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Math. Sci. Lett. 6, No.

3, 1-5 (2017) 1
Mathematical Sciences Letters
An International Journal

http://dx.doi.org/10.18576/msl/060315

Neutrosophic Linear Programming Problem

Abdel-Nasser Hussian1, Mai Mohamed2, Mohamed Abdel-Baset2,* and Florentin Smarandache3
1
Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Computers and Informatics, Zagazig University, Egypt.
2
Department of Operations Research, Faculty of Computers and Informatics, Zagazig University, Sharqiyah, Egypt.
3
Math & Science Department, University of New Mexico, Gallup, NM 87301, USA.
Received: 23 Feb. 2017, Revised: 28 Mar. 2017, Accepted: 1 Apr. 2017.
Published online: 1 Sep. 2017.

Abstract: Smarandache presented neutrosophic theory as a tool for handling undetermined information, and together with
Wang et al. introduced single valued neutrosophic sets that is a special neutrosophic set and can be used expediently to deal
with real-world problems, especially in decision support. In this paper, we propose linear programming problems based on
neutrosophic environment. Neutrosophic sets characterized by three independent parameters, namely truth-membership
degree (T), indeterminacy-membership degree (I) and falsity-membership degree (F), which is more capable to handle
imprecise parameters. We also transform the neutrosophic linear programming problem into a crisp programming model by
using neutrosophic set parameters. To measure the efficiency of our proposed model we solved several numerical examples.
Keywords: linear programming problem; neutrosophic; neutrosophic sets.

indeterminacy and falsity membership.

1 Introduction
The structure of the paper is as follows: the next section is
Linear programming is a method for achieving the best a preliminary discussion; the third section describes the
outcome (such as maximum profit or minimum cost) in a formulation of linear programing problem using the
mathematical model represented by linear relationships. proposed model; the fourth section presents some
Decision making is a process of solving the problem and illustrative examples to put on view how the approach can
achieving goals under asset of constraints, and it is very be applied; The last section summarizes the conclusions and
difficult in some cases due to incomplete and imprecise gives an outlook for future research.
information. And in Linear programming problems the
decision maker may not be able to specify the objective 2 Some Preliminaries
function and/or constraints functions precisely. In 1995,
Smarandache [5-7] introduce neutrosophy which is the 2.1 Neutrosophic Set 
study of neutralities as an extension of dialectics.
Neutrosophic is the derivative of neutrosophy and it Let be a space of points (objects) and . A
includes neutrosophic set, neutrosophic probability, neutrosophic set in is defined by a truth-membership
neutrosophic statistics and neutrosophic logic. function (), an indeterminacy-membership function ()
Neutrosophic theory means neutrosophy applied in many and a falsity-membership function (). (), () and
fields of sciences, in order to solve problems related to () are real standard or real nonstandard subsets
indeterminacy. Although intuitionistic fuzzy sets can only of ]0,1+[.That is ():]0,1+[,
handle incomplete information not indeterminate, the I():]0,1+[ and F():]0,1+[. There is no
neutrosophic set can handle both incomplete and restriction on the sum of (), () and (), so
indeterminate information.[2,5-7] Neutrosophic sets
characterized by three independent degrees namely truth- 0 sup(T(x) + sup() + sup() 3+.
membership degree (T), indeterminacy-membership In the following, we adopt the notations (), () and
degree(I), and falsity-membership degree (F), where T,I,F () instead of (), () and (), respectively. Also
are standard or non-standard subsets of ]-0, 1+[. The we write SVN numbers instead of single valued
decision makers in neutrosophic set want to increase the neutrosophic numbers.
degree of truth-membership and decrease the degree of
*Corresponding author E-mail: analyst_mohamed@yahoo.com

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2.2 Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets (SVNS)[2,7] where is a neutrosophic number.

Let be a universe of discourse. A single valued The single valued neutrosophic number ( ) is given by
neutrosophic set over is an object having the form A=(a,b,c) where a,b,c [0,1] and a+b+c 3
The truth- membership function of neutrosophic number
={, (), (),():}

is defined as:
where ():[0,1], ():[0,1] and ():[0,1]
with 0()+ ()+()3 for all . The intervals 1
1 2
(), () and () denote the truth-membership degree, 2 1

the indeterminacy-membership degree and the falsity T (x)={ 2 2 3 (2)
membership degree of to , respectively. 32
0
For convenience, a SVN number is denoted by = (,,),
where ,,[0,1] and ++3. The indeterminacy- membership function of

neutrosophic number is defined as:
2.3 Complement 
1
The complement of a single valued neutrosophic set is 1 2
2 1
denoted by C() and is defined by
()() = ()() , I (x)= 2
2 3 (3)
32
()() = 1 ()() ,
()() = ()(),
{ 0
for all in And its falsity- membership function of neutrosophic
~
number is defined as:
1
2.4 Union  1 2
2 1
2
The union of two single valued neutrosophic sets A and B is F (x)= 2 3 (4)
32
a single valued neutrosophic set C, written as C = AUB,
{1
whose truth-membership, indeterminacy membership and
falsity-membership functions are given by
Then we find the upper and lower bounds of the objective
()() = ( ()() , ()() ) ,
function for truth-membership, indeterminacy and falsity
()() = ( ()() , ()() ) ,
membership as follows:
()() = ( ()() , ()() ),
for all in . = max{( )} and =min{( )} where 1

2.5 Intersection  =
and = ( )

The intersection of two single valued neutrosophic sets A = = = ( )
and B is a single valued neutrosophic set C, written as C = Where R ,S are predetermined real number in (0,1)
AB, whose truth-membership, indeterminacy membership
and falsity-membership functions are given by The truth membership, indeterminacy membership, falsity
membership of objective function as follows:
()() = ( ()() , ()() ) ,
1
()() = ( ()() , ()() ) , ()
= (5)

()() = ( ()() , ()() ) for all in .
{ 0 <
3 Neutrosophic Linear Programming Problem
1
Linear programming problem with neutrosophic coefficients ()
= (6)

(NLPP) is defined as the following:
{0 <
Maximize Z= =1
Subject to 1

()
nj=1 a~n ={ (7)
ij i 1 (1)

0 <
0, 1 The neutrosophic set of the constraint is

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defined as:
()

= 0 + + 3 (12)
1 nj=1( + ) X0
n
j=1

n
nj=1 < nj=1( + ) (8) Where denotes the minimal acceptable degree, denote
j=1
the maximal degree of rejection and denote maximal
{ 0 < nj=1
()
degree of indeterminacy.

n The neutrosophic optimization model can be changed into

1 < the following optimization model:
j=1 ( )
n n
() Subject to
= 1 < ( + ) (9)
T(x) (13)
j=1 j=1
n
F(x)
I(x)
0 ( + )
{ j=1
0 + + 3
()
, , 0
n 0
0 < (10) The previous model can be written as:
j=1 (1- )
n n
nj=1 Subject to
= < ( + ) T(x)
nj=1 F(x)
j=1 j=1
n I(x)

0 ( + )

{ j=1
0 + + 3 (14)
0
4 Neutrosophic Optimization Model
In our neutrosophic model we want to maximize the degree 5 The Algorithm for Solving Neutrosophic
of acceptance and minimize the degree of rejection and Linear Programming Problem (NLPP)
indeterminacy of the neutrosophic objective function and
constraints. Neutrosophic optimization model can be defined Step 1: Solve the objective function subject to the
as: constraints.
() Step 2: Create the decision set which include the highest
() degree of truth-membership and the least degree of falsity
() and indeterminacy memberships.
Subject to Step 3: Declare goals and tolerance.
() () Step 4: Construct membership functions.
() ()
Step 5: Set , , in the interval]-0, 1+[ for each
0 () + () + () 3 (11) neutrosophic number .
() , () , () 0
Step 6: Find the upper and lower bound of objective function
0 as we illustrated previously in section 3.
Where () . () , () denotes the degree of acceptance,
Step 7: Construct neutrosophic optimization model as in
rejection and indeterminacy of respectively.
equation (13).
The above problem is equivalent to the following:
, , 6 Numerical Examples
Subject to
T(x) To measure the efficiency of our proposed model we solved
F(x) four numerical examples.
I(x)

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6.1 Illustrative Example#1 ~
c2= 48 = {(44,48,54),(0.75,0.25,0)}.
~ ~
The corresponding crisp linear programs given as follows:
m a x 5 x1 3 x 2
s.t. 11.0691 +22.81252
~ ~ ~
s.t.
4 x1 3 x 2 12 (15) 151 +302 45000
241 +62 24000
~ ~ ~
1 x1 3 x 2 6 x1, x10

x1 , x 2 0 The optimal solution is x1 = 0; x2 = 1500; with optimal

where objective value 34218.75
~
c1= 5 ={(4,5,6),(0.5,0.8,0.3)}; 6.3 Illustrative Example#3
~
c2= 3 = {(2.5,3,3.2),(0.6,0.4,0)}; m a x 25 x1 48 x2
~
a11= 4 = {(3.5,4,4.1),( 0.75,0.5,0.25)} ; s.t.
~
~ ~ ~
a12= 3 ={(2.5,3,3.2),( 0.2,0.8,0.4)}; 15 x1 30 x2 45000
~
a21= 1 = {(0,1,2),(0.15,0.5,0)}; ~ ~ ~
~ 24 x1 6 x2 24000
a22= 3 = {(2.8,3,3.2),( 0.75,0.5,0.25)} ; ~ ~ ~
~ 21 x1 14 x2 28000
b1= 12 ={(11,12,13),(0.2,0.6,0.5)};
~ x1 , x2 0
b2= 6 = {(5.5,6,7.5),( 0.8,0.6,0.4)}. where (17)
~
The equivalent crisp formulation is: a11= 15 ={(14,15,17),( 0.75,0.5,0.25)};
1.31251 +0.01582 ~
s.t. a12= 30 ={(25,30,34),(0.25,0.7,0.4)};

2.53751 +0.543752 2.475 ~

a21= 24 ={(21,24,26),(0.4,0.6, 0)};
0.30931 +1.1252 2.1375
~
x1, x10 a22= 6 ={(4,6,8),( 0.75,0.5,0.25)};
The optimal solution is x1 = 0.9754; x2 = 0; with optimal ~
objective value 1.2802 a31= 21 ={(17,21, 22),(1,0.25,0)} ;
~
6.2 Illustrative Example#2 a32= 14 ={(12,14,19),(0.6,0.4,0)};
~ ~ ~
m a x 25 x1 48 x 2 b1= 45000 ={(44980,45000,45030),(0.3,0.4,0.8);
s.t. ~
b2= 24000 ={(23980,24000,24050),(0.4,0.25,0.5)};
15 x1 30 x 2 45000
~

24 x1 6 x 2 24000 b3= 28000 ={(27990,28000,28030),(0.9,0.2, 0)} .

The associated crisp linear programs model will be:
21 x1 14 x 2 28000
251 +482
x1 , x 2 0 (16)
s.t.
where
~ 5.751 +6.3972 9282
c1= 25 ={(19,25,33),(0.8,0.1,0.4)} ;
10.3121 +6. 1872 14178.37

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x1, x10 was transformed into a crisp programming model using truth
membership, indeterminacy membership, and falsity
The optimal solution is x1 = 0; x2 =1450.993; with optimal
membership functions. We also give a numerical examples
objective value 69647.65
to show the efficiency of the proposed method. As far as
future directions are concerned, these will include studying
6.4 Illustrative Example#4 the duality theory of linear programming problems based on
neutrosophic environment.
max 7 x1 5 x 2
s.t. References
~ ~
 Smarandache, F. A Unifying Field in Logics:Neutrosophic
1 x1 2 x 2 6 Logic. Neutrosophy, Neutrosophic Set, Neutrosophic
~ ~ Probability: Neutrosophic Logic.Neutrosophy, Neutrosophic
4 x1 3 x 2 12 Set, Neutrosophic Probability. Infinite Study, 2005.

x 1 , x2 0 (18)
 Smarandache, F. "A Geometric Interpretation of the
Neutrosophic Set-A Generalization of the Intuitionistic Fuzzy
Set." arXiv preprint math/0404520(2004).
where
 R. ahin, and Muhammed Y. "A Multi-criteria neutrosophic
~
group decision making metod based TOPSIS for supplier
a11= 1 ={(0.5,1,2),(0.2, 0.6,0.3)}; selection." arXiv preprint arXiv:1412.5077 (2014).
~
 Parvathi, R., and C. Malathi. "Intuitionistic fuzzy linear
a12= 2 = {(2.5,3,3.2),(0.6,0.4,0.1)}; programming problems." World applied sciences journal 1.1
~ (2012): 1-5.
a21= 4 = {(3.5,4,4.1),( 0.5,0.25,0.25)} ;  I. M. Hezam, M. Abdel-Baset, F. Smarandache 2015 Taylor
~ Series Approximation to Solve Neutrosophic Multiobjective
a22= 3 ={(2.5,3,3.2),( 0.75,0.25,0)}; Programming Problem Neutrosophic Sets and Systems An
International Journal in Information Science and Engineering
The associated crisp linear programs model will be: Vol.10 pp.39-45.

71 +52  El-Hefenawy, N., Metwally, M. A., Ahmed, Z. M., & El-
Henawy, I. M. (2016). A Review on the Applications of
s.t. Neutrosophic Sets. Journal of Computational and Theoretical
Nanoscience, 13(1), 936-944.
0.2841 +1.1422 6
 Abdel-Baset, M., Hezam, I. M., & Smarandache, F. (2016).
1.451 +1.362 12 Neutrosophic Goal Programming. Neutrosophic Sets &
x1, x10 Systems, 11.

The optimal solution is x1 = 4.3665; x2 =4.168; with optimal Abdel Nasser H. Zaied, is
objective value 63.91 prof. of Information
The result of our NLP model in this example is better than Systems, Dean, Faculty of
the results obtained by intuitionistic fuzzy set . Computers and Informatics,
Zagazig University, Egypt.
Acknowledgements He previously worked as an
associate professor of
The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers Industrial Engineering,
Zagazig University Egypt, an assistant professor of
Technology Management, Arabian Gulf University,
7 Conclusion and Future Work Bahrain; and as visiting professor at Oakland University,
Neutrosophic sets and fuzzy sets are two hot research topics. USA. He supervised 12 PhD. thesis and 45 MSc. thesis,
In this paper, we propose linear programming model based and examined 8 PhD. thesis and 47 MSc thesis. He
on neutrosophic environment, simultaneously considering published 30 research papers in International and
the degrees of acceptance, indeterminacy and rejection of Regional Journals and 22 research papers in International
objectives, by proposed model for solving neutrosophic and National conferences. His areas of research are:
linear programming problems (NlPP). In the proposed Systems Analysis and Design; Information Security;
model, we maximize the degrees of acceptance and Knowledge Management; Quality Management Systems,
minimize indeterminacy and rejection of objectives. NlPP Information Security and project Management, Electronic

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applications.

Mai Mohamed , received her BS degree and master

degree from Zagazig University ,faculty of computers and
informatics, Egypt . she is currently research interest is
computation intelligence, neural networks, and
Neutrosophic logic .

Mohamed Abdel-Baset
and the Ph.D in information
technology from Zagazig
University. He is a lecturer
in the operations Research
Department, Faculty of
Computers and Informatics,
Zagazig University.

His current research interests are Optimization,

Operations Research, Data Mining, Computational
Intelligence, Applied Statistics and Decision support
systems. He is also a reviewer in different international
journals and conferences. He has published more than 100
articles in international journals and conference
proceedings.

Florentin Smarandache
polymath, professor of
mathematics
University of New
Mexico, 705 Gurley Ave.,
Gallup, New Mexico
87301, USA.
http://fs.gallup.unm.edu/

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