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# FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY EXPERIMENT 1

## FLOW MEASUREMENT USING VENTURI METER

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Venturi meter is used to measure the fluid flow rate by reducing the cross
sectional area in the flow path, generating a pressure difference. It makes use of
Bernoullis Principle, a restatement of the law of Conservation of Energy as applied to the
fluid flow.
In this experiment, the Cussons P6227 Venturi Meter is used in conjunction with
the Inlet Head Tank P6103 and the P6104 Variable Head Outlet Tank. The P6106
manometer board is required for pressure measurement. The Feedback P6105 may be
used instead of the inlet head tank to increase the flow range.
The venturi, which is manufactured from transparent acrylic material, follows the
classic 21 - 10 convergent-divergent design which forms the basis of most engineering
standards for venturi flow meters. The P6227 complies with the British Standard BS1042
for flow measurement. The dimensions of the Venturi Meter are shown in Figure 1.1. The
upstream and throat pressure tappings are used for flow measurement whilst the
downstream tappings allows an assessment of the pressure recovery to be made. The
throat diameter is 10mm and the upstream and downstream pipe diameters are both
21mm.

## Figure1.1 Dimensions of Cussons P6227 Venturi meter.

1.1 THEORIES AND EXPLANATION

D1 D2

P1 P2

Figure1.2 Diameters and differential pressure across venturi meter at section 1 & 2.
Refer to Figure 1.2, from consideration of continuity between the mouth of the
venture at section 1 and the throat at section 2:

Q A1V1 A2V2
(1.1)

## and on the introducing the diameter ratio = D2 / D1, then

A2 V
2 1
A1 V2
(1.2)

Applying Bernoullis theorem to the venture meter between section1 and section2,
neglecting losses and assuming the venturi is installed horizontally
P1 V12 P2 V22

g 2g g 2g
(1.3)

Rearranging,
P1 P2 V 2 V12
H 2
g g
(1.4)
and solving for V2,
2( P1 P2 ) 2g H
V2
V
2
1 4
1 12
V2
(1.5)

D2
= (1.6)
D1

normally , =0.5

## The volumetric flow rate is then given by

2g H
Q A2V2 A2
1 4
(1.7)

The actual discharge will be less than this due to losses causing the velocity
through the throat to be less than that predicted by Bernoullis Theorem, therefore it is
necessary to introduce an experimentally determined coefficient of discharge C d. The
actual discharge will then be given by:

2g H
Q C d A2
1 4
(1.8)
2
A 2= D
where 4 2 (1.9)
The coefficient of discharge varies with both the Reynolds number and area ratio.
Typically values for a machined venturi meter are between 0.975 and 0.995.

The pressure loss across the venture meter is less than the pressure difference
measured between the mouth and the throat due to the pressure recovery which occurs in
the divergence as the kinetic energy is reduced.

1.2 OBJECTIVES

1. To calculate the coefficient of discharge from experimental data for a venturi meter.
2. To investigate the measurement of volumetric flowrate using a venturi meter.

## Inlet P6103 Constant Head Inlet Tank with overflow pipe

extension fitted.

## 1. Set up the apparatus as per instructions in Operation Chapter.

2. Start the pump and establish a water flow through the test section.
3. Ensure that any air bubbles are bled from the manometer tubes.
4. Next, raise the water flow rate until 1 m3/hr.
5. Wait until the water level in the inlet and outlet of manometer stabilized.
6. Record the reading for the inlet and outlet.
7. Repeat step 3-6 for flow rate of 0.9, 0.8, 0.7 until 0.1 m3/hr.

## Diameter of venturi mouth = ______ mm

Diameter of venturi throat = ______ mm

## Manometer Manometer Outlet Sample Time

Flowrate
Inlet (cm) (cm) (L) (s)
(L/min)
1 2 3 Average 1 2 3 Average
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11

OBSERVATIONS:
1.6 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS
1. Record the results on a copy of the results sheet.
2. Calculate volumetric flow rate for each result.
3. Plot graph of flow rate against the square root of the head and draw the best straight
line from the origin through the results. Calculate the slope and determine the
coefficient of discharge for the venturi meter.

Quantities of water
collected, Q (L)
Time to collect water,
t (s)
Volume flow rate, Q
(L/min)
Inlet head, H1 (m)

## Outlet head, H2 (m)

Venturi differential
head, H (H1-H2) (m)
Venturi differential
head, (H)1/2
Area of venturi
throat, A2 (m2)(10-4)
Velocity at venturi
throat, V2 (m/s)
Q, volumetric flow
rate (A2V2)
Actual discharge, Cd

## FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY EXPERIMENT 2

FRICTION LOSSES IN STRAIGHT PIPES

2.0 INTRODUCTION

The pressure loss along a pipe is caused by friction and changes in velocity or
direction of flow. In order to find the friction loss in pipes, the fluid friction
measurements apparatus are specially designed to allow the detailed study of the fluid
friction head losses which occur, when an incompressible fluid flows through pipes,
bends, valves and other pipe flow metering devices. Friction head losses in straight pipes
of different sizes can be investigated over a range of Reynolds Number. The friction
factors depend on the Reynolds number of the flow and the pipe relative roughness.
Cussons P6220 Laminar Flow Apparatus used in this experiment consists of a
tubular test section of 3 mm internal bore and 508mm long, including a 13 mm bell nose
entry, which is supported inside a protective outer 25 mm tube and is terminated at each
end in bushed unions. Besides that, two test sections of Cussons P6221 Losses In Pipes
and Fittings Apparatus are used in this experiment, i.e. the 7 mm nominal bore pipe and
the 10 mm nominal bore pipe with two static pressure tappings 360 mm apart, each 464
mm long. It is intended that the test section should be mounted between the P6103
Constant Head Inlet Tank and theP6104 Variable Head Outlet Tank. The P6106
Manometer Board is used to measure the head loss across the tubular test section.

## 2.1 THEORIES AND EXPLANATION

2.1.1 Flow in pipes
If fluid flows down a pipe at low velocities it is found that individual fluid
particles follow flow paths which are parallel but those particles nearer the centre of the
pipe move faster than those near the wall. This type of flow is known as laminar flow or
stream line flow. At much higher velocities it is found that secondary irregular motions
are superimposed on the movement of the particles and a significant amount of mixing
takes place, the flow is said to be turbulent. Osbourne Reynolds investigated these two
different types of flow and concluded that the parameters which were involved in the
flow characteristics were:

## The density of the fluid Kg m-3

V The velocity of the fluid m s-1
D Internal diameter of pipe m
The absolute viscosity of the fluid Ns m-2

Reynolds was able to show that the character of the flow could be described with
the aid of a dimensionless parameter, which is now known as Reynolds number,
VD

Re = (2.1)

Fluid motion was found to be laminar for the values of Re below 2000 and
turbulent for value Re greater than 4000. Different laws of fluid resistance apply to
laminar and turbulent flows.
For laminar flow it is found that the pressure drop or head loss is proportional to
velocity and that this can be represented by Poiseuilles equation for the hydraulic
gradient
hf 32 V
i
L gD 2
(2.2)
For turbulent flow the relationship between head loss and velocity is exponential
hf Vn (2.3)
and although there is no simple equation for turbulent flow it is accepted engineering
practice to use an empirical relationship for the hydraulic gradient which is attributed to
Darcy and Weisbach

hf 4 fV 2

L D2 g
i= (2.4)
where f is an exponentially determined friction factor which varies with both Reynolds
number and the internal roughness of the pipe. A different friction factor may be used
which is four times larger than the friction factor in the Darcy-Weisbach formula.

## 2.1.2 Newtons Law of Viscosity

When a layer of fluid is moved laterally relative to an adjacent layer, a force is set
up within the fluid which is in opposition to the shearing action. This internal resistance
known as the absolute viscosity of the fluid is caused by molecular adhesion and acts
along the common boundary of the fluid layers. In the SI system absolute viscosity is
defined as the force in Newton which would produce unit velocity in a plate of unit area
at unit distance from a parallel stationary plate, that is
V

y
(2.5)
The unit of viscosity is in the cgs system is the poise .
A measure of the fluidity of a substance is the kinematics viscosity whch is
defined as:-
absolute viscosity
KinematicsViscosity=
density (2.6)

i.e. = (2.7)

## 2.1.3 Laminar Flow in a Circular Pipe

Consider the flow of fluid in a concentric in a circular pipe as shown in figure.
Let the pressure drop due to fluid friction over a pipe length L be P.
Fig 2.1 Streamtube in a
Circular Pipe

## The force exerted by the

differential pressure on the fluid contained in the stream
tube in the direction of the flow is given by
P d2 / 4
(2.8)
Opposing this force is a shear force created by the viscous resistance to flow
which is proportional to the shear stress and the wetted area of the streamtube
dL (2.9)
For dynamic equilibrium these two forces must balance
P d2 / 4 = dL (2.10)
P d

L 4
(2.11)
0
At the wall of the pipe where d = D the shear stress is
P d
0
L 4
(2.12)

P / L
And substitute for back into the equation gives

0
cons tan t
d D
(2.13)

From which it follows that the shear stress varies linearly from zero at the centre
to a maximum at the pipe wall.
The shear stress is related to velocity by Newtons law of viscosity

V

r
(2.14)

## Equating these two expressions for shear stress

V P d

r L 4
(2.15)

Replacing d by 2r
rr P
V
2 L
(2.16)

Investigating from the pipe centre (r = 0) to the pipe wall (r = R and V = 0) yields
R 2 r 2 P
V
4 L
(2.17)

## The velocity distribution is therefore parabolic with maximum velocity at the

centre of the pipe
R 2 P
Vmax
4 L

D 2 P

16 L
(2.18)

## And the mean velocity is half of the maximum velocity

D 2 P
Vmean
32 L
(2.19)

Rearranging,
32LVmean
P
D2
(2.20)

Expressing the pressure loss as a head due to friction, Hf over the pipe length l:
32 LVmean
f
gD 2
(2.21)

hf
L
The head loss per unit length of pipe which is known as the hydraulic gradient,
symbol i, is then given by

hf 32 Vmean
i
L gD 2
(2.22)
which is known as Poiseuilles equation for laminar flow. Note that V is now taken to
signify the mean velocity.

## 2.1.4 Turbulent Flow in Circular Pipes

The velocity distribution of turbulent flow across pipe is more uniform than the
parabolic velocity distribution of laminar flow. Consider a section of pipe length L over
which the pressure drop is P, as shown in figure 2.2.

## Fig 2.2 Turbulent Flow in Circular Pipe

The forces acting on the cylinder of fluid are the pressure forces producing the
flow and the opposing shear forces caused by frictional resistance at the wall.
LD PD 2 / 4
(2.23)
PD

L4
(2.24)

Now accepting that the shear stress is proportional to the square of the mean
velocity
V2 (2.25)
KV 2
then, (2.26)
where K is a constant.

P D
. KV 2
L 4
(2.27)

4 KLV 2
P
D
(2.28)

## Expressing the pressure loss as a head loss due to friction, hf

4 KLV 2
gD
hf =
2
4 fL V
D 2g
= (2.29)
2K

where f = is the Darcy friction factor.
The alternative definition of friction factor is often shown as f (f dash) and the
head loss equation is then written as

f 'L V 2
D 2g
hf = (2.30)

## 2.1.5 Reynolds number

When Reynolds plotted the results of his investigation of how the energy head
loss varied with the velocity of flow, he obtained two distinct regions separated by a
transition zone.
In the laminar region the hydraulic gradient is directly proportional to the mean
velocity. In the turbulent flow region the hydraulic gradient is proportional to the mean
velocity raised to some power n value of n being influenced b the roughness of the pipe
wall.
i V1.7 For smooth pipe
i V2 For very rough pipe
i V1.7 to 2 In the transition region

2.1.6Friction factors

The head loss due to friction for both laminar and turbulent flow can be presicted
by the Darcy Weisbatch equation

32V
i
gD 2
(2.31)

## By multiplying top and bottom by V and rearranging

4 16 V 2 64 V 2
i i
VD 2 g VD 2 g
or (2.32)
4f V2 f 'V2
i i
D 2g D 2g
or (2.33)
16 16 64 64
f f '
VD Re VD Re
where or (2.34)

Care has to be used due to these two different definitions of the friction factor,
which are both in equally common use, and therefore in choosing the appropriate
relationship between the friction factor and the head loss. When using graph of friction
factor against Reynolds number always check the relationship for laminar flow as a mean
of distinguishing between the two.
16 4 fLV 2
f hf
Re D2 g
If then use (2.35)
64 f ' LV 2
f ' hf
Re D2 g
If then use (2.36)

For turbulent flow the friction factor is a function of Reynolds number, the

/D
relative roughness of the pipe wall . For highly turbulent flows the friction factor
became independent of the Reynolds number in a flow regime known as fullydeveloped
turbulent flow. The most widely accepted data for friction factors for use with the Darley
Weisback formula is that produced by Professor L.F.Moody.
Selection of pipe size for a pipe to carry a given flow rate, which is a very
common exercise, is made easier if the relationship between the head loss and pipe
diameter is known for specific case of constant flow rate.
For a given flow rate, the mean velocity In the pipe is given by:

D 2 4Q
Q V V
4 D 2
hence (2.37)

## Substituting for V into Poiseuilles equation for laminar flow

2
hf
4 fV 2 4 f 4Q 1
i
L D 2 g D 2 g D 2 D4
hence i (2.38)

## And using the Darcy-Weisbach equation for turbulent flow

2
hf 4 fV 2 4 f 4Q 1
i
L D 2 g D 2 g D 2 D5
hence i (2.39)

The head loss is therefore inversely proportional to the diameter of the pipe raise
to the forth power for laminar flow and inversely proportional to the fifth power for
turbulent flow.

2.2 OBJECTIVES

## 1. To investigate the pressure loss due to friction in a pipe.

2. To compare the relationship between the friction factor and Reynolds number with
empirical data.

## 2.3 EQUIPMENT PREPARATION

Inlet Initially P6103 Constant Head Inlet Tank with overflow pipe
extension fitted.

## Manometer Two of the single manometer tubes.

Assembly Ensure the bell mouthed entry end of the P6220 test section is
at the left hand end and that is correctly inserted into the inlet
tank. Ensure that the P6221 7 mm bore test section is installed
the correct way round with the conical inlet at the left hand
end.

## 2.4 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

1. Start the pump and establish a water flow through the test section. Raise the swivel
tube of the outlet tank so that it is close to the vertical.
2. Adjust the bench regulating valve (or pump speed) to provide a small overflow from
the inlet tank and overflow pipe. Ensure that any air bubbles are bled from the manometer tubes.
3. Set up a serial of flow conditions with differential heads starting at 25mm in steps of
25mm up to 150mm and thereafter in steps 50mm up to a maximum of 500mm. At each
condition carefully measure the flow rate using the volumetric tank and a stop watch.

## 4. Measure the water temperature.

5. Report the test with the other test sections.

## 2.5 RESULTS SHEET

1. Test Section Diameter ..mm
Water Temperature C
Constant Head Inlet Tank .mm
Variable Head Outlet
Tank
Quantity of water
Collected, Q (Litres)
Time to Collect
Water, t (sec)
Inlet Head,
H1 (mm)
Outlet Head
H2 (mm)
2. Test Section Diameter ..mm
Water Temperature C
Constant Head Inlet Tank .mm
Variable Head Outlet
Tank
Quantity of water
Collected, Q (Litres)
Time to Collect
Water, t (sec)
Inlet Head,
H1 (mm)
Outlet Head
H2 (mm)

OBSERVATIONS:
2.6 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS:
1. Record the results on a copy of the results sheet.
2. Determine the water density and viscosity from Annex 1 of Part 1 of the manual.
3. For each result calculate the mean velocity and hence the Reynolds number and
friction factor .
4. Plot a graph of log hf against log V, draw a straight line through the results and
measure its slope to express the relationship between hf and V in the from hf Vn .
5. On a photocopy of the graph on pages 3 15 plot the points of friction factor against
Reynolds number.
6. From the graph of fraction factor against Reynolds number on page 3 -15 determine
the empirical friction factor using the Reynolds number for each result and assuming a pipe
roughness of 0.0015mm.
1. Test Section Diameter:mm
Water Temperature:.. C
Density:.. kg/m2
Viscosity:.cP
Quantity of Water
Collected, Q (litre)
Time to Collect Water, t
(sec)
Volume Flow Rate, Q
(litres/min)
Mean Velocity, V
(m/sec)
Loge V
Reynolds Number, Re
Loge Re
Inlet Head, H1 (mm)
Outlet Head, H2 (mm)
Friction Head Loss, hf
(mm) (H1-H2)
Loge hf
Friction Factor, f
Loge f

## 2. Test Section Diameter:mm

Water Temperature:.. C
Density:.. kg/m2
Viscosity:.cP
Quantity of Water
Collected, Q (litre)
Time to Collect Water, t
(sec)
Volume Flow Rate, Q
(litres/min)
Mean Velocity, V
(m/sec)
Loge V
Reynolds Number, Re
Loge Re
Inlet Head, H1 (mm)
Outlet Head, H2 (mm)
Friction Head Loss, hf
(mm) (H1-H2)
Loge hf
Friction Factor, f
Loge f
APPENDIX