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Mechanical Vibrations

Chapter 5:
Design of Vibration Control

Dr. Azma Putra


Department of Structure and Materials
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Semester II/2013-2014
Introduction

General vibration problem:

Vibration
Receiver
source Transmission
path

To reduce vibration at receiver:


1. Control vibration at source
Best solution, but difficult. Possible at early design stage.
2. Modify the transmission path
Isolator: optimum stiffness and damping
3. Control vibration at receiver
Add damping, etc.

Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra


Case of vibration transmission CASE 1

How much force is transmitted to surrounding structure?


(example: chiller on the roof, machine on flexible floor)

fe

Source
(machine,
engine)
m

x
Isolator k c
(support)

Receiver
(floor, roof) ft
Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra
Case of vibration transmission CASE 2

How much displacement is transmitted from surrounding structure?


(example: earthquake protection, road input to missile)

Receiver
(building,
sensitive object)
m y

Isolator k c
(support)
x

Source
(earthquake, road input)

Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra


Force transmissibility

For the exciting force:


fe (t) = Fe e j!t
Fe e j!t = m
x + c x + kx
Source

m
For the transmitted force:

j!t
x(t) Ft e = c x + kx
Isolator

k c
j!t
Substituting x(t) = Xe
Receiver

ft (t) = Ft e j!t Ft k + j!c


T = =
Fe k m! 2 + j!c

Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014


2
with !n = k/m and c = 2m!n

v
u 2
u !
u 1 + 4 2 2
u !n
T =u
u" 2 # 2
u ! ! 2
t 1 2
+ 4 2
!n !n

Low frequency: ! !n ) T = 1
Resonance: ! = !n ) T = 1/(2)
High frequency: ! !n ) T = 2!n /!

Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra


Transmissibility graph

2
10

=0.01
=0.04
1 =0.1
10
increasing =0.2
damping
T
Transmissibility,

1
0
10
T

1
10 increasing
damping
p
!= 2!n
2
10

amplification isolation

3
10 1
10 !=
10 !
n
0

./n
1
10 frequency, !

Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra


Assume small damping, !0
q
2
1+ 4 2 (!/! n) 1
T = rh i2 = 2
2 2 (!/!n ) 1
1 (!/!n ) + 4 2 (!/!n )

To have small T at given !:


r
2 k small
(!/!n ) large !n small !n =
m

Lowering the natural frequency


Small stiffness flexible support
(springs, rubber mounts, pads)

Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra


Displacement transmissibility

Equation of motion:

m
xt + c(x t x e ) + k(xt xe ) = 0
Receiver

m xt (t) = Xt e j!t Re-arranging then gives:


x(t)
Xt k + j!c
T = =
Xe k m! 2 + j!c
Isolator

k c
j!t
xe (t) = Xe e
Source

Xt Ft
T = =
Displacement transmissibility Xe Fe
=
Force transmissibility
Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014
Illustration of base excitation

2
10

=0.01
=0.04
1 =0.1
10
=0.2
T
Transmissibility,

1
0
10
T

1
10

2
10

amplification isolation

3
10 1 0 1
10 10
./n
10 frequency, !

Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra


Application of complete isolation from base excitation

Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra


Types of isolator

E = 2(1 + )G
= Poissons ratio

E = Youngs modulus
G = Shear modulus

EA GA
k= k=
I h

Damping mechanism: Complex Youngs modulus, E = E (1 + j)

Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra


Examples of isolator in practice

Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra


Examples in practice

Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra


Example design problem

Design an isolator to hold a 3 kg electronic module


to have less than 2 mm displacement.

The base is known moving at y (t) = 0.01 sin(35t) m

Choose an isolator with suitable k and c

Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra


X 0.002
Required transmissibility: T = = 0.2
Y 0.01
1
10

r
0.01 2.42 ,T

0.1 2.58 0
T ity

10
Transmissibil

0.2 2.91

0.5 5.13

= 0.2 = 0.5
1
10
= 0.01
= 0.1
2 4 6 8 10 12
./n
r = !/!n

Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra


From the transmissibility curve, lets choose:

= 0.01 ) r 2.42 Known:

m = 3 kg
! ! = 35 rad/s
r= 2.42 ) k 627.5 N/m
!n
p
c = 2 km 0.87 kg/s

1. We can now choose the isolator with these parameter values.


2. If not available, try another damping loss factor.
3. Compromise in case of resonance!!

Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra


The choice of k and c must be reasonable for application.

It has to consider:

1. The strength of the isolator to support weight


(static deflection).

2. The force transmitted from the base to the structure.

fT = ma = m
xt
m xt (t)
|fT | = ! 2 m|Xt |

fT (t) k |fT | = k|Xe |r 2 T


c
xe (t)
From example: |fT | = 7.35 N

Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra


Graph of force from base excitation
m xt

fT k c
xe
2
10

increasing increasing
1 damping damping
10
|fT /kXe |

0
10 1
T

1
10
r =1 r = !/!n
2
10

Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra


Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra
Shock isolation

In some cases, design of an isolator should anticipate


the shock input, i.e. a transient force with a very short duration of time.

Assuming an idealized model of a shock as a half-sine shock pulse.

y (t)

8
>
<Y sin !p t if 0 t t1 ,
y (t) =
>
:
t1 t 0 if t > t1
!p is the excitation frequency t1 = /!p is the pulse duration

Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014


|
x| !n ! n t1
Plot against =
|
y| !p

x(t)

y (t)

Large damping is desirable for shock attenuation


Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra
Shock isolation:
|
x |max
<1
|
y |max

From the plot, for = 0.01

! n t1 0.1225m 2
< 0.35 ) k<
t12

The isolator can therefore be designed so that it is good for


both vibration and shock isolation.

lower limit for shock lower limit for vibration

desired stiffness
ks kv
Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra
Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra
Dynamic vibration absorber

ISOLATOR and ABSORBER. What is the difference?

ma xa
Absorber
ka ca
Main target m
structure x
Main target m
structure x
Isolator k c

y k c

Block vibration to Absorb vibration from


the main structure the main structure

Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra


Equation of motion:

m
x + c x + kx + ca (x x a ) + ka (x xa ) = f (t) (1a)

ma xa + ca (x a x)
+ ka (xa x) = 0 (2a)

For harmonic motion: ma xa


2
ka ca
k + ka ! m + j!(c + ca ) X
(ka + j!ca )Xa = F (1b) m x

2
(ka ! ma + j!ca )Xa
k c
(ka + j!ca )X = 0 (2b)

Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra


(ka + j!ca )X
From (2b) : Xa =
ka ! 2 ma + j!ca

Substitute to 1(b), we obtain the motion of the main structure:

(ka ! 2 ma + j!ca )F
X =
[k + ka ! 2 m + j!(c + ca )] (ka ! 2 ma + j!ca ) (ka + j!ca )2

Assuming the absorber has no damping, ca =0

(ka ! 2 ma )F
X =
[k + ka ! 2 m + j!c] (ka ! 2 ma ) ka2

Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra


To eliminate the vibration of the main structure:

2
X =0 ka ! ma = 0

r
ka
!=
ma

1. The properties of the absorber, ka and ma should be chosen


so that its natural frequency matches the excitation frequency of
the main structure.

2. Only effective for machine operating at fixed frequency


(synchronous machines)

Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra


0
10

1
10
X
F
2
10
Receptance, |X/F|

3
10

4
10

1
10 10
0

Nondimensional freq, ./n


frequency,
1
10 !
Beware of the new resonances!
Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra
Back to (1a)
f (t)
If x(t) = 0 , ca = 0 xa (t) =
ka

Force provided by the absorber:


f (t)
fa (t) = ka xa = ka = f (t)
ka

By tuning the natural frequency of the absorber to


the excitation frequency, the absorber provides counter force
to the excitation force.

Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra


Application:

North Bank,
Arsenal Football Club

Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra


Application:

Taipei 101

Suspended sphere-shaped
mass block with
8 viscous dampers

Between 87th and 91th floor


Diameter 5.5 m
660 metrics ton
150 cm displacement amplitude
during major typhoon

Lecture Notes, Mechanical Vibrations, Semester I/2013-2014 Dr. Azma Putra