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You are on page 1of 21

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Venturi meter is used to measure the fluid flow rate by reducing the cross

sectional area in the flow path, generating a pressure difference. It makes use of

Bernoullis Principle, a restatement of the law of Conservation of Energy as applied to the

fluid flow.

In this experiment, the Cussons P6227 Venturi Meter is used in conjunction with

the Inlet Head Tank P6103 and the P6104 Variable Head Outlet Tank. The P6106

manometer board is required for pressure measurement. The Feedback P6105 may be

used instead of the inlet head tank to increase the flow range.

The venturi, which is manufactured from transparent acrylic material, follows the

classic 21 - 10 convergent-divergent design which forms the basis of most engineering

standards for venturi flow meters. The P6227 complies with the British Standard BS1042

for flow measurement. The dimensions of the Venturi Meter are shown in Figure 1.1. The

upstream and throat pressure tappings are used for flow measurement whilst the

downstream tappings allows an assessment of the pressure recovery to be made. The

throat diameter is 10mm and the upstream and downstream pipe diameters are both

21mm.

1.1 THEORIES AND EXPLANATION

D1 D2

P1 P2

Figure1.2 Diameters and differential pressure across venturi meter at section 1 & 2.

Refer to Figure 1.2, from consideration of continuity between the mouth of the

venture at section 1 and the throat at section 2:

Q A1V1 A2V2

(1.1)

A2 V

2 1

A1 V2

(1.2)

Applying Bernoullis theorem to the venture meter between section1 and section2,

neglecting losses and assuming the venturi is installed horizontally

P1 V12 P2 V22

g 2g g 2g

(1.3)

Rearranging,

P1 P2 V 2 V12

H 2

g g

(1.4)

and solving for V2,

2( P1 P2 ) 2g H

V2

V

2

1 4

1 12

V2

(1.5)

D2

= (1.6)

D1

normally , =0.5

2g H

Q A2V2 A2

1 4

(1.7)

The actual discharge will be less than this due to losses causing the velocity

through the throat to be less than that predicted by Bernoullis Theorem, therefore it is

necessary to introduce an experimentally determined coefficient of discharge C d. The

actual discharge will then be given by:

2g H

Q C d A2

1 4

(1.8)

2

A 2= D

where 4 2 (1.9)

The coefficient of discharge varies with both the Reynolds number and area ratio.

Typically values for a machined venturi meter are between 0.975 and 0.995.

The pressure loss across the venture meter is less than the pressure difference

measured between the mouth and the throat due to the pressure recovery which occurs in

the divergence as the kinetic energy is reduced.

1.2 OBJECTIVES

1. To calculate the coefficient of discharge from experimental data for a venturi meter.

2. To investigate the measurement of volumetric flowrate using a venturi meter.

extension fitted.

2. Start the pump and establish a water flow through the test section.

3. Ensure that any air bubbles are bled from the manometer tubes.

4. Next, raise the water flow rate until 1 m3/hr.

5. Wait until the water level in the inlet and outlet of manometer stabilized.

6. Record the reading for the inlet and outlet.

7. Repeat step 3-6 for flow rate of 0.9, 0.8, 0.7 until 0.1 m3/hr.

Diameter of venturi throat = ______ mm

Flowrate

Inlet (cm) (cm) (L) (s)

(L/min)

1 2 3 Average 1 2 3 Average

23

22

21

20

19

18

17

16

15

14

13

12

11

OBSERVATIONS:

1.6 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

1. Record the results on a copy of the results sheet.

2. Calculate volumetric flow rate for each result.

3. Plot graph of flow rate against the square root of the head and draw the best straight

line from the origin through the results. Calculate the slope and determine the

coefficient of discharge for the venturi meter.

Quantities of water

collected, Q (L)

Time to collect water,

t (s)

Volume flow rate, Q

(L/min)

Inlet head, H1 (m)

Venturi differential

head, H (H1-H2) (m)

Venturi differential

head, (H)1/2

Area of venturi

throat, A2 (m2)(10-4)

Velocity at venturi

throat, V2 (m/s)

Q, volumetric flow

rate (A2V2)

Actual discharge, Cd

FRICTION LOSSES IN STRAIGHT PIPES

2.0 INTRODUCTION

The pressure loss along a pipe is caused by friction and changes in velocity or

direction of flow. In order to find the friction loss in pipes, the fluid friction

measurements apparatus are specially designed to allow the detailed study of the fluid

friction head losses which occur, when an incompressible fluid flows through pipes,

bends, valves and other pipe flow metering devices. Friction head losses in straight pipes

of different sizes can be investigated over a range of Reynolds Number. The friction

factors depend on the Reynolds number of the flow and the pipe relative roughness.

Cussons P6220 Laminar Flow Apparatus used in this experiment consists of a

tubular test section of 3 mm internal bore and 508mm long, including a 13 mm bell nose

entry, which is supported inside a protective outer 25 mm tube and is terminated at each

end in bushed unions. Besides that, two test sections of Cussons P6221 Losses In Pipes

and Fittings Apparatus are used in this experiment, i.e. the 7 mm nominal bore pipe and

the 10 mm nominal bore pipe with two static pressure tappings 360 mm apart, each 464

mm long. It is intended that the test section should be mounted between the P6103

Constant Head Inlet Tank and theP6104 Variable Head Outlet Tank. The P6106

Manometer Board is used to measure the head loss across the tubular test section.

2.1.1 Flow in pipes

If fluid flows down a pipe at low velocities it is found that individual fluid

particles follow flow paths which are parallel but those particles nearer the centre of the

pipe move faster than those near the wall. This type of flow is known as laminar flow or

stream line flow. At much higher velocities it is found that secondary irregular motions

are superimposed on the movement of the particles and a significant amount of mixing

takes place, the flow is said to be turbulent. Osbourne Reynolds investigated these two

different types of flow and concluded that the parameters which were involved in the

flow characteristics were:

V The velocity of the fluid m s-1

D Internal diameter of pipe m

The absolute viscosity of the fluid Ns m-2

Reynolds was able to show that the character of the flow could be described with

the aid of a dimensionless parameter, which is now known as Reynolds number,

VD

Re = (2.1)

Fluid motion was found to be laminar for the values of Re below 2000 and

turbulent for value Re greater than 4000. Different laws of fluid resistance apply to

laminar and turbulent flows.

For laminar flow it is found that the pressure drop or head loss is proportional to

velocity and that this can be represented by Poiseuilles equation for the hydraulic

gradient

hf 32 V

i

L gD 2

(2.2)

For turbulent flow the relationship between head loss and velocity is exponential

hf Vn (2.3)

and although there is no simple equation for turbulent flow it is accepted engineering

practice to use an empirical relationship for the hydraulic gradient which is attributed to

Darcy and Weisbach

hf 4 fV 2

L D2 g

i= (2.4)

where f is an exponentially determined friction factor which varies with both Reynolds

number and the internal roughness of the pipe. A different friction factor may be used

which is four times larger than the friction factor in the Darcy-Weisbach formula.

When a layer of fluid is moved laterally relative to an adjacent layer, a force is set

up within the fluid which is in opposition to the shearing action. This internal resistance

known as the absolute viscosity of the fluid is caused by molecular adhesion and acts

along the common boundary of the fluid layers. In the SI system absolute viscosity is

defined as the force in Newton which would produce unit velocity in a plate of unit area

at unit distance from a parallel stationary plate, that is

V

y

(2.5)

The unit of viscosity is in the cgs system is the poise .

A measure of the fluidity of a substance is the kinematics viscosity whch is

defined as:-

absolute viscosity

KinematicsViscosity=

density (2.6)

i.e. = (2.7)

Consider the flow of fluid in a concentric in a circular pipe as shown in figure.

Let the pressure drop due to fluid friction over a pipe length L be P.

Fig 2.1 Streamtube in a

Circular Pipe

differential pressure on the fluid contained in the stream

tube in the direction of the flow is given by

P d2 / 4

(2.8)

Opposing this force is a shear force created by the viscous resistance to flow

which is proportional to the shear stress and the wetted area of the streamtube

dL (2.9)

For dynamic equilibrium these two forces must balance

P d2 / 4 = dL (2.10)

P d

L 4

(2.11)

0

At the wall of the pipe where d = D the shear stress is

P d

0

L 4

(2.12)

P / L

And substitute for back into the equation gives

0

cons tan t

d D

(2.13)

From which it follows that the shear stress varies linearly from zero at the centre

to a maximum at the pipe wall.

The shear stress is related to velocity by Newtons law of viscosity

V

r

(2.14)

V P d

r L 4

(2.15)

Replacing d by 2r

rr P

V

2 L

(2.16)

Investigating from the pipe centre (r = 0) to the pipe wall (r = R and V = 0) yields

R 2 r 2 P

V

4 L

(2.17)

centre of the pipe

R 2 P

Vmax

4 L

D 2 P

16 L

(2.18)

D 2 P

Vmean

32 L

(2.19)

Rearranging,

32LVmean

P

D2

(2.20)

Expressing the pressure loss as a head due to friction, Hf over the pipe length l:

32 LVmean

f

gD 2

(2.21)

hf

L

The head loss per unit length of pipe which is known as the hydraulic gradient,

symbol i, is then given by

hf 32 Vmean

i

L gD 2

(2.22)

which is known as Poiseuilles equation for laminar flow. Note that V is now taken to

signify the mean velocity.

The velocity distribution of turbulent flow across pipe is more uniform than the

parabolic velocity distribution of laminar flow. Consider a section of pipe length L over

which the pressure drop is P, as shown in figure 2.2.

The forces acting on the cylinder of fluid are the pressure forces producing the

flow and the opposing shear forces caused by frictional resistance at the wall.

LD PD 2 / 4

(2.23)

PD

L4

(2.24)

Now accepting that the shear stress is proportional to the square of the mean

velocity

V2 (2.25)

KV 2

then, (2.26)

where K is a constant.

P D

. KV 2

L 4

(2.27)

4 KLV 2

P

D

(2.28)

4 KLV 2

gD

hf =

2

4 fL V

D 2g

= (2.29)

2K

where f = is the Darcy friction factor.

The alternative definition of friction factor is often shown as f (f dash) and the

head loss equation is then written as

f 'L V 2

D 2g

hf = (2.30)

When Reynolds plotted the results of his investigation of how the energy head

loss varied with the velocity of flow, he obtained two distinct regions separated by a

transition zone.

In the laminar region the hydraulic gradient is directly proportional to the mean

velocity. In the turbulent flow region the hydraulic gradient is proportional to the mean

velocity raised to some power n value of n being influenced b the roughness of the pipe

wall.

i V1.7 For smooth pipe

i V2 For very rough pipe

i V1.7 to 2 In the transition region

2.1.6Friction factors

The head loss due to friction for both laminar and turbulent flow can be presicted

by the Darcy Weisbatch equation

32V

i

gD 2

(2.31)

4 16 V 2 64 V 2

i i

VD 2 g VD 2 g

or (2.32)

4f V2 f 'V2

i i

D 2g D 2g

or (2.33)

16 16 64 64

f f '

VD Re VD Re

where or (2.34)

Care has to be used due to these two different definitions of the friction factor,

which are both in equally common use, and therefore in choosing the appropriate

relationship between the friction factor and the head loss. When using graph of friction

factor against Reynolds number always check the relationship for laminar flow as a mean

of distinguishing between the two.

16 4 fLV 2

f hf

Re D2 g

If then use (2.35)

64 f ' LV 2

f ' hf

Re D2 g

If then use (2.36)

For turbulent flow the friction factor is a function of Reynolds number, the

/D

relative roughness of the pipe wall . For highly turbulent flows the friction factor

became independent of the Reynolds number in a flow regime known as fullydeveloped

turbulent flow. The most widely accepted data for friction factors for use with the Darley

Weisback formula is that produced by Professor L.F.Moody.

Selection of pipe size for a pipe to carry a given flow rate, which is a very

common exercise, is made easier if the relationship between the head loss and pipe

diameter is known for specific case of constant flow rate.

For a given flow rate, the mean velocity In the pipe is given by:

D 2 4Q

Q V V

4 D 2

hence (2.37)

2

hf

4 fV 2 4 f 4Q 1

i

L D 2 g D 2 g D 2 D4

hence i (2.38)

2

hf 4 fV 2 4 f 4Q 1

i

L D 2 g D 2 g D 2 D5

hence i (2.39)

The head loss is therefore inversely proportional to the diameter of the pipe raise

to the forth power for laminar flow and inversely proportional to the fifth power for

turbulent flow.

2.2 OBJECTIVES

2. To compare the relationship between the friction factor and Reynolds number with

empirical data.

Inlet Initially P6103 Constant Head Inlet Tank with overflow pipe

extension fitted.

Assembly Ensure the bell mouthed entry end of the P6220 test section is

at the left hand end and that is correctly inserted into the inlet

tank. Ensure that the P6221 7 mm bore test section is installed

the correct way round with the conical inlet at the left hand

end.

1. Start the pump and establish a water flow through the test section. Raise the swivel

tube of the outlet tank so that it is close to the vertical.

2. Adjust the bench regulating valve (or pump speed) to provide a small overflow from

the inlet tank and overflow pipe. Ensure that any air bubbles are bled from the manometer tubes.

3. Set up a serial of flow conditions with differential heads starting at 25mm in steps of

25mm up to 150mm and thereafter in steps 50mm up to a maximum of 500mm. At each

condition carefully measure the flow rate using the volumetric tank and a stop watch.

5. Report the test with the other test sections.

1. Test Section Diameter ..mm

Water Temperature C

Constant Head Inlet Tank .mm

Variable Head Outlet

Tank

Quantity of water

Collected, Q (Litres)

Time to Collect

Water, t (sec)

Inlet Head,

H1 (mm)

Outlet Head

H2 (mm)

2. Test Section Diameter ..mm

Water Temperature C

Constant Head Inlet Tank .mm

Variable Head Outlet

Tank

Quantity of water

Collected, Q (Litres)

Time to Collect

Water, t (sec)

Inlet Head,

H1 (mm)

Outlet Head

H2 (mm)

OBSERVATIONS:

2.6 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS:

1. Record the results on a copy of the results sheet.

2. Determine the water density and viscosity from Annex 1 of Part 1 of the manual.

3. For each result calculate the mean velocity and hence the Reynolds number and

friction factor .

4. Plot a graph of log hf against log V, draw a straight line through the results and

measure its slope to express the relationship between hf and V in the from hf Vn .

5. On a photocopy of the graph on pages 3 15 plot the points of friction factor against

Reynolds number.

6. From the graph of fraction factor against Reynolds number on page 3 -15 determine

the empirical friction factor using the Reynolds number for each result and assuming a pipe

roughness of 0.0015mm.

1. Test Section Diameter:mm

Water Temperature:.. C

Density:.. kg/m2

Viscosity:.cP

Quantity of Water

Collected, Q (litre)

Time to Collect Water, t

(sec)

Volume Flow Rate, Q

(litres/min)

Mean Velocity, V

(m/sec)

Loge V

Reynolds Number, Re

Loge Re

Inlet Head, H1 (mm)

Outlet Head, H2 (mm)

Friction Head Loss, hf

(mm) (H1-H2)

Loge hf

Friction Factor, f

Loge f

Water Temperature:.. C

Density:.. kg/m2

Viscosity:.cP

Quantity of Water

Collected, Q (litre)

Time to Collect Water, t

(sec)

Volume Flow Rate, Q

(litres/min)

Mean Velocity, V

(m/sec)

Loge V

Reynolds Number, Re

Loge Re

Inlet Head, H1 (mm)

Outlet Head, H2 (mm)

Friction Head Loss, hf

(mm) (H1-H2)

Loge hf

Friction Factor, f

Loge f

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