fixed frequency

(synchronous machines)

## Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra

0
10

1
10
X
F
2
10
Receptance, |X/F|

3
10

4
10

1
10 10
0

## Nondimensional freq, ./n

frequency,
1
10 !
Beware of the new resonances!
Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra
Back to (1a)
f (t)
If x(t) = 0 , ca = 0 xa (t) =
ka

## Force provided by the absorber:

f (t)
fa (t) = ka xa = ka = f (t)
ka

## By tuning the natural frequency of the absorber to

the excitation frequency, the absorber provides counter force
to the excitation force.

## Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra

Application:

North Bank,
Arsenal Football Club

## Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra

Application:

Taipei 101

Suspended sphere-shaped
mass block with
8 viscous dampers

## Between 87th and 91th floor

Diameter 5.5 m
660 metrics ton
150 cm displacement amplitude
during major typhoon